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Resourcd File Resourcd File Presentation Transcript

  • Women and the Media ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WAS THIS THING CALLED SEXISM…
  • But Feminism Put Paid to All of That, Surely…….? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sTDaeR3eWxA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMS4VJKekW8
  • Deconstructing the Message… Can you list the ‘meanings’ behind this apparently harmless advertisement?
  • You May Have Seen…? What Might be the Cumulative Effect of Such Advertisements? Nails/lips – attractive for man Man in suit - breadwinner Clinging onto him - protector Servant of a man Domestic rolePromoting idea of marriage
  • Women and the Media Research: You may think such images, replayed hundreds of times daily on-line, on TV, in magazines, newspapers and billboards have no effect on the way girls and women are perceived in contemporary society, and importantly, how they see themselves. So much for the assumptions, lets see what the research says: The American Psychology Association has found that the more mainstream media girls consume the more they believe beauty and sexiness to be important. Most fashion models are thinner than 98% of American women (Smolak 1996). ‘The deception in these images goes largely unnoticed, which leads women down a road of destructive self-comparison’. (Berberick, 2010) Q1: ‘Beauty’ and ‘sexiness’ are social constructs, ideas rooted in time and place. What definitions of beauty and sexiness currently dominate our time and place? How do such ideas come to be generally accepted by most of the UK population?
  • Women and the Media Berberick (2010): ‘The Objectification of Women in the Mass Media’ • Berberick found: • A clear relationship between the extension of the media’s reach (i.e. the evolution of the internet) and eating disorders and associated deaths, low self esteem as well as increases in the rates of plastic surgery. • In 2010, following a set of three studies that “examined the associations among sexist beliefs, objectification of others, media exposure and three distinct beauty ideals and practices,” researcher Viren Swami and colleagues found that sexism exists where beauty ideals and practices are rigidly consumed and followed, (Swami et al. 2010:367). • ‘The representation of women in the media has always been exploitative. It has, throughout the years, reduced women to being nothing more than objects to be won, prizes to be shown off, and playthings to be abused. It has also created a definition of beauty that women compare themself to. Also, men compare the women in their lives to what they see on television screens, in magazines, and on billboards. Both the self and society has suffered because of the objectification, sexism, exploitation and assessment.’ (Berberick, 2010) • Q2: In what ways might ‘society’ in general have suffered the consequences of media representations of women as well as women in particular?
  • Women and the Media http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/bank-tells-staff-dont-forget-the-lipstick-girls- 1522530.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3370562/Female-accountants-sent-on-course-to-learn- how-to-dress-appropriately.html Y. Yamamiya et al (2005): just 5 minutes exposure to thin and beautiful images of women leads viewers to feel more negatively about their body image in comparison to viewing neutral objects. The same effects have been replicated in studies using music videos and TV commercials. (Bell, Lawton, Dittmar, 2007) Harper and Tiggemann (2008): A 1999 study found that 94% of women’s magazines featured a model/celebrity on their covers who conformed to the thin ‘ideal.’ - Magazines focused on improving your life by changing appearance - Implication that thin = lovable, happier, sexier. - Australia: the researchers found that women who view magazine adverts featuring thin models felt more dissatisfied and anxious about their bodies, and viewed themselves in more objectified ways.
  • Women and the Media Annual expenditure on books, magazines, special foods, classes and other aids to weight loss: UK - £11 billion US – between £40 - £100 billion. ‘We are in the midst of a violent backlash against feminism that uses images of female beauty as a political weapon against women’s advancement.’ (Naomi Wolf) See link below for how young US feminists are fighting back. Q3: In what way might sexist definitions of beauty be used to undermine female ‘advancement’, as Naomi Wolf argues? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gJrFS_40iA (Bell, Lawton, Dittmar, 2007): Refer to evidence that after exposure to Barbie dolls, 5 – 7 year olds were found to have a desire to be skinnier. Becker et al (2202):In Fiji, a country where dieting has traditionally been discouraged and where disordered eating is rare, researchers found a significant increase in disordered eating following the introduction of Western TV, to the islands. The percentage of girls scoring high on tests of disordered eating increased from 12.7 to 29.2, while the proportion of girls who reported that they made themselves vomit in order to control their weight increased from 0 – 11.3%. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2018900.stm See link below: Why might the male professional panellists have been so surprised about Susan Boyle’s assigning talents? Does their reaction tell us about anything about how women are judged more broadly? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxPZh4AnWyk
  • Some Consequences… http://www.surrey.ac.uk/mediacentre/press/2011/69535_are_sex_offenders_and_lads_mags_u sing_the_same_language.htm?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter http://www.care2.com/causes/whats-the-difference-between-a-mens-magazine-and-a- rapist.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-18187449 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-21698522 1 in 3 teenage girls tell of sexual abuse by their boyfriends • Sexual exploitation rife in relationships, says NSPCC • Quarter of young women are beaten up, poll shows Reported in the Guardian, 2009.
  • And Some Fighting Talk… http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embe dded&v=iLYOdm1_gik&utm_source=supporter_messag e&utm_medium=email
  • And ‘liberal’ Hollywood? http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/dec/01/hollywood-women- inequality-film-industry
  • ‘Symbolic Annihilation’ – George Gerbner http://www.xpowerpoint.com/Cultivation-Theory--University-of-Maryland-College-Park--PPT.html ‘Symbolic annihilation’ is used to highlight the erasure of peoples in popular communication. George Gerbner coined the term to describe the “absence,” “condemnation,” or “trivialization” ( Tuchman 1978) of a particular group in the media. Generally applied to women, racial and sexual minorities, symbolic annihilation points to the ways in which poor media treatment can contribute to social disempowerment and in which symbolic absence in the media can erase groups and individuals from public consciousness. To illustrate, popular communication often overlooks, stereotypes, or ridicules black people, who have been confined to the roles of coons, mammies, jezebels, brutal bucks, etc. ( Bogle 2001 ). The use of language in the media also contributes to the trivialization and condemnation of racial groups such as black people in popular communication. For example, in a critical, cultural analysis of the → news , it was concluded that reporters may ignore the effects of (neo-)colonialism by describing African countries as “third world” and “underdeveloped” rather than “overly exploited.” Comparatively, the US and western Europe are referred to as “first world” and as “superpowers” ( Moore 1992 ).
  • ‘Symbolic Annihilation’ – George Gerbner Gaye Tuchman (1978) divided the concept of symbolic annihilation into three aspects: omission, trivialisation and condemnation. This multifaceted approach to coverage not only vilifies communities of identity, but work to make members invisible through the explicit lack of representation in all forms of media ranging from film, song, books, news media and visual art. “Representation in the fictional world signifies social existence; absence means symbolic annihilation.” (Gerbner & Gross, 1976, p. 182)