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Resourcd File Resourcd File Document Transcript

  • 1 A Level AQA Sociology Unit 1: Families and Households Overview: This unit is worth 40% of the AS and 20% of the A level. It is examined by a 1 hour written paper. Candidates choose one topic from three (Families and Households) and answer one question. Each question consists of five parts. In this Unit candidates will cover a range of demographic and theoretical perspectives on families and households and changes in the family throughout history. They will be looking at couples, childhood, the functions of the family, demography, changing family patterns, family diversity and the life course and families and social policy Learning Objectives:  Understand gender roles in the domestic division of labour  Understand power relationships between couples, including decision-making, control of resources and domestic violence  Identify and analyse how roles and relationships have changed over time  Evaluate different sociological views on couples’ roles and relationships  Understand why sociologists see childhood as a social construction  Identify the reasons for the emergence of the modern notion of childhood  Analyse and evaluate different views of the future of childhood  Understand sociological theoretical perspectives on the family and analyse and eva luate them  Identify the main population trends in the UK since 1900  Understand and be able to evaluate the reasons for and consequences of population changes  Identify the main changes in relationships and households  Identify the main changes in childbearing/rearing  Understand how changes have lead to greater family diversity  Understand, analyse and evaluate different sociological views of family diversity, including modernist and postmodernist approaches  Analyse and evaluate the reasons for changes in families and households  Identify key social policies that affect the family  Understand and evaluate different sociological perspectives on social policy Keywords  Gender  Conjugal Roles  Lone/Single Parent  Sex  Polygamy  Monogamy  Nuclear Family  Matriarchy/Matrifocal  New Man  Domestic Labour  Reconstituted Family  Household  Patriarchy/Patrifocal  Extended Family
  • 2 Mock exam question – layout Assess questions Use Item B For and against the questions Intro 3 for 3 against Conclusion Examine questions LPERCL Intro 5 LPERCL paragraphs Conclusion
  • 3 A: What is the family? A family but not a household Both a family and a household A household but not a family Key words applying to the Royale family…. What is a family?
  • 4 Defining a family What is the family? Step Extended Nuclear One parent Murdock
  • 5 B: Demography What do you think the changes have been to the population of the UK since 1900? Work with your group to come up with three hypotheses (theories or ideas) about how the population of the UK has changed since 1900 The main areas of demography and the main factors that effect a country’s population What is demography?
  • 6 Learning Challenges You are going to work in small groups researching the main areas of demography and the changes in the population of the UK since 1900. Use p. 47 – 54 to help you. Then you need to complete your learning consolidation sheet. You must include the following  What the area of demography looks at  The definitions of key terms  What changes there have been in that area in the UK since 1900  The reasons for the changes  The effects of the changes Births Deaths Ageing population Migration Display (1st & 2nd Lesson ) Group 1 and Group 5 Group 2 and Group 6 Group 3 and Group 7 Group 4 and Group 8 Group mind- map (1st & 2nd Lesson ) Group 1 and Group 5 Group 2 and Group 6 Group 3 and Group 7 Group 4 and Group 8 Handout (Homework) Group 1 and Group 5 Group 2 and Group 6 Group 3 and Group 7 Group 4 and Group 8 Teach new group (3rd Lesson) 1 member from 1,2,3,4 teach each other I member from 5,6,7,8 teach each other How to work well as a team?
  • 7 • Notes to make for your group • While being taught make notes while listening to support your learning
  • 8 Area of demography Description Changes Reasons Effects Births Deaths Demography Learning Consolidation Sheet
  • 9 Ageing population Migration
  • 10 Essay Skills Sheet – AO1 and AO2 AO1 AO2 Knowledge and Understanding Theories and concepts Interpretation Analysis Application Evaluation Selecting relevant information Line of argument Linking ideas, theories and concepts to the question Alternative views For and against
  • 11 Planning the essay ‘Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the UK since 1900’ (24 marks) How to write LPERCL paragraphs Essay plan 1. Introduction 2. Describe trends in births (at least 2) 3. Give reasons for the trends (at least 3 – Use statistics and other evidence to support the reasons. Remember Criticism – offer alternatives) 4. Give consequences of the trends 5. Describe the trends in deaths (at least 2) 6. Give reasons for the trends (at least 3) 7. Give consequences of the trends (Use statistics and other evidence to support the reasons. Remember Criticism – offer alternatives) 8. Conclusion Top tips • Use your Demography Learning Consolidation Sheet • Include an introduction (Show the examiner that you have deconstructed the question – What are the important parts of the question?) • Include a conclusion (Be critical, conclude you line of argument) • About 6 other LPERCL paragraphs • Use the markscheme Point Explain Reference Criticism – Positive or Negative
  • 12 Essay plan ‘Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the UK since 1900’ (24 marks) paragraph LPER C L Introduction Describe trends in birth rates Give reasons for the trends Give consequences of the trend Describe the trends in death rates Give reasons for the trend Give consequences of the trend conclusion
  • 13 C: Changes in family patterns What are the three most important things to remember about: Changes in the pattern of divorce Changes in the pattern of partnerships Changes in the pattern of childbearing In no more than 75 words summarise the changes in the pattern of divorce, partnerships and childbearing and childrearing and the reasons for these changes Divorce Partnerships Children and Parents
  • 14 Consolidating our learning
  • 15 Make annotated links between the concepts to show the connections between them Birth Rate Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Changes in the position of women Divorce Lone-parent families Reconstituted(step) families Death Rate Migration Dependency Ratio Secularisation Marriage Cohabitation
  • 16 Family Diversity Modernist Perspec Functionalism New Right Chester Rapoport and Rapoport
  • 17 The Big Debate Group Main argument about Family Diversity Strengths of the group Any suggestions for improvement Functionalism New Right Chester Rapoport and Rapoport What three things have you learnt from this activity?
  • 18 Things I need support with so far:
  • 19 Family Diversity Postmodernist Perspectives What is the difference between a modernist and a postmodernist perspective on family diversity? Life Course Analysis Family Practices Giddens: Choice and Equality
  • 20 Beck: ‘Risk society’ and the negotiated family Stacey: The divorce-extended family Weeks: The growing acceptance of diversity The theory which I agree with most is because
  • 21 Sociological Perspectives on The Family – Functionalism Parson’s ‘Functional Fit’ Theory Murdock’s four functions of the family Strengths Weaknesses
  • 22 Sociological Perspectives on The Family – Marxism Marxist perspectives on the family Strengths Weaknesses
  • 23 Sociological Perspectives on The Family – Feminism Liberal Feminism Marxist Feminism Radical Feminism Difference Feminism Strengths Weaknesses
  • 24 Perspective/Theorist Key Ideas Positives Negatives Functionalist/Parsons (1955) Bott (1957) Willmott and Young (1973) Oakley (1974) Feminist
  • 25 Gershuny (1994) Commercialisation of Housework - Silver and Schor (1993) Dual Burden
  • 26 Emotion Work – Hochschild (1983) and Morgan (1997) Lesbian Couples – Dunne (1999) Summarise the information above about the division of labour in households Explain with examples what is meant by the term ‘march of progress view
  • 27 Domestic Violence Domestic Violence Factfile Use your textbook and conduct research to create a factfile about domestic violence This must include: What domestic violence is What are the trends relating to domestic violence (who is affected by it) – Mirlees-Black Statistics Why measuring domestic violence is difficult Sociological explanations of domestic violence – Dobash and Dobash, Ansley (women as ‘takers of shit’), radical feminism and Wilkinson Pictures and graphs Use the textbook, use reliable websites on the internet (Woman’s Aid) and find and use the 2010 domestic violence statistics on the House of Commons library website What is domestic violence? What causes domestic violence? Why do victims fail to leave abusive relationships?
  • 28 What problems might there be in defining domestic violence? How would you define it? How might different definitions affect the results of research? Suggest reasons why domestic violence may be under-reported to the police Suggest reasons why the police may not record fully all complaints of domestic violence Suggest some examples of the ways in which interviews might produce invalid results Why might a victim of domestic violence respond differently to questions asked by male and female researchers? Explain what is meant by ‘validity’. How may all these difficulties reduce the validity of a study of domestic violence?
  • 29 Remove this page and have A3 mindmap about childhood instead
  • 30
  • 31 Assess question Title: using material from item a and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of changes in the status of childhood – 24marks page 37 of Trobe for help Introduction Conclusion
  • 32 Sociology and Social Policy Perspective General perspective on society and the family? What is their view on what social policy currently does in relation to the family including examples? What would they want social policy to do, including examples? Weaknesses of the perspective on social policy Functionalism New Right What is meant by social policy?
  • 33 New Labour Feminism Marxism
  • 34 Examples of current social policy on the family How they affect the family Government wants to give tax breaks to married couples This is to encourage the strengthening of the nuclear family which the Government (Conservative – New Right) believes is the type of family best suited to bring up children Donzelot
  • 35
  • 36 Examine the relationship between family structure and industrialisation.          Assess the impact of state policies and laws on family life.          Examine the reasons for the increase in family and household diversity in the last 40 years  
  • 37       Assess the functionalist contribution to our understanding of the family        
  • 38 Examine the factors affecting the domestic division of labour and power relations between couples.         Assess sociological views of the relationship between the family and industrialisation        
  • 39 Examine the reasons for changes in the position of children in the family and society.         Assess sociological explanations of the increase in the number of divorces since the 1960s        
  • 40 Examine the ways in which feminist sociologists have contributed to our understanding of family roles and relationships         Assess the view that ‘the extended family remains as important now as it was in the past’         Examine the ways in which social policies and laws may influence families and households.   
  • 41      Assess the view that marriage remains a patriarchal institution         Assess sociological explanations of changes in patterns of divorce since 1970.      
  • 42 Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fall in the death rate since 1900         Assess the view that, in today’s society, the family is losing its functions.         Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of marriage and cohabitation in the last 40 years or so.     
  • 43 Assess the view that the modern family has become more child-centred.         Examine the reasons for changes in the divorce rate since 1969        
  • 44 June 04 Examine the effects of industrialisation on the structure of the family (20) Assess the view that despite that despite recent changes in family life the conventional nuclear family remain the norm for familiesand households in Britain today (20) Jan 05 Examine the different functions performed by the family for individuals and society (20) Assess the effect on couple’s relationships of women’s involvement in paid work (20) June 05 Examine the ways in which social policies and laws may influence families and households (20) Assess the view that marriage remainsa patriarchal institution (20) Jan 06 Examine the ways in which feminists sociologists have contributed to our understanding of family roles and relationships (20) Assess the view that the extended family remainsas important now as it was in the past (20) June 06 Examine reasons for changes in the position of children in the family and society (20) Assess sociological explanationsof the increase in the number of divorces since the 1960’s (20) Jan 07 Examine the factors affecting the division of labour and power relations between couples (20) Assess sociological views of the relationship between the family and industrialisation (20) June 07 Examine the reasons for the increase in family and household diversity in the last 40 years (20) Assess the functionalist’s contribution to our understanding of the family (20) Jan 08 Examine the relationship between family structure and industrialisation (20) Assess the impact of state policies and lawson family life (20) June 08 Examine the reasons for changes in the social position of children since industrialisation (20) Assess the extent to which husbands and wives now have a relationship based on equality (20) Jan 09 Examine the ways in which government policies may influence family roles and relationships (20) Assess the view that there is a functional fit between the structure of the family and the type of society in which it is found (20) June 09 Examine the factors affecting power relations and the division of labour between couples (20) Assess sociological explanationsof changes in patterns of divorce since 1970 (20) Jan 10 Examine the ways in which government policies and lawsaffect the nature and extent of family diversity (20) Assess the Marxist view that the main role of the family is to serve the interests of capitalism (20) June 10 Examine the reasons for and the consequences of the fall of the death rate since 1900 (24) Assess the view that in today’s society the family is losing its functions (24) Jan 11 Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of marriage and cohabitation in the last 40 years or so. (24) Assess the view that the modern family has become more child-centred. (24) June 11 Examine the reasons for changes in the divorce rate since 1969 (24) Assess the contribution of feminist sociologists to an understanding of family roles and relationships (24)
  • 45 AO1 Knowledge & Understanding (Outline, identify) AO2 Interpretation & Analysis (Explanation and links to the question) AO2 Evaluation (Discussing the value of, strengths and weaknesses) Marxists suggest This means However Willis claims If this is so On the other hand Parsons maintains that This tells us The usefulness of Statistics reveal This could be applied to This is flawed because