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  • 1 Media Psychology Activity Booklet Name ____________________ Form ___________
  • 2
  • 3 Specification: As of September 2011, the specification has been updated in order to make it more streamlined. Please note – your textbooks contain material which is relevant to the old specification as well as the updated version. You will not cover everything in the textbook as it is not all relevant to you! Exam Hint: You will be examined on media psychology, psychopathology (schizophrenia) and research methods June 2015. The exam will be two hours long and consists of three clearly defined sections. It is advised that you spend 35 minutes on both the media and schizophrenia questions, with around 50 minutes spent on the research methods questions. Both the media and schizophrenia questions may be split into several questions worth smaller marks each, or the one main question worth 24 marks each. The research methods questions can be found at the back of the exam paper and often continue onto the back page. You must check that you have answered all questions as failing to lose marks will affect you substantially!!
  • 4 Explanations of media influences on pro-social behaviour Research into the effects of media often focuses on the negative relationship between media violence and aggression. However, there is a substantial body of research to suggest that the media is responsible for a number of pro-social behaviours including altruism, the development of empathy and the reduction of gender and cultural stereotyping. What is meant by the term pro-social behaviour? What are the pro-social messages from the Sesame Street video clip? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Research Studies of prosocial media suggests there are four main behavioural effects of prosocial TV: 1. 2. 3. 4.
  • 5 Why do you think it is important to include pro-social messages and behaviours in children’s television? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Complete the following: 1. Woodard (1999) identified that there were high levels of pro-social behaviour found in programmes for preschool children. Almost ____% of programmes contained at least _____ pro-social lesson, whereas only _____ % of programmes for under 17s contained pro-social behaviour. 2. Rushton (1975) observed children after they had watched pro-social television and found that they demonstrated ___________ attitudes and ____________. This was short-lived however and only lasted ____________________________. 3. Rosenkoetter (1999) found that younger children grasped the __________ _________ shown in an episode of Full House or the Cosby Show. He also found a ___________ correlation between the ____________ of sitcoms watched and the amount of _________________ behaviour.
  • 6 Study/Theory Outline: Evaluation: Social Learning Theory: Parental Mediation: Pro-social versus anti-social messages:  Lack of generalisation  Problems of mixed messages
  • 7 Consider advice that may be given to a TV production company looking to increase prosocial behaviour in viewers (6 marks) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Homework 1: Discuss what psychological research has told us about the influence of the media on pro-social behaviour. [4 marks + 8 marks] ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………..……………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 8 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..………..……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………..…………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………..………..…… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 9 Explanations of media influences on anti-social behaviour The media has long been linked with aggression in children. Huesmann (1996) highlights ways that exposure to media violence might lead to aggression in children. Paik & Comstock (1994) Conducted a meta-analysis of _______ ________ research. They examined ___ studies of the relationship between media violence and __________ behaviour. The studies were carried out between 19__ and 19__, with an age range of ____ years of age. They found a highly significant relationship between TV violence and aggressive behaviour. The greatest effect was evident in _________ children, and the effect for _____ was slightly higher than it was for ________. Observational learning and imitation A01 Observational learning and imitation A02 St. Helena study
  • 10 Desensitisation A02 Cognitive Priming A02 Cognitive Priming A01 Desensitisation A01
  • 11 Homework 2: Outline and evaluate two explanations of media influence on anti-social behaviour. [4 + 8 marks]. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………..…………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..………..……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..…………………………
  • 12 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………..…………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………..………..…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 13 The positive effects of computers and video games on young people Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) found that participants who played a pro-social game displayed significantly more pro-social behaviour than those participants in the aggressive condition. Draw a storyboard of this research in the box below. Further recent research has also found computer games to have a positive effect on social behaviour. Outline the research by Kahne et al. (2008) and Lenhart et al. (2008) below. Kahne et al (2008): Lenhart et al. (2008)
  • 14 Even social networking sites such as Facebook have been found to have a positive influence on our self-esteem. In G__________ et al. (2011) study, the researchers found that participants who spent three __________ on their Facebook _________ gave much more positive feedback in the follow-up task than participants in both the ________ condition and the _________ condition. Evaluating research into the positive effects of computers and video games
  • 15 The negative effects of computers and video games on young people Much research suggests that computers and video games solely have negative effects on young people. Outline the effects which research has highlighted as being caused by consoles such as the X-BOX and computer games. Effects of video/computer game: Notes: Increased Physiological Arousal Reduced Helping Behaviours Increased aggressive behaviour, cognitions and feelings. Desensitisation to Violence
  • 16 Carnegey et al’s (2007) research is one of the key studies into the effect of video games and computers. Complete the cloze task to identify the key elements of this study: 1. Carnagey et al. (2007) examined the effect of playing violence computer games on responses to real-life violence. They allocated participants to _________ conditions. 2. Condition one PPs played a __________ game for 20 minutes whereas condition two PPs played a ____-_____________ game for 20 minutes. 3. All PPs __________ __ _________ which showed real-life violence and had their _______________ responses measured. ( ) 4. Results found that PPs who had played the __________ video game had ________ heart rates when watching the real-life violence. 5. This suggests that people can become ______________ to violence, even after as little as ______________ playing time. 6. Strengths of this research are: 7. It can however, be criticised because:
  • 17 Video game violence review welcomed (Jonathan Calder, The Psychologist, Nov 2013) Make notes / annotate this article – why is it relevant to your studies? What evaluation issues can you take from it in relation to research in the area of video games? During the video game epoch, youth violence across the Western world has plummeted to 40-year lows. Yet concerns about the effect of these games continue to be expressed in academia and beyond. A notable example was the American Psychological Association’s (APA) 2005 resolution calling for ‘all violence [to] be reduced in video games and interactive media marketed to children and youth’. Dr Elizabeth Carll, a past president of the Media Division of the APA, was quoted at the time as saying: ‘Playing video games involves practice, repetition, and being rewarded for numerous acts of violence, which may intensify the learning. This may also result in more realistic experiences which may potentially increase aggressive behavior.’
  • 18 Now the APA board of directors has appointed a task force to review the scientific literature published since this policy statement was adopted, and around 230 psychologists from America and further afield, including some British psychologists, have signed a statement welcoming this move. The psychologists say the APA’s 2005 resolution reached several strong conclusions on the basis of inconsistent or weak evidence and suggest that subsequent research has provided strong evidence that some of those conclusions cannot be supported. They suggest that ‘rigid or ideological’ policy statements can stifle scientific innovation and may inadvertently increase publication bias. They also express concerns about the reliance upon meta-analysis in this field of research and the ‘overgeneralization of controversial laboratory measures of aggression to public health issues and violent crime’. Professor Kevin Durkin from the University of Strathclyde, a BPS Fellow, is one of the signatories of the statement. He says: ‘Psychologists know that the
  • 19 origins, developmental course and manifestations of aggression are complex and rooted in our interactions with the real world. Aggression is one of our (and other, non-video-game playing) species’ most serious and far-reaching problems and it behoves our discipline to study it in its full complexity. Video games provide a convenient newspaper headline solution for those who would prefer not to illuminate more substantial causes of aggression. There are good reasons for studying video games, but these relate to the enormous potential of the medium for entertainment, learning, skills practice and social relatedness.’ The psychologists’ statement says the task force ‘has a tremendous opportunity to change the culture of this research field to one which is less ideological and open to new theories, data and beliefs’ and offers to help it in any way the signatories can.
  • 20 Lab experiments Longitudinal studies Meta-analysis Research into the negative effects of video games What have they shown? Evaluation – can we trust the results? Facebook A01 Facebook A02
  • 21 Homework 3: Discuss what psychological research has told us about some of the effects on young people of playing computer and/or video games. [6 + 8 marks]. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………..…………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..………..……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..………..………………
  • 22 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………..…………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………..……… ..………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………..………..………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………..………..…………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………..………..
  • 23 Media Persuasion: The Hovland Yale Model Carl Hovland worked for the US War Department during World War Two and was responsible for findings ways to persuade the American people to show more support for the troops as the war drew to a close. Hovland discovered that the persuasion could be achieved by the media by focussing on:  Who said what to whom Hovland et al. (1953) argued that attitude change relies more on just attention, comprehension and reactance. In short, different people may need a ‘factor’ in order to change their attitudes. For example, an educated and uneducated group may need a different medium in order for their attitudes to be changed. The four factors which influence attitude change heavily are: – The source – The message – The medium – The audience
  • 24 What might the source, message, medium and target be for these adverts? How have they been designed to appeal to different audiences?
  • 25 Support for the Hovland-Yale Model Criticisms of the Hovland-Yale Model
  • 26
  • 27 Media Persuasion: The Elaboration Likelihood Model An alternative model to the Hovland-Yale model was put forward by Perry and Cacioppo (1981) who suggested that persuasion and attitude change were the result of a more complex process. Their Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM) consists of two routes which vary depending on the personal interest of the message to the target audience. These two routes are the: The Central Route The Peripheral Route
  • 28 An important concept in the ELM is the need for cognition (NC). This is the view that some people have a stronger need than others to know more about a concept/product etc. Petty and Cacioppo (1986) argued that people who are ‘high in need of cognition’ are more likely to use the central route (central processing). These people are more likely to focus on the quality of the argument than the context. Evaluation for the ELM
  • 29 Would you use central or peripheral processing when forming attitudes based on these media messages? Why? Evaluation for the ELM (cont’d)
  • 30 Homework 4: Outline the ELM. Explain how a phone company might use knowledge of this model in a campaign for a new mobile phone.[4 + 6 marks] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 31 Explanations for the persuasiveness of television advertising Companies will pay millions of pounds to advertise their products because they believe that television advertising is highly effective when it comes to persuading their target market to purchase. Television adverts use the psychological principles behind persuasion (already studied) to change views and influence behaviours. Television persuasion works using a simple sequence:
  • 32 According to Olney et al. (1991) this advert demonstrates principle one by: ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………….. Principle two is a vital part adverts for p________ and h_________ campaigns. If people did not understand the advert: Smith and Mackie (2000) argue that “c_______________ c_____________ is the backbone of an emotional appeal.” This is demonstrated in principle three. The final principle of m____ it m________ focuses on repetition. The more that the message it repeated, the more likely it is to sink in. Tellis (1987) argues that adverts should be repeated several times a week, or split during advert breaks.
  • 33 A01 A02 Hard-sell and soft-sell advertising Product endorsement ‘Pester power’  TV audiences have options open to them when it comes to viewing adverts, such as leaving the room or fast-forwarding. This may minimise their impact.
  • 34 Homework 5: Explain what psychological research has told us about the effectiveness of television on persuasion. [5 + 6 marks] ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… How do these principles relate back to models of persuasion?
  • 35 ……………………………………………………..…………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………..………..……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..……………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..……………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..……………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..……………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..……………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..……………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 36 The attraction of celebrity Starter Task: What do you know about these celebrities? Why do you think people are interested in following them? Why are we attracted to celebrities? There are three social psychological explanations of parasocial relationships and celebrity worship. The absorption-addiction model and attachment theory believe that individuals form parasocial relationships because they are unable to make real, fulfilling relationships. The positive-active view takes a more optimistic view.
  • 37 One way in which attraction to celebrities is measured is through the Celebrity Attitude Scale which was created by McCutcheon in 2002. The scale consists of 23 items which are scored on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The scale consists of three sub-scales which look a little like so: Outline these theories. Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: The positive/active view (Jenkins and Jenson, 1992)
  • 38 The absorption- addiction model (McCutcheon et al, 2002) Attachment Theory (McCann, 2001)
  • 39 Supporting Research. Maltby et al. (2001) tested for possible links between celebrity worship and poor mental health using a CAS scale. Outline the research in the box below. Also, the link to self-esteem has been supported by Derrick (2008) who found that ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… However…  Schiappa et al. (2007) ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Sood and Rogers (2000) ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 40 McCutcheon et al. (2006) wanted to see whether there was a link between insecure attachments and celebrity following. Outline their research here. Evaluating research into attraction of celebrity
  • 41 Evolutionary explanations of celebrity worship: A01 A02 Prestige Hypothesis Neophilia Gossip
  • 42 Homework 6: Discuss how evolutionary psychology explains the attraction of celebrity and/or celebrity worship. [4 + 6 marks]. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………..………..………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………..………..…………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………..………..…………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………..………..…………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Discuss how social psychology explains the attraction of celebrity. [ 4 marks + 6 marks]. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 43 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………..………..………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………..………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………..…
  • 44 Research into intense fandom Celebrity worship How is celebrity worship measured? ___________________________________________________________ Higher / lower scores indicate over-identification or obsession with celebrities. Maltby (2003) found that over ___ of a combined sample of students and workers scored above the midpoints of the three subscales of the CAS. A later study found that in a sample of 372 18-47 year olds, __% were on the entertainment-social level, 5% at the ________-_________ level, and less than 2% were considered ____________-_____________. Developmental Outcomes Chung & Yue (2003): Procedure - Lower levels of work or study - Lower levels of self-esteem - Less successful identity achievement - Those who worship key family members, teachers, or other individuals with whom they came into regular contact tended to demonstrate higher levels of self-esteem and educational achievement than teenagers who worshipped TV stars. WHY??
  • 45 Maltby (2001): - Lower levels of psychological wellbeing Negative Consequences Philips (1974) has shown that high-profile celebrity suicides are often followed by increased numbers of suicides among the general population. - WHY? - What should the media do to avoid this? An alternative view is from the evolutionary perspective, which could also explain the worship of celebrities. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  • 46 Religiosity Matlby (2002)…......................................................................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……… Practical Research Difficulties Using the words below, complete these evaluation points: Investigating the psychology of celebrity is incredibly ___________. Psychology in its quest for scientific ____________ has always avoided areas of research that are difficult to undertake in a ______________ way. If it can’t be studied in a _______________, the topic tends to be ignored. The psychology of celebrity is such a case. The research area lends itself to a more qualitative analysis. One further problem is that the area of celebrity is a relatively new one for psychological research. Usually, academics trawl through previous literature to understand where the research is and how they can move it forward. There is little research in this area and thus it does not (as yet form part of ___________ academic psychology (Giles, 2000). Another problem with psychological research is the difficulty of ___________ participants. It is never easy to recruit a large number of members of the ‘normal’ population who have the time to fill in a questionnaire on their behaviour and attitudes. mainstream difficult laboratory obtaining credibility quantitative
  • 47 Celebrity stalking The borderline pathological level of McCutcheon’s (2004) scale identifies when stalking is most likely to occur. Whilst the majority of parasocial relationships are harmless a rare few turn into more sinister behaviours. Stalking involves various kinds of obsessive behaviours but often includes:  Sending letters and gifts in the hope of establishing a close relationships  Non-consensual communication  Malicious threats Cases of celebrity stalking are thought to account for only 1% of all stalking cases (Hoffman and Sheridan, 2008) though they are likely to make the news more than other cases of stalking. Grzegorz Matlok used a rope to clamber on to a balcony and smash his way into the singer’s £10million townhouse and rifle through her bedding earlier this year. Yesterday, during a hearing at Southwark Crown Court, it emerged the 30-year-old, from Poland, had, last June, sneaked into the country estate Madonna used to share with ex-husband Ritchie and was caught putting on his clothes and trying to set other items alight. Matlok was later deported to Poland for mental health treatment, but on March 12 this year flew back to Britain intent on seeing the star. Matlok believed he was in an intimate relationship with the Material Girl, having exchanged ‘special messages’ with her, Southwark Crown court heard yesterday. He claimed he was entitled to live there and told mental health staff if he was released he would go straight back to the property and wait for Madonna ‘in the pool’. Daily Mail – 13th September 2011 Reference: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2036655/Madonna- stalker-Grzegorz-Matlok-tried-Guy-Ritchies-clothes.html#ixzz1YU0XqEXC
  • 48 Stalking is repeated and persistent attempts to impose unwanted communication/contact on another person. The two types of stalker are:  Love obsession  Simple obsession Mullen (2008) looked at 20,000 cases of stalking the royal family. 80% involved people with serious mental illnesses, like schizophrenia. Pick three cases and comment on them in relation to the theory.
  • 49 Kampus & Emmelkamp (2006) found that 25% stalking cases ended up in violence, and 2% to murder. Therefore understanding this phenomena is useful as it will help prevent violent crimes. They also identified 5 types of stalkers:  Erotomanic – usually female with belief that older man is in love with her.  Obsessional – stalks after a real relationship has gone sour  Resentful – stalks to frighten or distress  Predatory – may precipitate sexual attacks  Psychotic – targets famous people (this is clearly the one we are interested in) This suggests the term ‘stalker’ is too broad. Using the research article, make notes on the research conducted by Mullen (1999) Care should be taken when studying people with mental disorders. They should be offered appropriate support, debriefing and therapy. Obsessive, rejected stalkers have been found to respond well to psychotherapy but psychopathic ones have been highly resistant to treatment. This suggests that they are definitely different types.
  • 50 Attachment style - ‘Pre-occupied’ - ‘Fearful’ - ‘Dismissing’ - Meloy (1996) In 1997 Kienlan et al also found that in a small sample of imprisoned US stalkers a majority had lost their primary caregiver in childhood and had a major loss in the 6 months prior to the onset of stalking. McCutcheon et al (2006) also found that those (of the 300 students questioned) who had insecure attachments as children were more likely to say that celebrity stalking behaviour was okay. Tonin (2004) also provided evidence to support the proposition that celebrity stalking might be explained in terms of abnormal attachment. - - - - -
  • 51 Psychopathology Maltby (2006)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Evaluation
  • 52 Homework 7: There is an increasing body of psychological research into the phenomena of intense fandom and celebrity worship. Discuss what psychological research has shown about intense fandom. [4 + 8 marks] ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………..……….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………..……….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 53 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………..……….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………..……….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 54 Tracking My Progress Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment:
  • 55 Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: Title of homework: Marks: My SMART target: Date to be achieved: Achieved? Teacher Comment: