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  1. 1. Bolognani (2007) there is a myth of return- ethnic groups are attached to their country of origin and believe that one day they will return there. A commitment to religion resulting in extra time out of school affects results. [CULTURE] Briggs et al. (2006) ethnic groups improve more while they are at school and GCSE figures hide this improvement. [CULTURE] Archer and Francis (2006) cultural factors explain the success of British- Chinese students, parents continually talked to their children about their future educational choices and invested time and money in their children. [CULTURE] Sewell (1997) African-Caribbean boys lack male roles models due to the high levels of male desertion. Peer-group pressure is another factor. [CULTURE] Swann (1985) at least 50% of ethnic attainment differences are explained by social class. [POVERTY] Platt (2007) argues that the poverty some ethnic groups experience is due to low qualifications, discrimination in the workplace and limited savings. [POVERTY] The CRE (1992) found that Asian students were put into lower sets because teachers’ judgements were used to decide which GCSE students would be placed in, despite having the same assessment scores. [SCHOOL] Coard said the school curriculum is ethnocentric. White history and white literature dominate the curriculum. Other cultures are devalued; racism from White students is dealt with ineffectively. [SCHOOL] Wright (1992) found teacher racism. Teacher held labels of Asian students and left them out of discussions or spoke to them in simple terms. [SCHOOL] Gilborn and Youdell (2000) argue that teachers’ racist assumptions led them to believe that African- Caribbean students would cause trouble and they would view this behaviour as challenging. [SCHOOL] In 2007, Channel 4 found over 1000,000 incidents of racist attacks in schools had been documented, this showed an increase. Mirza argues that this shows a problem within schools and pupils are likely to underperform due to bullying. [SCHOOL] Strand (2008) argued that schools were institutionally racist. Teachers were less likely to enter African- Caribbean pupils for higher-tier tests at 14 in Science and Mathematics. This was due to labelling them as disruptive. [SCHOOL]

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