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  • 1991 stats from America
    3 out of 4 people read their horoscope
    1 in 4 have a firm belief in astrology
    1 in 4 claim to have experienced telepathy
    1 in 4 believe in ghosts
    1 in 6 claim to have seen a UFO
  • Watch both clips of 2 different psychics and discuss
  • Article is in Psy photo folder – to print!
  • Soal – card guessing, results statistically above that of chance
    Years later data was analysed to pick up that the number system could have been manipulated ad therefore fraudulent.
    This affected the credibility of anomalous research.
  • First clip is about mother who asked about her son dying of cancer.

    The second is a response fro Randi calling her out about Amanda Barry
  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. ANOMALISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Study of Paranormal events and experiences under controlled conditions
    2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Understand the nature of pseudoscience and scientific fraud Explain methodical and theoretical issues in anomalous experience Draw conclusions from the current research into anomalous experience
    3. 3. WHAT IS ANOMALISTIC PSYCHOLOGY? Study of paranormal events through psychological and physical factors Unique subject within psychology and has a very different group of researchers. Belief is at the center of anomalistic psychology
    4. 4. PARANORMAL Phenomena that cannot be explained using conventional scientific theories, although aspects of scientific though may be relevant to provide a basis for explanation.
    5. 5. PSYCHOKINESIS PK An ability to control objects with one’s mind, e.g. moving a vase using the power of though alone.
    6. 6. PARANORMAL EVENTS  A-portal-hell-Police-chief-priest-examined-possessed-children- haunted-Indiana-home-official-reports-saying-no-hoax.html  Three-Famous-Cases.htm  comment/footballers-bizarre-injury-treatments- 1822967.html?action=gallery&ino=9
    7. 7. EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION ESP The showing of knowledge of an event without being told about the event or experiencing it. ESP could be seen to include Telepathy.
    8. 8. ANOMALOUS EXPERIENCE Out of body experience Near death experience Spontaneous psychic ability (PSI) Past life experience Anomalous healing (prayer, spiritual healer)
    9. 9. SCIENTIFIC FRAUD & PSEUDOSCIENTIFIC  Science and Pseudoscience have developed as opposites however the methods and similarities are similar.  Bauer (2004) boundaries between science and pseudoscience are not clear.  To understand pseudoscience we need to look at what being scientific is.
    10. 10. SCIENTIFIC  Filippo (1991) Science might be thought of as a quest for understanding that usually creates laws and principles that can be tested experimentally.  Pseudoscientific information may be seen as a mistaken belief and not scientific due to its lack of testability and inability to stand up to critical analysis and falsification.  Science means ‘knowledge’
    11. 11. FALSIFICATION  A term first introduced by Sir Karl Popper (1902-94) who argued that falsification related to the process of proving a hypothesis incorrect. He argued that this way was the only way for scientific knowledge to be built up.
    12. 12. SCIENTIFIC APPROACH  General characteristics would include objectivity, reliability and the following of the philosophical doctrine of empiricism.  Empiricism = a view that suggest that experience is central to the development and formation of knowledge, and thus central to the scientific method. Experience or evidence arises our of experiments not intuition or revelation.
    13. 13. METHODOLOGICAL COMPARISON  Some areas of pseudoscientific research use similar methods to scientific research. Both gather data , both have a research question upon which the hypotheses are based, the investigation tests the hypothesis, and the results are then published.  Both scientists and pseudoscientists pick and choose their areas of study . There are cases in which pride, greed and hunger for fame have got the better of scientists and pseudoscientists and facts have been chosen effectively.
    14. 14.  Similar experimental methodologies are used to generate data.  Different research methods can be used in the acquisition of knowledge  Results are interpreted and communicated differently. Pseudoscience research can be communicated direct to the public where as science ensure peer reviews. METHODOLOGICAL COMPARISON
    15. 15.  Pseudoscience researchers may pick and chose what they study whereas science based researchers are dictated by their knowledge.  Science formulates hypotheses, gathers information and data, pseudoscience they formulate the hypotheses to support the data gathered.  Scientific analysis can be ensured through methodological pluralism and can be falsified. METHODOLOGICAL COMPARISON
    16. 16. PSYCHICS  
    17. 17.  Empiricism  Hypothetico-deductive method  Methodological pluralism  Falsified  Replicability  Objectivity KEY TERMS  Monozygotic  Positive correlation  Psi phenomena  Telepathy  Clairvoyance  Precognition
    18. 18. RADNER AND RADNER (1982)  Please read the article from 1982  What other comparisons did they make between science and pseudoscience?  Homework / Task  Write up a short piece that compares two approaches from the point of view of Radner & Radner
    19. 19. REALITY OR FRAUD Who did the study? What was it about? Fraud ? Why? Sylvia Browne (1999) Edgar Cayce (1967) Uri Geller (2000) Ellen Greve (2000) Mother Shipton (1641) S. G. Soal (1941)
    20. 20. WHAT IS ESP? Range of skills – telepathy (mind reading) clairvoyance (contact with non-living), precognition ( predicting future events) Soal-Goldney (1938-41) 160 participants took part in card guessing tasks. ESP.
    21. 21. WALTER J. LEVY JR (1974)  Precognition ability of rats to create physical changes using will power ( psychokenesis).  Impalnted brains fo rats with electrodes  Electrical impulses (shock) of the pleasure centres of the brains for 50% of the time  54% results suggests Rats have some anomalous behaviour  Issues- tampered with equipment. Animal rights.
    22. 22. SYLVIA BROWNE  Psychic power  
    23. 23. SUMMARY  Boundaries between pseudoscience and science are not clear  Anomalistic lacks methodological rigour  Radner and Radner reinforce point the greater differences between science and pseudoscience  Fraudulent activity has had an adverse effect on academics trying to establish anomalistic activity.  Controls on fraud are now a lot tighter.
    24. 24. HOMEWORK What is the difference between anomalistic psychology and parapsychology? What is the difference between science and pseudoscience?