1991 stats from America 3 out of 4 people read their horoscope 1 in 4 have a firm belief in astrology 1 in 4 claim to have experienced telepathy 1 in 4 believe in ghosts 1 in 6 claim to have seen a UFO
Watch both clips of 2 different psychics and discuss
Article is in Psy photo folder – to print!
Soal – card guessing, results statistically above that of chance Years later data was analysed to pick up that the number system could have been manipulated ad therefore fraudulent. This affected the credibility of anomalous research.
First clip is about mother who asked about her son dying of cancer.
The second is a response fro Randi calling her out about Amanda Barry
Study of Paranormal events and experiences under controlled conditions
Understand the nature of pseudoscience and scientific
Explain methodical and theoretical issues in
Draw conclusions from the current research into
WHAT IS ANOMALISTIC
Study of paranormal events through
psychological and physical factors
Unique subject within psychology and has a very
different group of researchers.
Belief is at the center of anomalistic psychology
Phenomena that cannot be explained using
conventional scientific theories, although aspects of
scientific though may be relevant to provide a basis
An ability to control objects with one’s mind, e.g.
moving a vase using the power of though alone.
The showing of knowledge of an event without
being told about the event or experiencing it. ESP
could be seen to include Telepathy.
Out of body experience
Near death experience
Spontaneous psychic ability (PSI)
Past life experience
Anomalous healing (prayer, spiritual healer)
SCIENTIFIC FRAUD &
Science and Pseudoscience have developed as opposites
however the methods and similarities are similar.
Bauer (2004) boundaries between science and
pseudoscience are not clear.
To understand pseudoscience we need to look at what being
Filippo (1991) Science might be thought of as a quest for
understanding that usually creates laws and principles that can be
Pseudoscientific information may be seen as a mistaken belief
and not scientific due to its lack of testability and inability to stand
up to critical analysis and falsification.
Science means ‘knowledge’
A term first introduced by Sir Karl Popper (1902-94) who
argued that falsification related to the process of proving a
hypothesis incorrect. He argued that this way was the only way
for scientific knowledge to be built up.
General characteristics would include objectivity, reliability
and the following of the philosophical doctrine of empiricism.
Empiricism = a view that suggest that experience is central
to the development and formation of knowledge, and thus
central to the scientific method. Experience or evidence arises
our of experiments not intuition or revelation.
Some areas of pseudoscientific research use similar methods to
scientific research. Both gather data , both have a research question
upon which the hypotheses are based, the investigation tests the
hypothesis, and the results are then published.
Both scientists and pseudoscientists pick and choose their areas of
study . There are cases in which pride, greed and hunger for fame
have got the better of scientists and pseudoscientists and facts have
been chosen effectively.
Similar experimental methodologies are used to generate data.
Different research methods can be used in the acquisition of
Results are interpreted and communicated differently.
Pseudoscience research can be communicated direct to the public
where as science ensure peer reviews.
Pseudoscience researchers may pick and chose what they study
whereas science based researchers are dictated by their knowledge.
Science formulates hypotheses, gathers information and data,
pseudoscience they formulate the hypotheses to support the data
Scientific analysis can be ensured through methodological
pluralism and can be falsified.
RADNER AND RADNER
Please read the article from 1982
What other comparisons did they make between science and
Homework / Task
Write up a short piece that compares two approaches from the
point of view of Radner & Radner
REALITY OR FRAUD
Who did the study? What was it about? Fraud ? Why?
Sylvia Browne (1999)
Edgar Cayce (1967)
Uri Geller (2000)
Ellen Greve (2000)
S. G. Soal (1941)
WHAT IS ESP?
Range of skills – telepathy (mind reading)
clairvoyance (contact with non-living), precognition
( predicting future events)
Soal-Goldney (1938-41) 160 participants took
part in card guessing tasks. ESP.
WALTER J. LEVY JR (1974)
Precognition ability of rats to create physical changes using will
power ( psychokenesis).
Impalnted brains fo rats with electrodes
Electrical impulses (shock) of the pleasure centres of the brains
for 50% of the time
54% results suggests Rats have some anomalous behaviour
Issues- tampered with equipment. Animal rights.
Boundaries between pseudoscience and science are not clear
Anomalistic lacks methodological rigour
Radner and Radner reinforce point the greater differences between
science and pseudoscience
Fraudulent activity has had an adverse effect on academics trying
to establish anomalistic activity.
Controls on fraud are now a lot tighter.
What is the difference between
anomalistic psychology and parapsychology?
What is the difference between science