Phineas Gage suffers brain damage when
an iron pole pierces his frontal lobe. His
personality was changed but his intellect
remained intact suggesting that an area of
the brain in the frontal lobe plays a role in
Charles Darwin publishes the On the
Origin of Species, detailing his view of
evolution and expanding on the theory
of 'Survival of the Fittest’.
Wilhelm Wundt founds the first
experimental Psychology lab in
Leipzig, Germany, marking the
moment Psychology is born.
Sigmund Freud begins performing
therapy in Vienna, Austria.
Jean Piaget publishes his research
into childhood cognitive
Edward Thorndike develops operant
Ivan Pavlov trains a dog to salivate on
hearing the sound of a bell. Pavlov's
dog becomes the first example of
Henry Murray develops and publishes
the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
John Watson and Rosalie Raynor
publish the Little Albert experiments,
demonstrating that phobias can be
learned through classical
Aaron Beck publishes a model of
depression that suggests thoughts
play a significant role. He is seen as
the founder of cognitive behavioural
Egas Moniz publishes his work on
frontal lobotomies as a treatment for
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
is used on a human patient for
the first time.
Albert Ellis publishes Reason and
Emotion in Psychotherapy, leading
to the development of rational
emotive behaviour therapy (REBT).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (DSM) was
published by The American
Psychiatric Association marking the
beginning of modern mental illness
The Code of Ethics for Psychologists
is developed by the American
Albert Bandura introduces the idea
of observational learning in the
development of behaviour.