1
Name:______________________ Form: _______
PSYA3: Perception
2
3
Specification
Exam Hint:
You will be examined on relationships, perception and gender towards the end of
June 2015. The ...
4
Theories of perceptual organisation
Gibson’s bottom-up / direct theory of perception (1979)
To understand what we are se...
5
Where did Gibson’s direct theory of perception originate?
What visual information did a pilot need to land an aircraft?
...
6
Texture gradient
Horizon ratio
Affordance
Negative
evaluation
Reductionist
7
Positive
evaluation
Johansson (1973) Graziano (1994)
Speed and accuracy
Real world application
Explaining visual illusio...
8
Extra notes
9
Gregory’s top-down / indirect theory of perception (1974)
Gregory realised that sometimes the information that our sense...
10
2. Past experience
3. Visual illusions
Supporting Research
Palmer (1975)
What was the procedure?
What were the findings...
11
Bruner & Minturn (1955)
What was the procedure?
What were the findings?
How could this be explained?
Evaluating the
ind...
12
Reconciling the direct and indirect theories
Extra notes
13
Development of Perception
Are perceptual abilities innate? Or do they develop through experience? The
nature/nurture ar...
14
Sheedy et al
(1986)_____________________________________
__________________________________________
___________________...
15
Visual constancy
Aspects of an object’s appearance change, even though the object itself does
not. These changes occur ...
16
EXAM ADVICE: The specification requires you to study perceptual development
in terms of these four areas – ensure you h...
17
Infant studies – Depth perception
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Infant studies – Visual constancies
19
Not all perceptual ability is
present from birth
Evaluating infant
studies
Nature/nurtureUsing infants in
research
Real...
20
Cross-cultural studies – Depth perception
21
Cross-cultural studies – Visual constancies
22
Methodological issues
Evaluating cross-
cultural studies
Imposed etic
Population validity Ecological validity
Culture b...
23
Extra notes
24
Face Recognition and Visual Agnosias
Bruce and Young’s theory of face recognition (1986)
Face recognition is a series o...
25
Evaluation of the theory
There is considerable _________ evidence that supports Bruce and Young’s
theory that there are...
26
Further research was carried out by Bruce and Young (1993) who tested the
ability of ________ who had suffered differen...
27
Also in support of this model is Young et al. (1985) case study in which 22 pps
were asked to keep a diary record of an...
28
Stretch & Challenge:
Are faces special? There is a big question regarding whether face recognition
is actually a separa...
29
Extra notes
30
Prosopagnosia
Visual agnosias
Visual agnosia is the inability to recognise familiar objects presented visually.
Apperce...
31
Case studies
Make notes about the case studies – what can/can’t they do; and then find
another two on your own. Be prep...
32
Evaluating case
studies of abnormal
individuals
Unique
Tests lack comparability
Before/after
Coping strategies
Rich sou...
33
Explanations of Prosopagnosia
1. Acquired versus developmental
2. Damage to face processing unit
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 Supporting case studies from both acquired and developmental
prosopagnosics
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
35
 Evidence challenging the unique face processor view
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………...
36
Extra notes
37
Tracking My Progress
Title of homework: Marks:
Discuss Gibson’s bottom up/direct theory of perception /24
My SMART targ...
38
Title of homework: Marks:
Discuss explanations of prosopagnosia, refer to case studies in your
answer
/24
My SMART targ...
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  1. 1. 1 Name:______________________ Form: _______ PSYA3: Perception
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3 Specification Exam Hint: You will be examined on relationships, perception and gender towards the end of June 2015. The exam will be one-and-a-half hours long and consist of eight questions. You will have to answer the three which are based on the topics listed above. You should spend no more than 30 minutes writing each question as time is tight and you may find that you are unable to finish the exam paper otherwise. The gender, relationships and perception questions may be split into several questions worth smaller marks each, or the one main question worth 24 marks each. You should prepare yourself for both eventualities! You should also prepare yourself for questions which are contextualised – i.e. scenario based questions where you have to apply your knowledge to the given scenario.
  4. 4. 4 Theories of perceptual organisation Gibson’s bottom-up / direct theory of perception (1979) To understand what we are seeing, we only need the information from our _______. Light falls on our _______ and is converted to electrical impulses. These pass along the optic nerve to the visual cortex, which is located in the _________ lobe. Gibson’s view of this process was that there is so much information in the light pattern that falls on our retinas that we do not need any higher brain functioning to interpret it. The ______ abilities we have allow us to perceive the world accurately without having to rely on ________.
  5. 5. 5 Where did Gibson’s direct theory of perception originate? What visual information did a pilot need to land an aircraft?      Gibson (1979) suggested that the changing pattern of light that surrounds the active perceiver (the optic array) provides us with sufficient information for perception. The optic array is the bundle of light rays that moves towards the observer from each point in an illuminated world. The detail comes from light being reflected differently off surfaces of different textures and angles. Central elements of Gibson’s theory: Optic flow Movement Invariants
  6. 6. 6 Texture gradient Horizon ratio Affordance Negative evaluation Reductionist
  7. 7. 7 Positive evaluation Johansson (1973) Graziano (1994) Speed and accuracy Real world application Explaining visual illusions Gibson & Walk (1960)
  8. 8. 8 Extra notes
  9. 9. 9 Gregory’s top-down / indirect theory of perception (1974) Gregory realised that sometimes the information that our senses receive is __________ or ambiguous, making it difficult to understand what we are seeing. Consequently we have to ______, or make our best guess about it. Our guesses are based on what we already know about the world, and so before we can make sense of what we are seeing, we have to apply _______ cognitive functioning. It is as if we have been given a perceptual _______-_______ task. This is why it is known as the top-down approach. There are three main assumptions: 1. Perception is an active process: Sensory data Knowledge stored in the brain Inference about what is out there
  10. 10. 10 2. Past experience 3. Visual illusions Supporting Research Palmer (1975) What was the procedure? What were the findings? How could these be explained? Draw a memory cue for the Palmer (1975) study
  11. 11. 11 Bruner & Minturn (1955) What was the procedure? What were the findings? How could this be explained? Evaluating the indirect theory Hypothesis testing Real world application Visual illusions    
  12. 12. 12 Reconciling the direct and indirect theories Extra notes
  13. 13. 13 Development of Perception Are perceptual abilities innate? Or do they develop through experience? The nature/nurture argument continues, and so researchers use infant studies and cross-cultural studies to try to establish how perception develops. Match the type of study to the reason for carrying out research in that area Infant studies If learned, perception should differ based on our experiences. Compare Western and non-Western cultures in terms of skill variety. Cross-cultural studies If unable to see/interact with the world for the first year of your life, would be perceive things differently when finally able to? Distorting the field of vision Focus on the ability of very young children to perceive depth and understand perceptual constancies. Issues around children being unable to tell us what they see Deprivation Change the way people see the world (e.g. by wearing goggles which turn the world upside down) to see if they relearn to cope Depth Perception Binocular cues depend on our using both eyes to look at an object. Because no learning is involved, the use of this type of depth cue supports _________ theory of perception. Ocular convergence Retinal disparity
  14. 14. 14 Sheedy et al (1986)_____________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Monocular cues only require the use of one eye. These cues are used by artists to convey the impression of depth in a picture painted on a 2D canvas. It is these cues that cause us to misinterpret optical illusions. They depend on learning and so support the _________ theory of perception. Some of them are: Stationary cues Relative size Superimposition Shading Linear perspective Dynamic cues Motion parallax
  15. 15. 15 Visual constancy Aspects of an object’s appearance change, even though the object itself does not. These changes occur when the observer moves, or when there are changes in the conditions. When we understand these constancies, we have fully developed perceptual skills. The constancies are: 1. Size constancy 2. Shape constancy 3. Brightness constancy 4. Colour constancy 5. Motion constancy
  16. 16. 16 EXAM ADVICE: The specification requires you to study perceptual development in terms of these four areas – ensure you have plenty of research for each section so you are prepared for any possible question that may come up. Infant studies Cross-cultural studies Depth perception  Gibson and Walk (1960)  Campos (1978)  Yonas (2001)  Bower (1970)  Hofsten (1992)  Granrud & Yonas (1984)  Turnbull (1963)  Hudson (1960)  Jahoda & McGurk (1974) Visual constancies  Bower (1966)  Slater (1990)  Turnbull (1961)  Deregowski (1972)  Segall (1963) * What are the five 24-mark exam questions you could be asked?
  17. 17. 17 Infant studies – Depth perception
  18. 18. 18 Infant studies – Visual constancies
  19. 19. 19 Not all perceptual ability is present from birth Evaluating infant studies Nature/nurtureUsing infants in research Real world application - surgery Comparison with cross- cultural studies
  20. 20. 20 Cross-cultural studies – Depth perception
  21. 21. 21 Cross-cultural studies – Visual constancies
  22. 22. 22 Methodological issues Evaluating cross- cultural studies Imposed etic Population validity Ecological validity Culture bias Familiarity Demand characteristics Nature/nurture Ethical issues Comparison with infant studies Research against
  23. 23. 23 Extra notes
  24. 24. 24 Face Recognition and Visual Agnosias Bruce and Young’s theory of face recognition (1986) Face recognition is a series of stages which are accessed one after the other (serially). At any time, only some of the nodes are activated. There are also two paths through the model – one for familiar faces and one for recognising facial expressions. Familiar faces Unfamiliarfaces
  25. 25. 25 Evaluation of the theory There is considerable _________ evidence that supports Bruce and Young’s theory that there are several independent ______ involved in the process of face recognition. Much of this comes from clinical case studies of people with brain damage or injury that disrupts the ______ processes of perception. Parry (1991) carried out an experimental investigation comparing a matched population of patients with head injuries against a control group of normal pps. Both groups completed face processing tasks designed to test facial expression recognition, familiar face recognition and unfamiliar face matching. They found the head injured patients made significantly more errors than the controls in all three tasks. Outline one strength and one weakness of the experimental method used in this research:  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………......................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... Bruyer et al. (1983) describes the case of a man who could pick out faces from other objects and copy line drawings of faces. He could also match unfamiliar faces, so that if he was shown some photos of faces he had never seen before he would be able to select them from a larger collection of faces later on. However he was unable to recognise famous faces, faces of friends and family and even photographs of himself. He did not lose his memory for these familiar people, he could recognise people from names and voices. In terms of the Bruce and Young model, this man appeared to have _________ face recognition units but intact person identity nodes – he had a memory for people, he could process face information of strangers, but had lost the sense of face familiarity.
  26. 26. 26 Further research was carried out by Bruce and Young (1993) who tested the ability of ________ who had suffered different kinds of brain damage to recognise faces and different aspects of faces. The researchers found that the types of problems the soldiers had were different from one another; for instance, some had problems ___________ expressions, some matching different views of _________ faces - this depended on the location of the brain injury. This suggests that face processing is indeed ________, as Bruce and Young describe. The research with the soldiers shows that where one part of the system is damaged, another part may well remain intact. Explain the problem with drawing conclusions from research involving brain damaged individuals: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………......................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………............................................................................................................................................ .................................................................................................................................................... Thomson’s (1980) ‘Thatcher illusion’ provides strong evidence in support of Bruce and Young’s model. In the illusion, the two faces look similar when upside down, but when turned the right way up one clearly looks very different from the other. If the whole face was processed by one component then the two images would instantly be seen as different to each other. Therefore, these illusions show that facial features are processed separately and once enough information is known, a ‘best fit’ is applied which overrides any differences.
  27. 27. 27 Also in support of this model is Young et al. (1985) case study in which 22 pps were asked to keep a diary record of any difficulties they had in recognising people over an 8-week period. Most common errors were that: a person was not recognised (i.e. ‘blanked’); there was a feeling of familiarity without identity; a person was recognised but no name was retrieved; and a person was misidentified. All pps reported that in order to put a name to a face they needed to draw on _______ knowledge of personal details about the person they were trying to recognise. Bruce and Young proposed that the FRU and PIN are different modules so if the FRU is activated but the PIN is not then an individual should be familiar but no information about the person can be retrieved. This study supports the ___________ between PINs and name generation. Outline one strength and one weakness of using case studies when looking at the processes involved in face recognition:  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………......................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... Create a concluding link for these two studies: Ellis et al (1979) found that external facial features, like hairstyles, are used to recognise unknown faces, while internal features (like noses) are used with familiar faces. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Young et al (1986) found that participants were faster at identifying whether a particular face was that of a politician than they were at identifying the politician’s name.………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  28. 28. 28 Stretch & Challenge: Are faces special? There is a big question regarding whether face recognition is actually a separate skill or just an example of object recognition in general. The Bruce and Young model is irrelevant if face recognition is not special. Supporting evidence Refuting evidence IDAs Important applications Limited value How science works
  29. 29. 29 Extra notes
  30. 30. 30 Prosopagnosia Visual agnosias Visual agnosia is the inability to recognise familiar objects presented visually. Apperceptive agnosia – a perceptual deficit, i.e. a failure of recognition due to impaired visual perception. An example of this would be a failure to distinguish between a square and a circle. Associative agnosia – intact perceptual ability but a failure of recognition because of difficulty in accessing the relevant knowledge from memory – a ‘normal percept stripped of its meaning’ (Teuber 1968). An example of this would be having the ability to copy a line drawing of an object accurately, but not being able to name the object. One of the most fascinating examples of associative agnosia is Prosopagnosia. This is the inability to recognise faces despite intact intellectual functioning and even apparently intact visual recognition of most other stimuli (Farah 2004). Prosopagnosia appears to be a failure of visual and associative memories to come together to produce recognition. For example, a woman with prosopagnosia might be able to describe the facial features of a person standing in front of her, but not recognise that this person is her daughter until she speaks (Palmer 1999). The clinical study undertaken by Young et al. (1993) that investigated face perception in 34 ex-servicemen who had received missile wounds to the back (posterior) regions of the brain found that some were selectively poor at familiar face recognition, whereas others only experienced difficulties in matching unfamiliar faces. Others found it difficult to decipher facial expressions accurately. These findings suggest that independent routes operate for the different aspects of face recognition, as proposed by Bruce and Young’s model. This type of evidence is called ‘double dissociation’, where some individuals do well at task A but poorly at task B, whereas others show the opposite pattern.
  31. 31. 31 Case studies Make notes about the case studies – what can/can’t they do; and then find another two on your own. Be prepared to share your case studies! Busigny et al (2010) PS – 52 year old woman Delvenne et al (2004) NS – 40 year old man Bruyer (1983) Mr. W - farmer
  32. 32. 32 Evaluating case studies of abnormal individuals Unique Tests lack comparability Before/after Coping strategies Rich source Contradictory
  33. 33. 33 Explanations of Prosopagnosia 1. Acquired versus developmental 2. Damage to face processing unit
  34. 34. 34  Supporting case studies from both acquired and developmental prosopagnosics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Greeble training ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3. Processing continuum Object recognition Decode structure Compute relationship Alexia: Prosopagnosia Inability to recognise text Farah (1991) suggests that the inability to decode faces is simply a characteristic of one end of the object recognition continuum and not an independent disorder.
  35. 35. 35  Evidence challenging the unique face processor view ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…  Absence of susceptibility to the inversion effect ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  However, this is not universal ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Furthermore, the Navon task ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. More evaluation…
  36. 36. 36 Extra notes
  37. 37. 37 Tracking My Progress Title of homework: Marks: Discuss Gibson’s bottom up/direct theory of perception /24 My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: Discuss Gregory’s top down/indirect theory of perception /24 My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: Discuss the development of depth/distance perception and/or visual constancies /24 My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: Discuss Bruce and Young’s theory of face recognition /24 My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment:
  38. 38. 38 Title of homework: Marks: Discuss explanations of prosopagnosia, refer to case studies in your answer /24 My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Past exam questions: January 2010 Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to explanations of perceptual development. (24 marks) June 2010 Outline two theories of perceptual organisation. (8 marks) Evaluate one of the theories of perceptual organisation outlined in your answer to ^ (16 marks) January 2011 Discuss the development of perceptual abilities. Include examples from infant and cross-cultural studies in your answer. (24 marks) June 2011 Describe and evaluate Bruce and Young’s theory of face recognition. (24 marks) January 2012 Discuss research into perceptual development. (24 marks) June 2012 Discuss the development of depth/distance perception and/or visual constancies. (24 marks) January 2013 Outline findings of cross-cultural research into perceptual development. (4 marks) Outline and evaluate one theory of perceptual organisation. (4 + 16 marks) June 2013 Outline and evaluate one research study into perceptual development in infants. (4 + 8 marks) Discuss Bruce and Young’s theory of face recognition. (4 + 8 marks) June 2014 Outline Gibson's theory of perception (4 marks) Outline and evaluate Gregory's theory of perception (4 + 16 marks)

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