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  • 80%
    Pro social 87% pro to 47% anti (children aged 4-6) Rideout et al (2003)
    4. Males – 160 Females - 145
  • Smith & Donnerstein (1998) – analysed the content of TV programmes in USA
    Found:
    61% of TV programmes contained violence
    4% of TV programmes had an anti violence theme
    44% of violent behaviours on TV were committed by an attractive role model
    75% of violent TV scenes showed no punishment
    40% of TV programmes with ‘bad’ characters were never punished for their aggression
    43% of violent TV scenes involved humour
  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. Media Psychology ““If violence on TV causes people to be moreIf violence on TV causes people to be more aggressive, thenaggressive, then shouldn’t the good-hearted qualities inshouldn’t the good-hearted qualities in TV cause its audience to be kinderTV cause its audience to be kinder to each other?” (Cooke, 1993)to each other?” (Cooke, 1993)
    2. 2. Question format As with schizophrenia & PSYA3, each question is worth 24 marks in total Media is our ‘Psychology in Action’ topic and as such the 24 marks will be split in to shorter questions (2 or 3 parts to the q)
    3. 3. Sub topics studied Media influences on social behaviour (includes pro & anti-social behaviour) Explanations Positive & negative effects of computers & video games Media & persuasion Models of persuasion Explanations of persuasiveness of TV advertising The psychology of celebrity Social psychological & evolutionary explanations of attraction of celebrities Research into intense fandom including celebrity worship & stalking
    4. 4. Pro-social Effects
    5. 5. Questions……What do you think? 1. What is the percentage of parents who say that their under 6 children imitate what they see on TV? 2. Are under 6s more likely to imitate pro social behaviour (e.g. helping) or anti-social behaviour (e.g. aggression)? 3. Give examples of TV programmes which show pro social behaviour & those which show anti-social behaviour 4. The Office for National Statistics (2006) looked at the average daily minutes spent watching TV & DVDs. What do you think the mean mins was? 5. Which research methods do you think psychologists would use to test these behaviours? 6. Stretch & challenge – using your knowledge of psychology, can you think of any explanations for this media influence?
    6. 6. How would you define prosocial behaviour? AQA say… “Any aspect of behaviour that is performed for the good of others” Altruism: Unselfish concern for the welfare of others Self – control: the ability to exercise restraint or control over one's feelings, emotions, reactions, etc Positive interaction: eg expressions of affection, friendly behaviour Mares (1996) Four main effects Anti-stereotyping: aim to help children become less stereotyped or prejudiced
    7. 7. Watch these video clips… • Look out for the four main behavioural effects of prosocial TV (Mares 1996) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSj7YJ2lBOc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XbEeD7qDBcw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=moRvtMO8IdM (6mins onward) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsC2W587_Fc
    8. 8. How pro social is TV? Smith et al (2006) Analysed 2000+ entertainment shows randomly selected from 1 week across 18 US TV channels Nearly 75% contained at least 1 pro social act Mean exposure to 3 pro social acts per hour Pro social acts most commonly found in children’s TV Approximately 50% contained anti social acts So children more likely to see pro social acts BUT the anti social acts were more concentrated which increases their impact
    9. 9. Woodard (1999) identified that there were high levels of pro-social behaviour found in programmes for preschool children. Almost 77% of programmes contained at least one pro-social lesson, whereas only one in 5 programmes for under 17s contained pro-social behaviour Rushton (1975) observed children after they had watched pro-social TV and found that they demonstrated positive attitudes and pro-social behaviour. This was short- lived however, and only lasted a couple of weeks. Rosenkoetter (1999) found that younger children grasped the moral message shown in an episode of Full House or the Cosby Show. He also found a positive correlation between the number of sitcoms watched and the amount of helpful and pro-social behaviour.
    10. 10. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (modelling) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (modelling) 4 stages to modelling: 1. Attention – is paid to models we identify with e.g. attractive, high status, similar gender etc 2. Retention – we need to memorise the behaviours observed 3. Reproduction – reproduction of the observed behaviour only occurs if the person has the skills 4. Motivation - direct & indirect (vicarious) reinforcement acts as motivation to imitate (can be + or – reinforcement or punishment)
    11. 11. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (modelling) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (modelling) Summary We learn by imitating what we see others doing The consequence of our behaviour willl determine the likliehood of us repeating the behaviour Prosocial acts represent social norms rather than contrasting, which are more likely to be rewarded for imitation
    12. 12. Evidence of modelling pro social behaviour Sprafkin et al (1975) – 6 years olds watched an episode of Lassie 3 groups: 1. Watched puppy rescue scene 2. Watched a scene with no rescue 3. Watched The Brady Bunch All children then played a game where a prize could be won All came across some seemingly distressed pups Children in gp 1 spent more time comforting the pups than the other groups – even at the cost of not winning the prize Suggests that watching a helpful model can create a social norm which encourages pro social behaviour
    13. 13. Refuting evidence of modelling pro-social behaviour Studies in this area tend to look at one-shot exposure to pro-social models. Generally, the findings show that children are most affected when they are shown the exact steps for positive behaviour (eg being shown someone donating tokens (Mares & Woodard, 2001). This may be because they can remember concrete acts better than abstract ones. Learning prosocial norms, as opposed to behavior, from the media may be less common unless followed up by a discussion. Johnson & Ettema found the largest effects were found when the programme was viewed in class followed by teacher discussion. HOWEVER, this is not always the case! Rubenstein & Sprafkin (1982) studied adolescents in a psychiatric hospital, and found that post-viewing discussion lead to decreased altruism. WHY?? May want to hold a view counter to adults! Research focuses almost exclusively on the effects of TV; however, Mares & Woodward (2001) considered other media. Children’s stories have traditionally carried pro- social messages eg Snow White looking after dwarves and triumphing over the wicked stepmum. Young children enjoy reading such stories over and over again, thus reinforcing the message.
    14. 14. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (parental mediation) Children often watch TV with a parent Some programmes actually suggest this e.g. Watch with mother By watching (or discussing afterwards) it enables any difficult concepts or ambiguous situations to be clarified. Can also discuss moral content Result – the pro social message can be reinforced – particularly important for young children so that they gain a full understanding Pro social behaviours are more difficult than anti social to understand Why? More dialogue, less action & more challenging to understand
    15. 15. Evidence of parental influence McKenna & Ossoff (1998) – children aged 4-10 asked about moral messages in one episode of Power Rangers Found: Most knew there was a message involved BUT only those 8+ could identify it Under 8s focused on the fighting rather than the message If parents help the child to unpack what they have seen then the pro social effects are maximised & anti social reduced Singer & Singer (1998) – supports how parents can help reinforce pro social messages if they watch with the child & then explain & discuss the moral content
    16. 16. Evidence of parental influence Fogel (2007) – looked at effects on children aged 8-12 who watched pro social sitcoms Sample – Californian children Filled in q about their viewing habits Then assigned to one of two groups Group 1 = watched 30 mins of Hang Time then had 30 min discussion about it with an adult Group 2 – (control) watched same episode but no follow up discussion Those in the experimental condition were more pro social in terms of tolerance & friendship Therefore adult mediation does help children gain the most from pro social TV
    17. 17. Evidence of parental influence wever , not al l par ent al medi at i on hances t he pr osoci al message i n ogr ammes. Val kenburg ( 1999) f ound at i n soci al co- vi ewi ng, t hey al l wat ch get her but do not di scuss t he cont ent . i s i s t her ef or e l ar gel y i nef f ect i ve; er ef or e onl y i n condi t i ons of i ns t r uc t i v e d i a t i o n, wher e t her e i s a di scussi on d expl anat i on of t hemes, can t he r ent be an ef f ect i ve medi at or and omot e t he pr osoci al message. The r esear ch i n t hi s ar ea has r eal wor l d appl i cat i on, as par ent s can be shown how t o i ncr ease t hei r chi l d’ s pr osoci al behavi our t hr ough di scussi ng pr ogr amme cont ent t oget her . Sesame St reet ai med t o use pr osoci al pr ogr ammi ng t o nur t ur e pr osoci al behavi our i n i nner - ci t y chi l dr en. Resear ch suggest s t hat count er t o t he pr ogr ammes obj ect i ves, i t was chi l dr en f r om hi g he r s o c i o e c o no mi c ba c kg r o und s who benef i t ed t he most , pr esumabl y because of t he par ent al medi at i on ef f ect s.
    18. 18. Evaluation Stretch & Challenge (dog book p. 221) ‘Prosocial versus Antisocial Effects’ Lack of generalisation The problem of mixed messages
    19. 19. Some general evaluation points Much of this research looks at positive effects of media which is purposely made to be pro social There are pro social acts in mainstream TV & the effects of this when the purpose is pure entertainment has not been studied Much research is correlational therefore no cause & effect Content analysis may also be flawed as it is a simple tally of pro social acts & does not include content or meaning of acts
    20. 20. Some general evaluation points Studying effects of pro social has less research than anti social Despite this Hearold (1986) suggests that pro social television has a greater effect on behaviour than anti social Ethical issues – parental consent
    21. 21. Anti-Social Effects
    22. 22. Questions……Guess the percentage 1. TV programmes containing violence 5. TV programmes with ‘bad’ characters who are never punished 2. TV programmes with an anti violence theme 4. Violent TV scenes showing no punishment 3. Violent behaviours on TV committed by an attractive role model study of TV in 1998 looked at violence on TV. Guess the percentage for the following: 6. Violent TV scenes involving humour
    23. 23. Explanations of media influences on anti social behaviour (modelling) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (modelling) 4 stages to modelling: 1. Attention – is paid to models we identify with e.g. attractive, high status, similar gender etc 2. Retention – we need to memorise the behaviours observed 3. Reproduction – reproduction of the observed behaviour only occurs if the person has the skills 4. Motivation - direct & indirect (vicarious) reinforcement acts as motivation to imitate (can be + or – reinforcement or punishment)
    24. 24. Explanations of media influences on pro social behaviour (modelling) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (modelling) Summary We learn by imitating what we see others doing Especially when we admire/identify with the model If the violent scene appears ‘real’, and the more the child ‘identifies’ with the character, the more likely they will be to try the behaviour
    25. 25. Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjTxQy_U3
    26. 26. Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment • Bandura’s research supports the claim that children learn specific acts of aggression through imitating models (even when the models are not real – as the result was replicated with a cartoon character!)
    27. 27. Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment • Actually, such imitation is quite rare outside of Bandura-style studies using specially prepared videos. • There have been anecdotal claims of copycat acts of violence but no real evidence for this. E.g. the two boys who murdered James Bulger (1993) were said to be inspired by the video ‘Child’s Play’, but Cumberbatch (2001) reports that no known link was ever found.
    28. 28. • Demand characteristics (Noble, 1975) • Ethical concerns Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Methodological Issues PEC these points How can you create a great link back to theory with this?
    29. 29. SLT AO2 – Paik & Comstock (1994) Conducted a meta-analysis of media violence research. They examined 217 studies of the relationship between media violence and aggressive behaviour. The studies were carried out between 1957 and 1990, with an age range of 3 to 70 years of age. They found a highly significant relationship between TV violence and aggressive behaviour. The greatest effect was evident in preschool children, and the effect for males was slightly higher than it was for females. What’s good/bad??
    30. 30. Cognitive Priming • The idea that aggressive cues can trigger aggressive feelings & thoughts. • Frequent exposure to scenes of violence may lead children to store scripts for aggressive behaviour in their memories, which may be recalled in a later situation if any aspect of the original situation is present. • The viewer is primed to respond aggressively because a network of memories involving aggression is retrieved. • Berkowitz (1984) – violent films provide ‘scripts’ that viewers may then act out later
    31. 31. Evidence for Cognitive Priming Josephson (1987) – Ice hockey players were deliberately frustrated, and then shown a violent or non-violent film where an actor held a walkie-talkie. In a subsequent hockey game, the boys behaved most aggressively if they had seen the violent film and the referee in their game was holding a walkie-talkie. Presumably the walkie-talkie acted as a cue for aggression.
    32. 32. Evaluation for Cognitive Priming Reductionist explanation! Whilst research into the effects of the media on anti-social behaviour are quite damning, they are in no way conclusive. Research may show a positive correlation, but it does not show cause and effect. Other variables are likely to influence levels of anti-social behaviour shown, e.g.?? Research in this area is reductionist as it simply counts the number of violent acts that occur during an experiment, and ignores other factors. This is because it’s objective and easy to test.
    33. 33. Desensitisation
    34. 34. Desensitisation • Is the idea that the more violent media we see the less we respond to it emotionally – we are desensitised to it • Usually if we see a violent act we have a negative emotional reaction which inhibits us engaging in a violent act • The more we are exposed to it, the less arousal we feel & the less our aggression is inhibited – we no longer feel anxious about violence. Aggressive behaviour becomes acceptable to us • Once we are desensitised it becomes ‘normal’, and we are more likely to engage in violence ourselves
    35. 35. Evidence for desensitisation Belson (1978) studied 1575 13-17 year old males in London. Interviewed about TV programmes they watch, and their aggressive behaviour over the previous six months. •Boys who enjoy high levels of exposure to TV violence when younger committed 49% more acts of serious violence than those who enjoyed little TV violence However, the results showed a curvilinear relationship – with exposure to very high levels of TV violence being associated with 50% less violent behaviour than moderate or high levels!
    36. 36. Belson A03  Retrospective – the boys were asked about their TV viewing and preferences from when they were younger BUT, Belson states that they gave the same answers when asked on two occasion, WHICH SHOWS THAT THE ANSWERS WERE VALID. Actually, it simply shows that their answers were reliable, they may have been inaccurate. How could Belson have checked the validity of the boys’ recall? More recently, Belson’s methodology has been vindicated by researchers
    37. 37. Evaluation of desensitisation Cumberbatch (2001) argues that people might get used to screen violence, but this does not mean they will get used to violence in the real world. He claims that screen violence is more likely to make children ‘frightened’ than ‘frightening’ Link back to theory? There is a gender bias in much of the research carried out, as it focuses on unrepresentative (male) samples. Society has changed a lot, and female aggression is now acceptable, e.g. Lara Croft. Findings which have explored both genders have found that anti-social behaviour is shown by both males and females after early exposure to violence on TV but manifests itself differently – males show direct aggression e.g. fighting; whereas females show indirect aggression e.g. verbal. This suggests that research needs to study males and females separately, but equally.
    38. 38. Video games & Computers Positive effects – Helping behaviour
    39. 39. Video games & Computers Positive effects – Helping behaviour
    40. 40. Video games & Computers Positive effects – Social commitment The majority of those who listed ‘the SIMs’ (a life simulation game) as a favourite game said they learned about problems in society and explored social issues while playing computer games Multiplayer games Halo (battle to save humankind) & the SIMs 64% commited to civic participation; compared to 59% solo players 26% had tried to persuade other how to vote; compared to 19% solo players Those who take part in websites or discussion boards relating to these games were more committed civically and politically
    41. 41. Video games & Computers Evaluating research into the positive effects • Cannot control prior civic commitment and prosocial activity • This lack of random exposure (ie the young choose what to play, they aren’t allocated) limits our ability to make causal claims about their influence Methodology • G&O – 85% of games contain some form of violence. Although prosocial games can cause behavioural shifts in an altruistic direction, people are much less likely to experience this type of game, as they are seen as less attractive • Consequently, the gaming industry are less likely to produce them as they are less likely to sell Less popular choice • Video games have been successfully used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress • ‘Virtual Iraq’ is a fully immersive computer simulation, allowing soldiers to relive and confront psychological trauma in a low threat context • ‘Tetris’ has also been found to minimise the mind’s tendency to flash back to memories of traumatic events as it competes with the same sensory channels needed to form the memories. Therapeutic application
    42. 42. Video games & Computers Evaluating research into the positive effects • Cannot control prior civic commitment and prosocial activity • This lack of random exposure (ie the young choose what to play, they aren’t allocated) limits our ability to make causal claims about their influence Methodology • G&O – 85% of games contain some form of violence. Although prosocial games can cause behavioural shifts in an altruistic direction, people are much less likely to experience this type of game, as they are seen as less attractive • Consequently, the gaming industry are less likely to produce them as they are less likely to sell Less popular choice • Video games have been successfully used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress • ‘Virtual Iraq’ is a fully immersive computer simulation, allowing soldiers to relive and confront psychological trauma in a low threat context • ‘Tetris’ has also been found to minimise the mind’s tendency to flash back to memories of traumatic events as it competes with the same sensory channels needed to form the memories. Therapeutic application
    43. 43. Video games & Computers Evaluating research into the positive effects • Cannot control prior civic commitment and prosocial activity • This lack of random exposure (ie the young choose what to play, they aren’t allocated) limits our ability to make causal claims about their influence Methodology • G&O – 85% of games contain some form of violence. Although prosocial games can cause behavioural shifts in an altruistic direction, people are much less likely to experience this type of game, as they are seen as less attractive • Consequently, the gaming industry are less likely to produce them as they are less likely to sell Less popular choice • Video games have been successfully used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress • ‘Virtual Iraq’ is a fully immersive computer simulation, allowing soldiers to relive and confront psychological trauma in a low threat context • ‘Tetris’ has also been found to minimise the mind’s tendency to flash back to memories of traumatic events as it competes with the same sensory channels needed to form the memories. Therapeutic application
    44. 44. Video games & Computers Positive effects – Self-esteem Participants had three minutes to use their Facebook page, look at themselves in the mirror, or do nothing. Those on Facebook gave much more positive feedback about themselves than the other two groups
    45. 45. Video games & Computers Evaluating the positive effects Self-esteem Spend five minutes discussing why people may be more positive about themselves after spending three minutes on their Facebook page The Hyperpersonal Model suggests that, on Facebook, we select how to represent ourselves •Witty comments •Photographs The feeback we receive (comments, likes, shares) will invariably be positive, therefore raising our self-esteem
    46. 46. Video games & Computers Negative effects Use the handout to make notes on your given area (5 minutes) Increased physiological arousal Reduced helping behaviour Increased aggressionDesensitisation Present your notes to the rest of the group in an interesting manner
    47. 47. Video games & Computers Negative effects – key study Carnegey (2007) Fill in the missing words using this word bank. one of two violentnon-violent watched a film physiological heart rate and galvanic skin response violent lowerdesensitised 20 minutes
    48. 48. Video games & Computers Negative effects – key study Carnegey (2007) Strength or weakness? PEC these evaluation points Control Internal validity Ecological validity Short term effects Ethics?
    49. 49. Video games & Computers Negative effects Video game violence review welcomed (Jonathan Calder, The Psychologist, Nov 2013) Make notes / annotate this article – why is it relevant to your studies? What evaluation issues can you take from it in relation to research in the area of video games?
    50. 50. What have they shown? Evaluation – can we trust the results? Video games & Computers Research into the negative effects Lab experiments Short term increases in levels of physiological arousal, hostile feelings and aggressive behaviour following violent game play compared to non-violent game play ‘Real life’ aggressive behaviour cannot be studied directly due to ethical guidelines, therefore other forms of behaviour must be used instead. Short term effects only Pps blasted their opponents with white noise for longer and rated themselves higher on a hostility scale after playing a violent first person shooter game compared to those who played a slow paced puzzle game. Anderson & Dill (2000)
    51. 51. What have they shown? Evaluation – can we trust the results? Video games & Computers Research into the negative effects Longitudinal studies Anderson et al (2007) surveyed 430 children aged between 7 and 9, at two points during the school year. Children who had high exposure to violent video games became more verbally and physically aggressive and less prosocial (as rated by themselves, peers and teachers) Able to observe real life patterns of behaviour, and document both short term and long term effects. Lack of control – pps may be exposed to other forms of media violence (e.g. TV) during the course of the study, meaning that the effect from violent video game exposure alone is uncertain.
    52. 52. What have they shown? Evaluation – can we trust the results? Video games & Computers Research into the negative effects Meta- analyses Several have found a consistant link between violent gaming and aggressive behaviour Consist of the lab and longitudinal research you have just evaluated This association appears to hold for children and adults. Earlier studies show smaller effect sizes than more recent studies due to games becoming more violent over time
    53. 53. Video games & Computers Research into the negative effects Stress •Charles (2011) focus groups/interviews investigating Facebook habits of 200 UG students in Scotland •12% experienced anxiety linked to their use •The majority of these had significantly more friends than other Facebook users. -Deleting unwanted contacts, pressure to be humorous, and worrying about etiquette toward different friends •32% said rejecting friend requests made them feel guilty •100% reported they disliked receiving friend requests College grades Karpinski (2009) using Facebook every day led students to underachieve by as much as an entire grade compared to those who don’t use the site FB users study 1-5 hours per week; non-users 11-15 hours This link is found even in graduate students
    54. 54. Video games & Computers Evaluating research into the negative effects Causation – personality factors (e.g. distraction) Greenfield (2009) Facebook infantilises the brain, instant gratification, short attention span Support for Facebook causing stress – D’Amato (2010) Asthmatic case study Click me
    55. 55. • Introduction?! Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model
    56. 56. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model Source Credibility: If a source is credible or an expert, this will be more persuasive Appearance: Popular and attractive sources are more effective at persuasion Speed of speech: rapid speech leads to higher persuasion than slow speech
    57. 57. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model Message Content: should not show its intent to persuade, we are not easily persuaded if we know we are being deliberately targeted Fear: moderate levels are best Mastery: allow us to feel that we are in control
    58. 58. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model Medium Audio-visual is better than written adverts, especially if the message is simple
    59. 59. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model Audience Low self-esteem Moderate intelligence – if high or low they are not easily persuaded If intelligent then both sides of argument should be presented Young children are easier to persuade, as older children begin to understand persuasive intent
    60. 60. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model • Fear appeals work • Support from research • Clear predictions • Gender bias • Low EV • Atypical sample Does product endorsement work?
    61. 61. • This research is fraught with complications because an attitude cannot be observed or measured directly. Much research involves the use of questionnaires & surveys that attempt to gauge a person’s beliefs or opinions about the object under consideration. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model
    62. 62. Persuasion: Hovland Yale Model Ideas ?? Audience Medium Message Source
    63. 63. • Introduction?! Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    64. 64. Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    65. 65. Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    66. 66. In the ‘central route’ it is the message itself which is most important. These types of messages require the audience to really think about what it’s trying to get across, following them closely and even having mental counter arguments if they disagree with them. The message must be convincing for communication to be effective via the central route, but it does depend on the individual receiving the message. If they find it personally interesting or relevant to them, and if they are able to fully understand its meaning, they are more likely to access the message via the central route. The usual persuasion outcome for the central route is believed to be strong and resistant to change than those formed through the peripheral route. Central route processing is more likely to occur when the message is seen as personally relevant (e.g. illnesses like cancer) or important (a charity appeal following a disaster). Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    67. 67. • If an audience is likely to focus more on the context of the message than the message itself, then the peripheral route is more likely to be the effective route to communication. These individuals are not motivated to think deeply about the communicated message and are more persuaded by peripheral details such as the attractiveness or credibility of the communicator. When we are not so interested in the argument or if we become distracted then we are less likely to focus on the argument itself, but are more likely to be persuaded by the context or peripheral factors, e.g. celebrity endorsement • It has been assumed that attitudes acquired through the peripheral route are more susceptible to change than those acquired by the central route. Communications that are considered less important by the individual or are less personally relevant are more likely to be processed through the peripheral route. Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    68. 68. Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Evaluation for the Elaboration- Likelihood Model Cognitive misers (Fiske & Taylor) Online shopping – Implications (Lin et al) Western model Health campaigns (Vidrine et al) Individual differences Peripheral = temporary (Penner & Fritzche) Personal relevance (Tesser & Shaffer)
    69. 69. Persuasiveness of TV advertising
    70. 70. Persuasiveness of TV advertising • Need to grab our attention • Therefore, often start with eye-catching or iconic images to ‘grab’ the idle watcher • Olney et al (1991) measured ‘channel hopping’ during adverts and found that unique, eye-catching adverts capture watchers’ attention. Click me
    71. 71. Persuasiveness of TV advertising • Not important for products, but extremely important for attitude change in political and health campaigns • Messages should be clear and simple • For complex messages, written forms are much more effective than TV Click me
    72. 72. Persuasiveness of TV advertising • Classical conditioning to produce a favourable evaluation of the product • People talk about it, which reinforces/repeats • Music • ‘Classical conditioning is the backbone of the emotional appeal’ (Smith & Mackie, 2000)
    73. 73. Persuasiveness of TV advertising • Repetition is key • Zajonc (1968) familiarity is an important part of liking and devised the ‘mere exposure hypothesis’ • Ads should be repeated 2-3 times per week if possible (Tellis, 1987) or split during advert breaks Click me for a research article
    74. 74. Persuasiveness of TV advertising Using the textbook p. 288-9, make notes on the A01 and A02 for the three explanations for the persuasiveness of TV advertising •Hard sell/soft sell •Product endorsement •Pester power
    75. 75. Persuasiveness of TV advertising How do these principles relate back to models of persuasion?
    76. 76. Persuasiveness of TV advertising Homework: Working as group distribute the time brackets over various channels, and make a note of adverts on during that period, who they are aimed at, and if they use any of the strategies we have considered. 4-6pm, 6-8pm, 8-9pm, 9-11pm
    77. 77. The attraction ofThe attraction of celebritiescelebrities
    78. 78. Attraction of Celebrity Who is your favourite celebrity? Why? What do you do as a fan?
    79. 79. What is a celebrity?What is a celebrity? A celebrity is a famous, widely- recognised person who commands a high degree of public and media attention. It has been said that they are well known just for being well known. The rise of celebrity culture is linked to massive growth of reality TV – in particular Big Brother. What is a celebrity?
    80. 80. Attraction of Celebrity Who is the most famous person in the world?
    81. 81. Pathological view:Pathological view: Absorption Addiction Model Attachment styles Positive/healthy view: Jenkins Positive Action view Social psychological explanations
    82. 82. • Relationships with celebritiesRelationships with celebrities are usually entirelyare usually entirely one-one- sided.sided. • The target individual isThe target individual is unaware of the existence ofunaware of the existence of the personthe person who created thewho created the relationship.relationship. • These relationships may beThese relationships may be appealing because they makeappealing because they make few demands,few demands, and theand the individual doesindividual does not run thenot run the risk of criticism or rejectionrisk of criticism or rejection as might be the case in a realas might be the case in a real relationship.relationship. Parasocial Relationships
    83. 83. We perceive them as similar to us We perceive them as real If the viewer is female The viewer is lonely and shy The TV characters perceived as attractive PSRs are more likely if…
    84. 84. 1. Entertainment-Social: talk with friends about celebrities/gossip 2. Intense-Personal: intensity of feelings for celebrities. Can become an obsession 3. Borderline-Pathological: potentially harmful aspects of feelings for celebrities. Can lead to uncontrollable behaviours e.g. stalking Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS)
    85. 85. This 10-items scale measures the social aspect associated with the celebrity worship such as discussion with friends and shared experiences. i.e. My friends and I like to discuss what X has done. A source of social interaction Entertainment-Social
    86. 86. This nine items scale measures the intensity of a person’s feelings towards the celebrity along with obsessional tendencies such as “ I consider X to be my soul mate”. Intense-Personal
    87. 87. This four item scale measures the potentially harmful aspects of feelings towards the celebrity i.e. “ if X asked me to do something illegal as a favour I would probably do it” Uncontrollable behaviours and fantasies Borderline-Pathological
    88. 88. McCutcheon (2002) PSR’s compensate for ‘defects or lacks’ within their own lives. Allows an escape from reality. Gain a sense of personal identity and achieve a sense of fulfilment Most fans stay at level 1 Fans with a weaker sense of personal identity or poor adjustment may “absorb” themselves in a celebrity’s life to gain a stronger sense of identity. PSR are addictive so increasing sense of involvement with the celebrity is needed. Absorption-Addiction Model
    89. 89. This model therefore predicts that there will be an association between poorer mental health and the strength of parasocial relationships. To test this McCutcheon Devised (CAS) Celebrity Attitude Celebrity Attitude Scale Measures 23 attitudes on celebrities. PSR’s into three levels. These can be stages; a person can move up the levels. Absorption-Addiction Model
    90. 90. Ps: UK students (126 males + 181 females in South Yorkshire) Completed 23 item CAS and mental health questionnaire measuring depression, anxiety and social dysfunction Ps on level 1 had some degree of social dysfunction, experienced loneliness in real life. Ps on level 2 scored highly on anxiety and depression. Could not test for level 3 as mental health questionnaire did not include items on serious problems with adjustment. Maltby et al (2001) How can we link back to the theory?
    91. 91. Correlational study Ethics Use of Use of questionnaires questionnaires Maltby et al (2001) evaluation
    92. 92. Support Derrick (2008) People with low self-esteem viewed celebrities as similar to their ideal self; those with high self-esteem it was their actual self. Only seen in PSR, not real life relationships.
    93. 93. However… Schiappa (2007) Sood & Rogers (2000) Loneliness is not a predictor of PSRs Those who are more socially active and socially motivated are more likely to engage in PSRs than those who are not
    94. 94. Evaluation of PSRs Perse & Rubin (1989) There are benefits of PSRs eg social benefits. They provide models of social cultural values and an opportunity to learn cultural values. Their study used soap opera characters. Due to the fact people are exposed to the same characters over and over again, people showed a reduction in uncertainty about social relationships
    95. 95. Attachment styles and Parasocial Relationships • Theory proposes insecure attachment leads to an increased interest in celebrities. • PSRs make no demands, and do not involve criticism or the risk of rejection. Attachment Theory (McCann, 2001)
    96. 96. It is thought that those who can be needy and clingy in relationships may be more likely to develop PSRs. This type of attachment style is known as insecure- resistant (anxious ambivalent) Attachment Theory (McCann, 2001)
    97. 97. Attachment Theory (McCann, 2001)
    98. 98. Sample: 299 students (age 16- 42) Procedure: used celebrity attitude scale and a stalking scale. Measured adult attachment using a relationship questionnaire Measured childhood attachment type through the use of a parental bonding scale based on their recall of the relationship with their parents before the age of 16. McCutcheon (2006) Found: 1.No relationship between insecure attachment and tendency to form PSRs 2.Insecure were more likely to think stalking was unacceptable 3.Relationship between pathological attachment to celebrities and tendency to stalk How can we link back to the theory?
    99. 99. Correlational study Ethics Use of Use of questionnaires questionnaires Use of Use ofretrospective data retrospective data McCutcheon (2006) evaluation
    100. 100. An alternative view… Parasocial relationships serve an important function: Fans enhance lives by taking active & positive role Create social networks (fan clubs) Fans develop sense of appreciation of others people’s talents EvaluationEvaluation Chamberlain et al (2008) examined idea that due to social power and status celebrities received more favourable treatment. However no differences found and social impact of celeb may be less than imagined Richins (1994) individuals identified celebrities to construct their self-concepts and identities Positive / Active View Jenkins & Jenson (1992)
    101. 101. Self-report Likert scale questions Comparison with Comparison with evolutionary? evolutionary? Evaluation of the research Culture bias Culture bias Student Student samples samples
    102. 102. Evolutionary Explanations In Psychology, evolutionary explanations attempt to explain current behaviour as being, at some point in our ancestral history, adaptive to our survival. This therefore has been passed on through natural selection for its survival value. The ability to copy others who show successful behaviour allows us to gain some of the advantages possessed by them.
    103. 103. Evolutionary Explanations The Prestige Hypothesis • Genetic predisposition to copy successful individuals is in the gene pool today because it enabled our ancestors to be more successful • Social learners benefit most if they copy individuals who are highly successful or ‘prestigious’ • In the past, might have been difficult to assess exactly which traits made an individual successful, therefore the most sensible option would be to copy them all • May also benefit from protection or additional resources if they stay physically close to successful individuals
    104. 104. Evolutionary ExplanationsNeophilia • Human beings possess a love of novelty, which is known as neophilia • For females choosing a mate, this would lead to a demand for ever-more creative displays from potential partners • Because musicians, artists and actors display creativity in abundance, we are inevitably drawn to them • Although natural selection favours the development of skills that enhance survival, sexual selection might favour jminds prone to creativity and fantasy • So we attracted to those because of their association with it!
    105. 105. Evolutionary ExplanationsGossip • Exchanging social information about other group members might have been adaptive for our ancestor when they started living in larger social groups – this is what we now refer to as ‘gossip’ • DeBacker (2005) suggests that gossip creates bonds within social groups and helps to initiate and maintain alliances • Also functions to construct and manipulate reputations, particularly those of rivals, and to exchange relevant information about potential mates. • Barkow (1992) suggests that our minds are fooled into regarding media characters as being members of our social network, thus celebrities trigger the same gossip mechanisms that have evolved to keep up with the affairs of ingroup members.
    106. 106. Evolutionary Explanations Mat ch t he eval uat i on t o t he r el evant t heor y, t hen use t he handout t o bul k up your poi nt s – at l east PECs, but PEELs wher e possi bl e pl ease  Difficult to test Speculative Enzyme associated with novelty- seeking tendencies Arbitrary –sexual selection is adaptive, but don’t now why creativity would have been Gossip is useful Nature/ nurture
    107. 107. Parasocial relationships can be fairly innocent, however once a fan goes beyond this stage, and begins to stalk a celebrity, the relationship enters a whole new dimension!!! Intense FandomIntense Fandom
    108. 108. • A Celebrity Attitude Scale was used by Maltby et al (2006) to produce 3 levels of parasocial relationships: – Entertainment-social – Intense-personal – Borderline Pathological • Maltby et al (2004) found that in a sample of 372 people aged 18-47 15% were Entertainment-Social, 5% were Intense- Personal and 2% Borderline Pathological. Celebrity WorshipCelebrity Worship
    109. 109. • Chung & Yue (2003) • Telephone survey of 833 Chinese teenagers • And they found… Celebrity andCelebrity and Developmental OutcomesDevelopmental Outcomes
    110. 110. Maltby et al (2001) found that data from 307 UK adults identified that scores on the Intense-Personal subscale predicted both depression and anxiety scores, which results from failed attempts to escape from the pressures of everyday life. Celebrity andCelebrity and Psychological WellbeingPsychological Wellbeing
    111. 111. Philips (1974) suicide rise after a high-profile celeb suicide… Sheridan (2007) make the point that pathological worshippers are often drawn to more entertaining, even antisocial celebrities, therefore fans of more rebellious celebrities such as Amy Winehouse/Pete Doherty seek to emulate them. Negative ConsequencesNegative Consequences
    112. 112. ImplicationsImplications Wasserman (1984) warns that when reporting celeb suicides, the media should not let the glamour associated with that individual obscure any metal health or drugs problems from which they may have been suffering.
    113. 113. Alternatively,Alternatively, the Evolutionary Explanationthe Evolutionary Explanation • Natural for humans to look up to those who receive attention due to succeeding in society • Ancestors: respect good hunters and elderly • Hunting no longer essential, we look to celebs who have fame & fortune • Serve as valuable role models as they are successful and getting more of what everybody wants
    114. 114. ReligiosityReligiosity • Maltby (2002) • Within Christianity, the Ten Commandments forbid the worship of anyone other than God. • Negative relationship between celebrity worship and religiosity • We need to worship somebody/something CAS Religiosity
    115. 115. Celebrity StalkingCelebrity Stalking Stalking = “the wilful, malicious and repeated following or harassing of another person that threatens his or her safety.” e.g. repeated and persistent attempts to impose unwanted communication and contact – emails, text messaging, phone calls, personal contact. Mullen et al. (1999) = majority of cases start out with prior contact between stalker & victim.
    116. 116. StartingStarting PointPoint In pairs consider the following image and quotations : “You’ve set up a false account in my name where you slate and destroy my character” Think about what this could be a reference to & discuss with your partner.
    117. 117. Katherine Jenkins confronts online stalker on Twitter “You have no right to harass me as you’ve done for the past year” “Sending in a question to be read on live TV to “make me look clueless” was utterly pathetic and you clearly failed.” “After blocking you, you still tried to find a way to get to me and this morning was a step too far.” “The sad thing is you’ll probably enjoy the attention which is why I haven’t mentioned your Twitter name, but I know who you are.”
    118. 118. Private Versus Public Private = there has been a previous romantic or personal relationship between the stalker and the victim Public = there has not been any previous relationship between the stalker and the victim. i.e. Celebrity
    119. 119. • https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=aSLZFdqwh7E Eminem’s song Stan is based on a real person who was obsessed with him and sent him letters to which he never replied. He then recorded a tape and drove drunk off of a bridge. StanStan
    120. 120. • Stalked by Dawnette Knight • Dawnette thought that she loved Catherine’s husband Michael Douglas and set out to kill her. • She sent Catherine threatening letters describing how she would “cut Zeta-Jones into little pieces and feed her to the dogs” • She was sentenced to 3 years in jail. Catherine Zeta-JonesCatherine Zeta-Jones
    121. 121. • Stalked by Mark David Chapman. • Chapman became obsessed with John, and then obsessed with killing him. • Signed a copy of the Catcher In The Rye as his ‘statement’. • He then waited outside Johns apartment and fired 5 shots at him when he arrived home. • Chapman has been in Attica State Prison ever since. John LennonJohn Lennon
    122. 122. Celebrity StalkingCelebrity Stalking Acceptable?Acceptable? Is stalking acceptable today?
    123. 123. Celebrity StalkingCelebrity Stalking Acceptable?Acceptable? Impact on the Victim: -Dressing et al. (2005) – 11.5% of sample had been victims of stalking. -Significant decrease in psychological health. -Most victims had changed their lifestyles since being stalked. -Side effects included – anxiety, agitation, sleep disturbance and depression.
    124. 124. Celebrity StalkingCelebrity Stalking Acceptable?Acceptable? - Use of email, Facebook, Twitter, spamming, and even computer viruses. - Anonymous & increases opportunities (Finn, 2004). - No face to face contact allowing more risks and less fear! - Fisher & Cullen (2000) – Survey of 4000 female students = 13% described being cyber stalked. A02  But is it taken seriously today? Alexy et al. (2005) gave students a real life case of cyberbullying. Only 30% judged it to be stalking.  Sheridan & Grant (2007) Cyberstalking provides less reinforcement, less opportunity to observe the impact and less thrill. Cyberstalking
    125. 125. Celebrity StalkingCelebrity Stalking -There are two types of stalker Love obsession Fixation with a celeb with whom they have no personal relationship. Delusional thought patterns i.e. Schizophrenia Unable to develop normal personal relationships through conventional means,, they retreat into a life of fantasy relationships with individuals they hardly know, if at all. Invent fictional stories, casting celebs as the lead role as their love interest. They act out these fictional scripts in real life Simple obsession Distinguished by some previous personal relationships having existed between stalker and victim before the stalking began
    126. 126. The Attachment Theory of stalking Maintains that attachments developed in childhood are reflected later in life. Suggest that early attachment problems can lead to social and emotional problems later in adulthood. The Absorption-Addiction model A weak sense of identity in people will lead them to be absorbed with a celebrity and develop closeness with him or her. This produces a state of addiction where the individual craves greater closeness to the celebrity and indulges in delusional forms of behaviour. Relational Goal Pursuit theory of stalking. People who engage in the obsessional pursuit of a relationship that is rejected by the other person tend to magnify the importance of their relationship goal. Fans constantly think about the unmet goal and the thoughts become more unpleasant. Excess pursuit behaviours are rationalised and negative consequences not recognised. Theories of StalkingTheories of Stalking
    127. 127. PREOCCUPIED STALKER Poor self image; constantly seeking approval from others’ Stalking results from real or imagined rejection and is an attempt to restore a positive sense of self FEARFUL STALKER Poor self image, but sees others as unsupportive and unreliable. Stalking is a result wanting someone to boost self image but rejecting them because of a lack of trust. Stalking is a way of boosting self image. DISMISSING STALKER Is distant and aloof from others in order to maintain an inflated self image. When relationships fail this person may stalk out of revenge Stalking andStalking and Insecure attachment typesInsecure attachment types
    128. 128. Individuals with an abnormal attachment similar to the pre-occupied attachment style may engage in celebrity stalking because they overvalue others and perceive that contact with celebrities will indicate that they are acceptable and valued, thus challenging their negative views of self Meloy (1996)Meloy (1996)
    129. 129. • Measured stalkers retrospective childhood attachment style and current adult attachment using two self-report methods • Wanted to see if stalkers detained under the Mental Health Act were less securely attache than non-stalkers • Compared to two other groups: 24 detained but no history of stalking; and non-clinical community sample of 33 • Stalkers had significantly more evidence of insecure adult attachment styles than the control group Tonin (2004)Tonin (2004) How can we link back to the theory?
    130. 130. • Using page 233 of the dog book for some guidance, fill in the evaluation page of your booklet EvaluationEvaluation Psychopathology (Maltby, 2006) Anti-stalking legislation Real world application Western bias Socially sensitive - deterministic Student samples

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