1
Crime andCrime and
DevianceDeviance
2
WhichWhich sociologicalsociological
perspectivesperspectives wouldwould
have a view onhave a view on crimecrime
and devi...
3
Define:Define:
a) Crimea) Crime
b) Devianceb) Deviance
4
Crime and Deviance:Crime and Deviance:
FunctionalistFunctionalist
TheoryTheory
5
What vocabulary identifies theWhat vocabulary identifies the
those featuresthose features that arethat are
essentialesse...
6
Essential featuresEssential features
Social solidarity / cohesionSocial solidarity / cohesion
Social stability / orderSo...
7
Crime andCrime and
deviance!deviance!
8
Functionalists argue that society hasFunctionalists argue that society has
fourfour keykey NEEDSNEEDS which are met bywh...
9
If theIf the subsystemssubsystems failfail to meetto meet
thesethese needsneeds, society, society “falls“falls
apart” / ...
10
Durkheim: Key Quote:Durkheim: Key Quote:
“Crime is“Crime is normalnormal......
anan integralintegral
((essentialessenti...
11
Durkheim also saw crime /Durkheim also saw crime /
deviance asdeviance as inevitable,inevitable,
relativerelative andan...
12
Memory hook...Memory hook...
NNowow II’m’m rrunningunning II
ffeeleel uultraltra hhealthyealthy
soso N I R I F U HN I R...
13
Memory hook...Memory hook...
NNormalormal IInevitablenevitable
RRelativeelative IIntegralntegral
FFunctionalunctional U...
14
Paired DiscussionPaired Discussion --
explain how crime /explain how crime /
deviance can be seendeviance can be seen
t...
15
ReviewReview – Crime is– Crime is
seen by Durkheim toseen by Durkheim to
bebe “functional”“functional” ––
howhow??
16
The functions of crime:The functions of crime:
Reinforcing boundaries andReinforcing boundaries and
encouraging sociale...
17
These functions areThese functions are “hidden” /“hidden” /
not immediately obvious,not immediately obvious,
rather tha...
18
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
•Social solidarity, order, stability,
cohesion, integration
•Collective consci...
19
According toAccording to
functionalists,functionalists, whatwhat
might happenmight happen if theif the
levels of crime ...
20
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
Key Concept –
Anomie… social
sickness, normlessness, a
feeling of uncertainty,...
21
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
Why might today’s
society suffer from
anomie?
Main reason…
22
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
_ i _ e _ _ i _ y
which leads
to…?
23
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
A collapse of _ _ o
_ i a _ _ o _ i _ a _ i _ y
and of the
_ o _ _ e _ _ i _ e...
24
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
Secondary source
analysis tasks
25
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
How might others
criticise Durkheim’s
ideas?
26
Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas:
Durkheim does not actually look at what the causes of crime
might be – just th...
27
Criticisms of Durkheim’s ideas:
Overview
For who/what is crime functional?
What issues does Durkheim ignore?
What level...
28
However,
Merton does...
29
... by introducing us
to the concept
“strain”
30
What might
Merton mean by
strain?
31
Merton argues that there are “structural”
factors (unequal opportunities) and
“cultural” factors (too much emphasis on
...
32
Merton states that deviance
occurs when individuals find
that they cannot achieve the
success goals of society in the
n...
33
Key Quote – Merton 1938:
“The social and cultural structure generates
pressure for socially deviant behaviour on
people...
34
Review Task: Think back to last
lesson (and to the Education topic:
Woods’ pupil responses to labelling) …
How might pe...
35
_ o _ _ o _ _
I _ _ o _ a _ e
_ i _ u a _ i _ e
_ e _ _ e a _
_ e _ e _
36
Conform
Innovate
Ritualise
Retreat
Rebel
37
Task 1: think of a short description
for each of these five responses:
Conform
Innovate
Ritualise
Retreat
Rebel
Task 2:...
38
Merton’s Types of Adaptions to the Strain to Anomie
Identify a + or a – for each response, regarding the goals and
the ...
39
Merton’s Types of Adaptions to the Strain to AnomieMerton’s Types of Adaptions to the Strain to Anomie
+ or – for each ...
40
What might those who experience
“strain” cause to happen in
society?
… we have learned this concept when
studying Durkh...
41
The Fruit Machine
Analogy…
Laurie Taylor
42
‘It is as though individuals in society are playing
a gigantic fruit machine - but the machine is
rigged, and only some...
43
“… no-one asked who put the fruit
machine there in the first place, or
who takes the profits.” (ie – who
makes the rule...
44
Marxists… they argue
that Merton does not
address the issue of
power AT ALL. Marxists
would argue that the
reason that ...
45
The ruling class exploit and
oppress them, preventing
them from improving their
social position.
They “put the machine
...
46
Can you bring this up to
date and explain, from
the “conflict” (ie
Marxist) point of view,
why, in today’s society,
som...
47
Seabrook (1990) has a similarly “conflict” view
on the cause of crime…
The upsurge in crime is a logical response by
ce...
48
Re-write Seabrook’s
response in your own
words… what is he
trying to say?
49
What might be the
strengths and
limitations of
Merton’s work?
50
Criticisms of Merton: can you identify WHO the critics
are?
Does not explain non-utilitarian crime (ie crime where ther...
51
Home Learning
Preparation
Activity:
52
“Subcultural
Strain”
Theories
Set Text P76-78 AND
photocopied info P 226-9
53
In groups as allocated: create a sugar paper
presentation illustrating the work of
the Subcultural Strain Theorists
•Al...
54
Student
Presentations
55
Recent
“Strain”
Theories
56
Pair “Getting You Thinking” tasks:
a)What other goals might young people
(including those from the middle class)
have, ...
57
Key Concept –
Institutional
Anomie
Set Text P.76
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  1. 1. 1 Crime andCrime and DevianceDeviance
  2. 2. 2 WhichWhich sociologicalsociological perspectivesperspectives wouldwould have a view onhave a view on crimecrime and devianceand deviance??
  3. 3. 3 Define:Define: a) Crimea) Crime b) Devianceb) Deviance
  4. 4. 4 Crime and Deviance:Crime and Deviance: FunctionalistFunctionalist TheoryTheory
  5. 5. 5 What vocabulary identifies theWhat vocabulary identifies the those featuresthose features that arethat are essentialessential to theto the effectiveness/smooth runningeffectiveness/smooth running of society - according toof society - according to functionalistsfunctionalists such assuch as Durkheim?Durkheim?
  6. 6. 6 Essential featuresEssential features Social solidarity / cohesionSocial solidarity / cohesion Social stability / orderSocial stability / order Collective consciousness / ValueCollective consciousness / Value consensusconsensus Social integrationSocial integration Social controlSocial control Social harmonySocial harmony Social Capital – pride … in communitySocial Capital – pride … in community … and… and
  7. 7. 7 Crime andCrime and deviance!deviance!
  8. 8. 8 Functionalists argue that society hasFunctionalists argue that society has fourfour keykey NEEDSNEEDS which are met bywhich are met by various “various “subsystemssubsystems”:”: GGoal attainmentoal attainment PPoliticalolitical AAdaptationdaptation EEconomicconomic IIntegrationntegration CCulturalultural LLatency/Pattern Maintenanceatency/Pattern Maintenance KKinshipinship
  9. 9. 9 If theIf the subsystemssubsystems failfail to meetto meet thesethese needsneeds, society, society “falls“falls apart” / breaks down /apart” / breaks down / collapsescollapses.. Levels of crime and devianceLevels of crime and deviance that arethat are too hightoo high, are, are potentially damaging topotentially damaging to society.society. However…However…
  10. 10. 10 Durkheim: Key Quote:Durkheim: Key Quote: “Crime is“Crime is normalnormal...... anan integralintegral ((essentialessential) part) part ofof allall healthyhealthy societies”societies”
  11. 11. 11 Durkheim also saw crime /Durkheim also saw crime / deviance asdeviance as inevitable,inevitable, relativerelative andand universaluniversal Memory hook...Memory hook...
  12. 12. 12 Memory hook...Memory hook... NNowow II’m’m rrunningunning II ffeeleel uultraltra hhealthyealthy soso N I R I F U HN I R I F U H What do these stand for?What do these stand for?
  13. 13. 13 Memory hook...Memory hook... NNormalormal IInevitablenevitable RRelativeelative IIntegralntegral FFunctionalunctional UUniversalniversal HHealthyealthy
  14. 14. 14 Paired DiscussionPaired Discussion -- explain how crime /explain how crime / deviance can be seendeviance can be seen to beto be allall these things.these things.
  15. 15. 15 ReviewReview – Crime is– Crime is seen by Durkheim toseen by Durkheim to bebe “functional”“functional” –– howhow??
  16. 16. 16 The functions of crime:The functions of crime: Reinforcing boundaries andReinforcing boundaries and encouraging socialencouraging social solidarity/cohesionsolidarity/cohesion Stopping society stagnating orStopping society stagnating or ‘atrophying’ by bringing about social‘atrophying’ by bringing about social changechange A warning signalA warning signal A safety deviceA safety device
  17. 17. 17 These functions areThese functions are “hidden” /“hidden” / not immediately obvious,not immediately obvious, rather than beingrather than being obvious / upobvious / up frontfront - what words might- what words might functionalists use to describefunctionalists use to describe the different sorts ofthe different sorts of functions?functions?
  18. 18. 18 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: •Social solidarity, order, stability, cohesion, integration •Collective conscience/value consensus •Crime as healthy, integral, universal, relative, inevitable, normal •Anomie (‘social sickness’) •Crime as functional / latent nature of these functions •The role of punishment
  19. 19. 19 According toAccording to functionalists,functionalists, whatwhat might happenmight happen if theif the levels of crime werelevels of crime were too hightoo high??
  20. 20. 20 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: Key Concept – Anomie… social sickness, normlessness, a feeling of uncertainty, insecurity, a situation where “anything goes”…
  21. 21. 21 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: Why might today’s society suffer from anomie? Main reason…
  22. 22. 22 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: _ i _ e _ _ i _ y which leads to…?
  23. 23. 23 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: A collapse of _ _ o _ i a _ _ o _ i _ a _ i _ y and of the _ o _ _ e _ _ i _ e _ o _ _ _ i o u _ _ e _ _
  24. 24. 24 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: Secondary source analysis tasks
  25. 25. 25 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: How might others criticise Durkheim’s ideas?
  26. 26. 26 Durkheim: Key ideas:Durkheim: Key ideas: Durkheim does not actually look at what the causes of crime might be – just that it is functional, healthy, universal, inevitable and relative. He ignores the issues of class/power, gender, ethnicity etc. He overlooks the fact that, although crime may be seen to be functional for society, and for the criminals, it has significant dysfunctions for individuals who are victims. Durkheim suggests that crime/deviance strengthen social solidarity – but overlooks how it can also isolate people – eg females/the elderly who may fear leaving their homes because of fear of crime. Durkheim argues that a certain amount of crime/deviance is healthy for society – but does not indicate how much is the right amount.
  27. 27. 27 Criticisms of Durkheim’s ideas: Overview For who/what is crime functional? What issues does Durkheim ignore? What level of crime/deviance is “healthy”? Crime/deviance does not always promote social solidarity - it may isolate people eg forcing women to stay indoors for fear of attack. Durkheim does not look at the causes of crime...
  28. 28. 28 However, Merton does...
  29. 29. 29 ... by introducing us to the concept “strain”
  30. 30. 30 What might Merton mean by strain?
  31. 31. 31 Merton argues that there are “structural” factors (unequal opportunities) and “cultural” factors (too much emphasis on success goals and too little emphasis on using legitimate means to achieve them) at play in society. Strain, and subsequently deviance and/or crime, occurs when these factors are “out of synch” and there is a tension between them.
  32. 32. 32 Merton states that deviance occurs when individuals find that they cannot achieve the success goals of society in the normal way. There is “strain” between the goals and people’s abilities to achieve them.
  33. 33. 33 Key Quote – Merton 1938: “The social and cultural structure generates pressure for socially deviant behaviour on people variously located in the structure. Some members reject universal values (value consensus / collective conscience) in order to achieve individual success.” A “by any means possible” mentality develops
  34. 34. 34 Review Task: Think back to last lesson (and to the Education topic: Woods’ pupil responses to labelling) … How might people behave if they could not achieve society’s goals in the usual way?
  35. 35. 35 _ o _ _ o _ _ I _ _ o _ a _ e _ i _ u a _ i _ e _ e _ _ e a _ _ e _ e _
  36. 36. 36 Conform Innovate Ritualise Retreat Rebel
  37. 37. 37 Task 1: think of a short description for each of these five responses: Conform Innovate Ritualise Retreat Rebel Task 2: How do people respond in relation to the goals and means? Do they reject or accept?
  38. 38. 38 Merton’s Types of Adaptions to the Strain to Anomie Identify a + or a – for each response, regarding the goals and the means GoalsGoals MeansMeans ConformityConformity InnovationInnovation RitualismRitualism RetreatismRetreatism RebellionRebellion
  39. 39. 39 Merton’s Types of Adaptions to the Strain to AnomieMerton’s Types of Adaptions to the Strain to Anomie + or – for each response, regarding the goals and the means: GoalsGoals MeansMeans ConformityConformity ++ ++ InnovationInnovation ++ -- RitualismRitualism -- ++ RetreatismRetreatism -- -- RebellionRebellion -/+-/+ -/+-/+
  40. 40. 40 What might those who experience “strain” cause to happen in society? … we have learned this concept when studying Durkheim, but you will learn more about this concept in the Unit 3 module where it explains the choice some people make to join New Religious Movements (NRMs).
  41. 41. 41 The Fruit Machine Analogy… Laurie Taylor
  42. 42. 42 ‘It is as though individuals in society are playing a gigantic fruit machine - but the machine is rigged, and only some players are consistently rewarded. The deprived resort to using foreign coins or magnets to increase their chances of winning (innovation), or play on mindlessly (ritualism), give up the game (retreatism), or propose a new game altogether (rebellion).   However, in the analysis, no-one asked who put the fruit machine there in the first place, or who takes the profits’.   (Laurie Taylor 1971)
  43. 43. 43 “… no-one asked who put the fruit machine there in the first place, or who takes the profits.” (ie – who makes the rules and who benefits from them) Which sociologists might ask this question and have an answer for it? What would their answer be?  
  44. 44. 44 Marxists… they argue that Merton does not address the issue of power AT ALL. Marxists would argue that the reason that the lower class experience strain is because….
  45. 45. 45 The ruling class exploit and oppress them, preventing them from improving their social position. They “put the machine there in the first place, and they take the profits”.
  46. 46. 46 Can you bring this up to date and explain, from the “conflict” (ie Marxist) point of view, why, in today’s society, some people commit crime?
  47. 47. 47 Seabrook (1990) has a similarly “conflict” view on the cause of crime… The upsurge in crime is a logical response by certain sections of the poor, to the exacerbation of their condition….they are not only relatively poorer, but they also see the good life, which requires ever more money, receding from them at an ever accelerating pace. Their only hope is to determine their own fate, even if this means rectifying, by private acts of plunder, their disadvantage and rejection’.  
  48. 48. 48 Re-write Seabrook’s response in your own words… what is he trying to say?
  49. 49. 49 What might be the strengths and limitations of Merton’s work?
  50. 50. 50 Criticisms of Merton: can you identify WHO the critics are? Does not explain non-utilitarian crime (ie crime where there is no financial gain – eg graffiti, vandalism, joy riding, murder, rape etc) His theory is seen to be “over-deterministic” – it over- predicts the significance of money as the cause of crime, and that the working class will, therefore experience the most strain. Many of the working class never commit crime, and there is no value consensus regarding money as a “goal”. He makes no reference to white collar crime (the crimes of the middle/upper classes) He takes Official Statistics at face value – so over predicts working class crime. He ignores the issue of power He only looks at the individual’s response and overlooks the role of group deviance. Merton’s theory is gender blind – overlooks issue of gender
  51. 51. 51 Home Learning Preparation Activity:
  52. 52. 52 “Subcultural Strain” Theories Set Text P76-78 AND photocopied info P 226-9
  53. 53. 53 In groups as allocated: create a sugar paper presentation illustrating the work of the Subcultural Strain Theorists •Albert Cohen P. 76/7 and 226 Chloe H, Kerry and Harry •Cloward and Ohlin P. 77/8 and 226/7 Joel, Ashley, Amy •The Chicago School P. 77 (yellow box) Bethany* •Walter Miller P. 78 and 227/8 Ellie and Chloe D •Matza P228/9 Bethany*, Holly and Ashlea
  54. 54. 54 Student Presentations
  55. 55. 55 Recent “Strain” Theories
  56. 56. 56 Pair “Getting You Thinking” tasks: a)What other goals might young people (including those from the middle class) have, other than monetary success? b)What do you understand by the phrase “Winner Takes All (WTA) Mentality”, and how does it explain crime in capitalist societies? c)How might institutions encourage this sort of WTA mindset? d)What might be the relationship between welfare provision and crime / deviance?
  57. 57. 57 Key Concept – Institutional Anomie Set Text P.76

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