Study Findings/Conclusions Evaluation
Shepard
(1967)
- Showed
participants
612
memorable
pictures one
at a time
- 1hour la...
Capacity of STM
The Capacity of LTM is infinite
Miller (1956): 7+ or –2
Findings/Conclusions:
• people cope reasonably wel...
Brandimore et al (1992): Visual encoding in STM
Procedure:
•View images and remember what it would look
like with sections...
The Multi-store
model of memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
Key Features:
1. Structural model
2. Single unitary stores (S...
The Working
Memory Model
AO1
Baddeley and Hitch
Key Feature Description
Working memory replaces STM Breaks down short term...
The Working
Memory Model
AO2
Baddeley and Hitch (1976)
• gave participants two tasks to do simultaneously
• Task 1 involve...
An account given by
people of an event they
have witnesses
Can be affected by many
psychological factors:
Anxiety/stress
R...
Smashed Hit Control
group
yes 16 7 6
no 34 43 44
Verb Mean speed estimate
Smashed 40.8
Collided 39.3
Bumped 38.1
Hit 34
co...
EWT
evaluation
Validity:
• laboratory experiments such as those carried
out by Loftus may not represent real life because
...
Children as witnesses:
• Parker and Carranza (1989) compared primary school
students to college students in their ability ...
Young photos Middle-aged Older
Young
participants
90% 87% 85%
Middle-aged 85% 93% 87%
Older 56% 62% 66%
Factors influencin...
The procedure designed for
use in police interviews that
involve witnesses
Fisher and Geiselman (1992): Cognitive interview technique:
Component What occurs at this stage?
1. Report everything Enco...
Individual Differences – Mello and Fisher
(1996):
• can be particularly useful when interviewing
older witnesses
• compare...
Visual imagery mnemonics
Method of loci:
 first described by the Greeks
• mental techniques used to help remember points
...
Limitations of mnemonic strategies:
• most studies have taken place in artificial
laboratory conditions, using materials b...
Developmental Psychology
• scientific study of changes that occur
throughout a human’s life
• primarily concerned with
inf...
Monotropy:
• infants form one particular
attachment of special importance
– usually mother
• monotropy is the bias towards...
The Temperament Hypothesis (Kagan,
1984):
Explanation:
An innately trusting and friendly personality
could be the prime f...
Schaffer and Emerson (1964): Glasgow Babies and
responsiveness
What did they find:
Infants were not most attached to the ...
Types of
Attachment
AO1
Episodes (abt. 3min) Behaviour assessed
1. Parent plays with
infant
2. Parent sits while
infant pl...
Types of
Attachment
AO2
Validity:
Lab Experiment:
 lacks ecological validity – not realistic evidence
Main and Weston (19...
Cultural Variations in
Attachment
AO1
The Strange Situation study has been repeated to test cultural variations in attachm...
Cultural Variations in
Attachment
AO2
Attachment types are based in American culture
(Rothbaum et al, 2000) e.g. secure ba...
LAURA
SEPARATED FROM MOTHER WHEN
ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL FOR 8 DAYS
Mediating
variables:
 Visited
occasionally by
parents
Sh...
CRITICISM EXPLANATION WHY A STRENGTH/LIMITATION
Validity: Naturalistic observations
Validity: Characteristics of children
...
Failure to form attachment
Isolated Children case studies:
Genie
• locked in a room by father until age
13½ because he tho...
Privation
AO2
Problems with Genie and Czech Twins case studies:
We don’t know whether Genie was retarded from
birth, nor ...
The Impact of
Daycare
AO1
Development of sociability  tendency to seek and enjoy the
company of others and to make person...
The Impact of
Daycare
AO2
Other factors affect aggression:
• a mother’s sensitivity to her child
was a better indicator of...
Influence of
Research in
Attachment
INFLUENCE:
1. Improving quality of day care
• supports Bowlby’s theory of attachment
...
Influence of
Research into Day
Care
How do Bowlby and Ainsworth support the
importance of sensitivity care in day care?
BO...
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  1. 1. Study Findings/Conclusions Evaluation Shepard (1967) - Showed participants 612 memorable pictures one at a time - 1hour later: they were shown some of the pictures along with other pictures and had almost perfect recognition - 4 months later: able to remember/recognise 50% of photos limitations • the pictures are not everyday life pictures, they are random • low validity Duration of STM & LTM Duration of STM Peterson and Peterson (1959) Duration of LTM Study Findings/Conclusions Evaluation Bahrick et al (1975) - Asked people of various ages to put names to faces from their high school yearbook - 48 years later: People were about 70% accurate Strengths: • real life and realistic and has meaning to participants • high validity Procedure: • enlisted help of 24 students at their university • experimenter said a consonant syllable to the participant, followed by a 3 digit number • the syllable had no meaning • after hearing the syllable and number, the participant had to count backwards from their number in either 3’s or 4’s until told to stop • the participant then had to recall the syllable • on each trial, the time spent counting backwards was a different number of seconds (interval) Findings/Conclusions: • participants remembered about 90% when there was only a 3 second interval • remembered about 2% when there was an 18 second interval When rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts about 20 seconds Evaluation: • Validity (limitations)  Not very realistic Psychologists are only studying one kind of memory (syllables and words)  most of the time our memory is linked with other things, however there are times that we remember words e.g. Ordering drinks in a pub or remembering a phone number •Other research Marsh et al (1997)  suggested that when participants do not expect to be tested after an interval, forgetting may occur after just 2 seconds  suggests our understanding of the duration of STM may not be as clear-cut as first thought
  2. 2. Capacity of STM The Capacity of LTM is infinite Miller (1956): 7+ or –2 Findings/Conclusions: • people cope reasonably well with counting 5 even dots flashed onto a screen but not many more than this. • the same is true if you are asked to recall musical notes, digits, letters and even words • Miller also found that people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters. Chunks: • we chunk things together to remember more • grouping sets of digits or letters into meaningful units or chunks e.g. PCUCASBBCEUAQAJCBEU [PC][UCAS][BBC][EU][AQA][JCB][EU] Evaluation: • Simon (1974) People had shorter memory span for large chunks such as 8 word phrases than smaller chunks such as one syllable words • Cowan (2001) STM is likely to be limited to about 4 chunks  may not be as extensive as was first thought • Individual differences Effected by age – the capacity of STM is not the same for everyone •Implications Research has many applications  chunking maximises efficiency of memory  e.g. Initial letters of a postcode
  3. 3. Brandimore et al (1992): Visual encoding in STM Procedure: •View images and remember what it would look like with sections of images removed Findings/Conclusions: • found that participants used visual encoding in STM if they were given a visual task and were prevented from doing any verbal rehearsal (they had to say ‘la la la’) before performing a visual recall task Evaluation: • As verbal rehearsal was prevented, STM was encoded visually Baddeley (1996): Acoustic vs Semantic encoding in STM &LTM Procedure: • 4 groups (A,B,C,D) were shown a different list of words • These were tested in STM and then LTM LIST A: acoustically similar LIST B: acoustically dissimilar LIST C: semantically similar LIST D: semantically dissimilar Findings/Conclusions: • STM had more difficulty recalling acoustically similar words • LTM had more difficulty recalling semantically similar words Evaluation: • STM encodes acoustically • LTM encodes semantically Acoustic, Semantic and Visual Encoding in STM & LTM Encoding acoustically: information is represented as sounds Encoding semantically: information is represented by it’s meaning Further Evaluation: Encoding in LTM: • Frost (1972) Showed that long term recall was related to visual as well as semantic categories •Nelson and Rothbart (1972)  Found evidence of acoustic encoding
  4. 4. The Multi-store model of memory Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Key Features: 1. Structural model 2. Single unitary stores (SM, STM, LTM) 3. Characteristics (capacity, duration) 4. Linear Direction 5. Attention and Rehearsal 6. Forgetting/ Decay Evaluation of the model: Study Findings/Conclusions Link to multi-store model Sperling (1960): The Sensory Store • for one row, recall was 3 items •For whole grid, recall was 5 items STRENGTH • information decays rapidly in sensory store • sensory store is different to STM store Scovile and Milner (1957): HM Case study  HM suffered from epileptic fits • could not form any new long-term memories • STM intact (average capacity/duration)  Could still play piano and motor skills STRENGTH • Hippocampus shows LTM and STM are separate Craik and Lockhart (1972): Elaborative rehearsal  Suggested enduring memories are created by the processing you do, rather than through maintenance rehearsal • Elaborative rehearsal is better than maintenance rehearsal  Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating things, whereas elaborative rehearsal involves deeper or more semantic analysis LIMITATION •Model does not account for levels of rehearsal Ruckin et al (2003): STM is a part of LTM  Asked participants to recall set of real words and pseudo words. • real words involved wider brain activity • STM is actually the part of LTM which is activated at any given time LIMITATION • contradicts conclusion that STM and LTM are unitary stores
  5. 5. The Working Memory Model AO1 Baddeley and Hitch Key Feature Description Working memory replaces STM Breaks down short term memory stores and works together Phonological loop: Encodes speech sounds in working memory •Phonological store Records information • Articulatory process Repeats that information in a silent loop  form of maintenance rehearsal Visuo-spatial sketch pad Encodes visual information as separate objects as well as the arrangement Central Executive Monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in working memory Episodic Buffer Store for extra information which does not go into other stores Working memory: the bit of memory you use when you are working on a complex task which requires you to store information as you go along The WMM addresses short term or immediate memory
  6. 6. The Working Memory Model AO2 Baddeley and Hitch (1976) • gave participants two tasks to do simultaneously • Task 1 involved central executive (saying ‘the the the’ repeatedly) • Task 2 involved either the articulatory loop or both (saying random digits) Evidence: People were slower when having to generate random numbers than when saying ‘the the the’ Link to WMM • supports the idea that each store has a specific job and has it’s limitations Baddeley et al (1975a) • word length affect Evidence when participants were shown words and then asked for immediate recall, their performance was much better for sentences (related words) than for unrelated words Link to WMM • supports idea for an immediate memory store for items that are neither visual nor phonological and that draw on long-term memory (to link the related words) Shallice and Warrington (1970) • KF’s brain damage left him with normal long-term recall but variable problems with short-term memory • given a paired associates task Evidence KF does better on short-term recall tasks if material is presented visually rather than when it is presented auditorally Link to WMM •Only some areas of his STM were damaged (phonological store) Eslinger and Damasio (1985) • studied EVR who had a cerebral tumour removed Evidence When the tumour was removed, his reasoning skills were good but decision making skills were poor (both in central executive)  this would suggest his central executive was not totally intact Link to WMM • the idea of the central executive is unsatisfactory because it fails to explain anything – the understanding/ role is unclear Extra Limitation Problems with case studies: a before and after comparison cannot be made with brain damaged components so it is not clear whether changes in behaviour are caused by the damage. Also, the process of the brain injury is traumatic which may itself change behaviour.
  7. 7. An account given by people of an event they have witnesses Can be affected by many psychological factors: Anxiety/stress Reconstructive memory Weapon focusLeading questions
  8. 8. Smashed Hit Control group yes 16 7 6 no 34 43 44 Verb Mean speed estimate Smashed 40.8 Collided 39.3 Bumped 38.1 Hit 34 contacted 31.8 EWT Studies Loftus&Palmer Experiment 1 Interested in whether misleading information distorted the accuracy of an eyewitness’s immediate recall What did they do: • 45 students shown 7 films of different traffic accidents • participants given questionnaire asking to describe the accident then answer a series of specific questions about it • critical question – “about how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” • for each group the verb was changed to either: smashed, collided, bumped, contacted What did they find:  This experiment shows that the form of questioning can have a significant effect on a witness’s answer to the question Experiment 2 Conducted a second experiment to see if memory could actually be altered by misleading post-even information What did they do: • different participants divided into 3 groups and shown a film of a car accident lasting 1 minute • group 1 – given the verb smashed • group 2 – given the verb hit • group 3 (control group) – had no question about speed of vehicles • participants asked to return 1 week later and asked a series of 10 questions about the accident including a critical question – “did you see any broken glass?” • there was no broken glass in the film but people may have presumed there would be What did they find:  in response to the broken glass question Same as before, participants gave higher speed estimates in the ‘smashed condition  they were also more likely to think they saw broken glass
  9. 9. EWT evaluation Validity: • laboratory experiments such as those carried out by Loftus may not represent real life because people don’t take the experiment seriously and/or they are not emotionally aroused in the way that they would be in a real accident • Foster et al (1994) found that if participants thought they were watching a real-life robbery, and also thought that their responses would influence the trial, their identification of a robber was more accurate. Individual differences: • Schacter et al, 1991) have found that compared to younger subjects, elderly people have difficulty remembering the source of their information, even though their memory for the information itself is unimpaired • as a result, they became more prone to the effect of misleading information when giving testimony Acquisition or retrieval? • Bekerian and Bowers (1983) replicated the stop/yield sign study by Loftus et al (1978) • in the recognition part of the experiment Loftus presented the slides in a random order, whereas BB gave the slides in the original order • they found that recall was now the same for the consistent and misleading groups • this shows that the participants’ memories were intact in spite of misleading post-event information  Therefore misleading questions would appear to affect the retrieval of memories rather than their storage EWT in real life: • Loftus’ research suggested that EWT was generally inaccurate and therefore unreliable, however not all researchers agree with this conclusion • Yuille and Cutshall (1986) interviewed 13 people who had witnessed an armed robbery in Canada • the interviews took place more than 4 months after the crime and included two misleading questions • despite these questions the witnesses provided accurate recall that matched their initial detailed reports  This suggests that post-event information may not affect memory in real life EWT
  10. 10. Children as witnesses: • Parker and Carranza (1989) compared primary school students to college students in their ability to correctly identify a target individual following a slide sequence of a mock crime • In a photo identification task, child witnesses had a higher rate of choosing than adult witnesses, although they were more likely to make errors of identification that college students Age differences in accuracy: • Yarmey et al (1993) stopped 651 adults in public places and asked them to recall the physical characteristics of a young woman to whom they had spoken for 15 seconds just 2 minutes earlier •  young (18-29) and middle aged (30-44) adults were more confident in their recall than the older (45-65) adults However there was no significant differences in the accuracy of recall that could be attributed to the age group of the witnesses Effects of delay: • Memon et al (2003) studied the accuracy of young (16-33) and older (60-82) eyewitnesses • when the delay between ‘incident’ and identification was short (35 mins), there was no difference in the accuracy of the two age groups  however, when the identification task was delayed by one week, the older witnesses were significantly less accurate Factors influencing accuracy of EWT Anxiety Age of witness Anxiety has a negative effect: • From a review of 21 studies, Deffenbacher et al (2004) carried out a meta-analysis of 18 studies published between 1974 & 1997, looking at the effects of heightened anxiety on accuracy of eye-witness recall It is clear there was considerable support for the hypothesis that high levels of stress negatively impacted on the accuracy of eyewitness memory Anxiety enhances recall: • some studies have found that emotional arousal may actually enhance the accuracy of memory • Christianson and Hubinette (1993) questioned 58 real witnesses to bank robberies and found that those who has been threatened in some way were more accurate in their recall and remembered more details than those who had been onlookers and less emotionally aroused. This was true even 15 months later The Weapon-focus effect: • Loftus et al (1987) found that the presence of a weapon causes attention to be physically drawn towards the weapon itself and away from other things such as the person’s face • used two conditions – one involving a weapon and one not • in both conditions participants heard a discussion in an adjoining room • C1 – man emerged holding a pen + grease on his hands • C2 – discussion more heated, man with paperknife covered in blood • participants had to identify man from 50 photos • C1 – 49% accuracy on identification, C2 – 33% accuracy  Suggests the weapon may have distracted attention from person holding it, which is an explanation for poor recall for certain details of violent crimes
  11. 11. Young photos Middle-aged Older Young participants 90% 87% 85% Middle-aged 85% 93% 87% Older 56% 62% 66% Factors influencing accuracy of EWT Anxiety Age of Witness Research supports the weapon-focus effect: •A meta-analysis of studies concerned with the weapon- focus effect (Steblay, 1992) showed that the presence of a weapon does indeed reduce the chances of a witness correctly identifying the person holding it • Loftus et al (1987) found that the presence of a weapon causes attention to be physically drawn towards the weapon itself and away from other things such as the person’s face Real-world applications: • Riniolo et al (2003) examined the accuracy of eye- witness testimony from survivors of the sinking of the Titanic in 1912 • until the wreck was discovered in 1985 it was widely accepted that it had sunk intact despite evidence from eyewitnesses • 75% of the survivors reported that the titanic was breaking apart as it sank (which was eventually found as the truth) • the accuracy of the survivors’ testimony gives further support to the claim that central details of an event are recorded accurately even when formed during traumatic conditions The own-age bias: • people are better at remembering photos of their own ages • when older/middle-aged people looked at photos of younger people (for example) they were not as good at remembering Individual Differences: Research has shown that the accuracy of eyewitness memory may be compromised by anxiety, age or misleading information, but what about alcohol? • Clifasefi et al (2006) compared mildly intoxicated participants with those who were completely sober. • 82% of the intoxicated participants were not aware that someone dresses in a gorilla suit had slowly walked across the screen while they were watching a video of students throwing a basketball to one another  Suggesting that the more intoxicated a person becomes, the less attention they can allocate to peripheral tasks The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908) • accuracy is poor when arousal is either low or high, but better under conditions of moderate arousal • this is a curvilinear relationship Correct recognition by age group of photographs – showing own-age bias • this is a problem if college studies only use photos of their own students (all younger) • decreases validity
  12. 12. The procedure designed for use in police interviews that involve witnesses
  13. 13. Fisher and Geiselman (1992): Cognitive interview technique: Component What occurs at this stage? 1. Report everything Encouraged by the interviewer to report every detail of the event (even if seemed irrelevant) 2. Mental reinstatement of original context Encouraged by the interviewer to mentally recreate the environment and contacts from the original incident 3. Changing the order Interviewer may try alternative ways through the timeline of the incident e.g. Reversing the order of when the events occurred 4. Changing the perspective Interviewee is asked to recall the incident from multiple perspectives e.g. imagining how it would have appeared to other witnesses at the time Components 1&2 based on principle that if there is consistency between the actual incident and the recreated situation, there is an increased likeliness witnesses will recall more details and be more accurate in their recall Components 3&4 based on the assumption that information that has been observed can be retrieved through a number of different ‘routes’ into an individuals memory  Therefore it is more productive to vary these routes during questioning  People remember events better when they are provided with retrieval cues – this can be accomplished in police interviews by mentally reinstating the context of the event being recalled
  14. 14. Individual Differences – Mello and Fisher (1996): • can be particularly useful when interviewing older witnesses • compared older (mean age 72) and young (mean age 22) adults’ memory of a filmed simulated crime using either a cognitive interview or a standard police interview The cognitive interview produced more information  however, the advantage of the cognitive interview was greater for the older participants than the young ones Real-world applications – Stein and Memon (2006): • tested effectiveness of the cognitive interview in Brazil Brazils model of police questioning = interrogative, torture, ill treatment • women from cleaning staff of large university watched video of abduction Cognitive interview increased amount of correct information from witnesses Particularly forensically rich information e.g detailed description of man holding gun  these results suggests that the cognitive interview may cause a new approach to interviewing witnesses in Brazil and other developing countries  this will reduce the amount of miscarriages of justice Enhanced version – Fisher and Geiselman (1992): Enhanced version of the cognitive interview – includes additional cognitive techniques for probing a witnesses mental image of an event • this creates problems because it places even more demands on the interviewer  Result = quantity and quality of training cognitive interviewers has become a critical issue Time - Kebbell and Wagstaff (1996): • some police forces do not use all components of the cognitive interview – therefore there is a problem • Police suggest more time is required than is often available • instead they prefer to use deliberate strategies aimed to limit an eye witnesses report to the minimum amount of info officers feel necessary
  15. 15. Visual imagery mnemonics Method of loci:  first described by the Greeks • mental techniques used to help remember points they wanted to make in their long speeches • ‘loci’ literally means places  method requires the learner to associate parts of the material to be recalled with different places (e.g. Rooms in a familiar building) in the order that they are to be recalled Keyword method – Atkinson and Raugh (1975): Used when trying to associate two pieces of information • e.g. When learning a foreign language and wanting to remember a foreign word and it’s English equivalent, you think of an image to link the two words • conjuring up the visual image should trigger the recall of the word Verbal mnemonics: focus on words 1. Acronym – word or sentence formed from the initial letters of the words e.g. ROYGBIV is used to remember the colours of the rainbow 2. Acrostic – poem or sentence where the first letter in each line/word forms the item to be remembered e.g. ‘My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets’ is used to remember the order of the planets 3. Rhymes – groups of words with an identity and rhythm e.g. remembering the number of days in each month using the rhyme ‘30 days hath September, April, June and November. All the rest have 31 save February’ 4. Chunking – dividing a long string of information into memorable chunks e.g. TV|CIA|OMNI|LTM|STM|NASA Strategies for memory improvement (menmonics) Mnemonic techniques Any structured technique that is used to help people remember and recall information  used when we have to recall large amounts of unfamiliar information, or to make associations between a number of things that are not otherwise associated Other techniques include spider diagrams and mind-maps
  16. 16. Limitations of mnemonic strategies: • most studies have taken place in artificial laboratory conditions, using materials believed to be especially appropriate for the mnemonic strategies under test Studies of real life classroom applications of these strategies show more mixed results • e.g. Although mnemonic strategies have been relatively successful for teaching foreign language vocab, they have yet to be shown to be effective in helping students actually speak foreign languages better Mnemonics Real World Applications – Broadly and MacDonald (1993): Demonstrated the value of memory improvement techniques for overcoming short-term memory deficits in children with Down Syndrome • studied 63 children with DS, age 4-18 years • phase 1 – children assessed on tests including STM skills • phase 2 – children divided into experimental group and control group Experimental group – received training in memory improvement techniques (control group did not) • phase 3 – initial assessment was repeated  Demonstrating the training programme had significantly improved memory skills for the experimental group Research on visual imagery mnemonics (loci) – O’Hara et al (2007): • found that training in the use of mnemonic techniques such as the method of loci has long- term memory benefits for older adults • Atkinson (1975)  Found participants trained in the use of keywords learned significantly more Russian vocab than a control group who received no training.
  17. 17. Developmental Psychology • scientific study of changes that occur throughout a human’s life • primarily concerned with infant/adolescent development Imprinting What does this tell us about how attachments are formed? • they are formed by instinct and who/what they see first
  18. 18. Monotropy: • infants form one particular attachment of special importance – usually mother • monotropy is the bias towards one individual – the primary attachment • infant becomes most strongly attached to the person who responds most sensitively to the infant’s social releasers  The primary attachment figure provides the main foundation for emotional development, self- esteem and later relationships Bowlby’s theory of attachment (1969) AO1 Innate Attachment: • Children are born with an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver because of the long term benefits it will bring • Stays close to caregiver who will feed/protect it • Attachment/imprinting are adaptive behaviours Sensitive Period: • There is a limited window for attachment development • The second quarter of the first year is when infants are most sensitive to the development of attachments • As the months pass, it becomes increasingly difficult to form infant- caregiver attachments Social Releasers: • Infants are born with certain characteristics (social releasers) which elicit care giving • e.g. Crying or smiling causes the care giver to give it attention • Characteristics are innate and adaptive (enhances survival of offspring) and are critical in the process of forming attachments. Secure Base: • Attachment is important for protection, therefore acts as a secure base where a child can explore the world and have somewhere safe to return to • Therefore attachment fosters independence Continuity Hypothesis: • the view that there is a link between the early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour • individuals who are securely attached in infancy continue to be socially and emotionally competent • insecurely attached children have more social and emotional difficulties later in childhood and adulthood Internal Working Model: • cluster of concepts about relationships and what to expect from others  About whether relationships involve consistent or inconsistent love, whether others make you feel good or anxious, etc
  19. 19. The Temperament Hypothesis (Kagan, 1984): Explanation: An innately trusting and friendly personality could be the prime factor in secure attachments and the prime factor in forming close adult relationships  certain personality or temperamental characteristics of the infant shape a mother’s responsiveness Why a limitation:  Continuity in developments can be explained without using Bowlby’s theory. Hazan and Shaver (1987): The ‘Love Quiz’ • Supports: continuity hypothesis How they compared early attachments with adult relationships: Asked questions about early experiences, current love experiences/involvements and also about attitudes towards love. Conclusions: Characteristic patterns of later romantic behaviour were associated with each early attachment type, though we cant be certain that early attachment experiences caused later attachment types. Why it supports:  Bowlby said early attachment experiences link to later attachment experiences Schaffer and Emerson (1964): Glasgow babies • Supports: monotropy Procedure: (longitudinal study – 2 years)  followed 60 infants which were observed every 4 weeks until they were 1 and then again at 18 months. Conclusions from results: Separation protest and stranger anxiety  half of children found attachment between 25 and 32 weeks  intensity of attachment peaked in first month Why it supports: Separation protest and stranger anxiety are signs an attachment has formed.  Before stage of specific attachments, infants show neither of these behaviours. Multiple Attachments: Explanation: There are no primary and secondary attachments – all attachments are integrated into one single working model  caregivers are all equal Why a limitation: Bowlby says there is only one primary caregiver (monotropy)  however research on infant-father attachment suggests key role in social development  relationships with siblings are important for learning how to negotiate with peers. Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment AO2 Lorenz (1952): Imprinting in geese • Supports: innate attachment Findings: The goslings who saw Lorenz as soon as they hatched started following him around. Found that instead of going to their natural mother, they went to him Why it supports: innate attachment  instinctive Evolutionary basis of attachment
  20. 20. Schaffer and Emerson (1964): Glasgow Babies and responsiveness What did they find: Infants were not most attached to the person who fed them  they were most attached to the person who was most responsive and interacted with them most How it criticises learning theory:  Learning theory suggests that the babies should be more attached to the person who gives them food Learning Theory Classical Conditioning  association Example: Pavov’s dogs Operant Conditioning  reward (reinforcement) How reinforcement causes behaviour to be learned and repeated:  If you give rewards for certain behaviour, the more likely it is to be repeated (for a reward) Operant theory and attachment Primary reinforcer = food Secondary reinforcer = food supplier/caregiver How does reinforcement lead to attachment being formed?  An attachment is formed due to reinforcement because the infant seeks the caregiver who supplies the food (reward) Strengths: • we learn through association and reward, so it could potentially apply for attachments Harlow (1959): Contact comfort in infant rhesus monkeys What did they find: monkey’s would only return to the wire mother for food  spent most of their time attached to the cloth mother, only leaving to get food from the wire mother How it criticises learning theory: Learning theory suggests the monkey’s should have spent most of their time with the wire mother because it gives food  however the pleasure and warmth of the fur was more important to them than food Limitations: Before Conditioning UCS – FOOD UCR – SALIVATION During Conditioning UCS – BELL&FOOD UCR – SALIVATION After Conditioning CS – BELL CR - SALIVATION How CC can explain infant attachment:  Same feelings of pleasure and infant gets from food will therefore be associated with the caregiver (who feeds infant) UCS/UCR = unconditioned stimulus/response CS/CR = conditioned stimulus/response
  21. 21. Types of Attachment AO1 Episodes (abt. 3min) Behaviour assessed 1. Parent plays with infant 2. Parent sits while infant plays - Use of parent as secure base 3. Stranger enters and talks to parent - Stranger anxiety 4. Parent leaves, infant left with stranger - Separation anxiety 5. Parent returns to infant and stranger leaves - Reunion behaviour 6. Parent leaves infant alone - Separation anxiety 7. Stranger enters and is left with infant - Stranger anxiety 8. Parent returns to infant - Reunion behaviour Ainsworth: The Strange Situation (1978) Attachment type Willingness to explore Stranger anxiety Separation anxiety Reunion behaviour % of infants Secure (type B) HIGH HIGH Some easy to soothe Enthusiatsic 66% Insecure – avoidant (type A) HIGH LOW Indifferent Avoids contact 22% Insecure – resistant (type C) LOW HIGH Distressed Seeks and rejects 12% Lab experiment 106 middle-class infants Main and Solomon(1986): Disorganised How did they describe this fourth attachment type: the disorganised type is characterised by a lack of consistent patterns of social behaviour  such infants lack an understandable strategy for dealing with the stress of separation  e.g. Showing strong attachment suddenly followed by avoidance towards their caregiver What similarities did Ainsworth find in all infants:  exploratory behaviours declined in all infants from episode 2 onwards, whereas the amount of crying increased proximity-seeking and contact-maintaining behaviours intensified during separation/when stranger appeared  contact-resisting and proximity-avoiding occurred rarely towards the caregiver prior to separation
  22. 22. Types of Attachment AO2 Validity: Lab Experiment:  lacks ecological validity – not realistic evidence Main and Weston (1981): Children behaved differently depending on which parent they were with – classification of attachment type may not be valid. Also may not be primary caregiver Main (1999):  Tested children and reassessed them at age 9 using the adult attachment interview – found that attachment type was influenced by mother. Supports concept of monotropy Ethical issues: Infants will have been caused distress (strange situation) – unethical, not supposed to cause psychological harm to participants Reliability: 94% agreement between raters – results can be supported and outcomes are agreed The ‘Love Quiz’ (Hazan and Shaver, 1987):  Hazan and Shaver found patterns between later romantic behaviour associated with early attachment – supports the different types of attachment
  23. 23. Cultural Variations in Attachment AO1 The Strange Situation study has been repeated to test cultural variations in attachment Individualist cultures – independence and importance of the individuals Collectivist cultures – interdependence/groups Study What did they find about child rearing How does this link to attachment type Fox (1977): Israel Kibbutz Infants appeared equally attached to both caregivers except in terms of reunion behaviour where they showed greater attachment to their mothers. Suggests that the mothers were still the primary attachment figure Grossman and Grossman (1991): German infants German infants tended to be classified as insecurely rather than securely attached  Distance between parents and children Infants do not engage in proximity seeking behaviours so appear to be insecurely attached Takahashi (1990): Japanese infants (60 middle class infants) Particularly distressed when left alone  infants rarely experience separation from mothers Appear to be insecurely attached Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988): Meta-analysis • Analysed variation between cultures/countries • The most common attachment type found in all countries was secure • West Germany had the highest rate of insecure-avoidant types • Japan and Israel had high insecure-resistant attachment types than avoidant Why is the rate of variation within cultures significant? The rate within cultures was 1.5 times greater  The global pattern across cultures appear similar  Supports idea that secure attachment is best
  24. 24. Cultural Variations in Attachment AO2 Attachment types are based in American culture (Rothbaum et al, 2000) e.g. secure base Explain: Argued that attachment theory and research is not relevant to other cultures because it is so rooted in American culture Evidence: Secure base is seen as different in America than in Japan  America see’s secure base as being independent (willing to explore) whereas in Japan they are more dependant Limitation:  The concept cannot be applied to other cultures/countries Sensitivity is universally linked to secure attachments (Posada and Jacobs, 2001) Explain: There is a lot of evidence that supports the universality of attachment from many different countries Evidence: China, Columbia, Germany, Israel, Japan and Norway all have different attachments Strength:  Sensitivity is linked to secure attachment however secure attachment is manifested Subcultures are not representative of cultures (Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg, 1988) Explain: Found more variation within cultures than between cultures Evidence: Rural societies in the US may be more similar to rural societies in Israel than they are to urban societies in the US Limitation: Data was collected on different subcultures within each country  it is a mistake to think behaviour within one country represents all cultures Imposed etic: Used to describe the use of a technique designed in one culture but imposed on another  the result of using this to measure attachment is that Japanese children may appear to be insecurely attached according to Western criteria, whereas they are securely attached by Japanese standards Strange Situation: It is difficult to apply the SS to cultures as a whole because there are sub cultures within cultures  in some cultures the situation may not appear strange
  25. 25. LAURA SEPARATED FROM MOTHER WHEN ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL FOR 8 DAYS Mediating variables:  Visited occasionally by parents Short-term effects of separation: Alternating between levels of calm and distress  struggle to control feelings  disappointment JANE, LUCY, THOMAS AND KATE ALL UNDER 3 AND PLACED IN FOSTER CARE WHILE MOTHERS WERE IN HOSPITAL Mediating variables: Kept routines similar to those at home  regular visits with father Try to maintain emotional links Short-term effects of separation: Some distress Rejects attempts to cuddle father Behaviour on/after reunion (long-term):  Reluctant to part with foster mother – good emotional bonds formed JOHN UNDER 3 AND PLACED IN RESIDENTIAL NURSERY FOR 9 DAYS WHILE MOTHER HAD BABY Mediating variables: Father visited regularly Nurses were busy Short term effects of separation: Efforts to get attention from nurses Seeks comfort form over-sized teddy  gradually breaks down – refuses food & drink, stops playing, cries a lot, gives up getting nurse’s attention Behaviour on/after reunion (long term effects): 1st week greets father enthusiastically 2nd week sits quietly/says nothing Screams/struggles to get away from mother and has outbursts of anger towards her Disruption of Attachments – The Robertsons
  26. 26. CRITICISM EXPLANATION WHY A STRENGTH/LIMITATION Validity: Naturalistic observations Validity: Characteristics of children They were in a realistic setting Lacks validity as the children may share certain characteristics that differentiate them from other children Strength – avoids any bias Limitation – would think that all children respond in the same way Individual Differences: 1. Bowlby et al (1956) – when assessed in adolescence 63% in the TB group were more maladjusted than the ‘normal’ children, but no significant differences between them & their normal peers in terms of intellectual development 2. Barrett (1997) – securely attached children may sometimes cope reasonably well, whereas insecurely attached children become especially distressed. 1. Strength – children who coped better may have been more securely attached and thus more resilient 2. Limitation – not all children are affected by emotional disruption in the same way Bosman & Sigvardsson (1979): Reversing emotional disruption in Sweden • 600 adopted children At age 11, 26% classified as problem children • Findings after 10 years of adoption: None of the children were any worse off than the rest of the population  this would suggest that early, negative effects were reversed • Conclusions/how it supports the Robertsons: indicates that disruption of attachment can have have negative effects but these can be avoided or reversed when alternative emotional care is provided Skodak & Skeels (1949): Emotional care and IQ • compared the IQ of orphans in a home for the mentally retarded (transfer group) and an orphanage (control group) • Findings 18 months later: IQ of control group had on average fallen from 87 to 61 points  IQ of transfer group had risen from 64 to 92 points • Conclusions on emotional care/how it supports the Robertsons: Demonstrates a clear difference between physical and emotional disruption Disruption of Attachments AO2
  27. 27. Failure to form attachment Isolated Children case studies: Genie • locked in a room by father until age 13½ because he thought she was retarded • when found she could not speak/ stand erect • never fully recovered socially and showed disinterest in people Factors that may have affected recovery: • extreme early emotional privation • late age she was discovered • may have been retarded from birth (no brain scans to prove/disprove) Czech Twins (Koluchova 1976) • spent first 7 years of life locked up by stepmother • couldn’t talk when first discovered • cared for by 2 loving sisters • by the age of 20 had above average intelligence and excellent relationships with members of their foster family Factors that may have affected recovery: • they were discovered at a young age • twins may have already formed attachment to eachother Hodges and Tizard (1989): Institutional care Procedure: • followed group of 65 British children from the age of 4 to 16 • placed in institution when less than 4 months old – no attachments yet formed • caretakers not allowed to form attachments with the children Findings: • restored children less likely to have formed attachments with mother • adopted children closely attached to their parents • both groups had problems with peers – less likely to have a special friend and less likely the be liked by other children. • also more quarrelsome and more likely to be bullies Conclusions: • early privation had negative effect on ability to form relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care • supports Bowlby’s view that failure to form attachment during sensitive period has irreversible effect on emotional development Rutter et al (2007): Romanian orphanages • studied 100 Romanian orphans adopted by British families Findings: • children adopted before 6 months showed normal emotional development • children adopted after 6 months showed disinhibited attachment and had problems with peers Conclusions: • long-term consequences may be less severe if children have the opportunity to form attachment • when children do not form attachments then the consequences are likely to be severe Privation AO1
  28. 28. Privation AO2 Problems with Genie and Czech Twins case studies: We don’t know whether Genie was retarded from birth, nor do we know if she did actually form an attachment with her mother  Czech Twins may have formed important attachments to eachother  therefore it is difficult to reach any firm conclusions from these cases Ethical issues with Genie:  Genie’s mother sued the psychologists for their excessive and outrageous testing Rutter et al: • Rather than there being a critical period it is possible to argue that there is a sensitive period for the development of behaviour • Explanation They found that children who are deprived of close and lasting attachments to adults in their first years of life can make these attachments later, although it depends on the adults concerned and how much they nurture these attachments Limitation • Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation  Bowlby believed that the first few years of a child could be seen as a critical period for the later development of behaviour Hodges and Tizard: 1. Early privation had a negative effect on the ability to form relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care  STRENGTH – supports Bowlby’s view that the failure to form attachments during the sensitive period of development has an irreversible effect on emotional development Gardner: 2. Emotional disturbance may affect production of hormones such as growth hormones  Could explain link between emotional deprivation (disruption of attachment) and physical underdevelopment
  29. 29. The Impact of Daycare AO1 Development of sociability  tendency to seek and enjoy the company of others and to make personal relationships with them Socialisation process  process in which an individual acquires the knowledge values, social skills and sensitivity to others that enables them to become a part of society. AGRESSION The NICHD study (2003) • looked at over 1000 children in 10 different locations in America • children and parents assessed at regular intervals in order to establish the effects of various experiences such as day care on children’s development Findings/Conclusions: • when studied at age 5 The more time a child spent in day care, the more adults rated them as assertive, disobedient and aggressive children in full time day care = 3x more likely to show behaviour problems than those who were cared for by mothers at home e.g. Frequent arguing, tantrums, lying, hitting The EPPE study (Sylva et al, 2003) • study of the development of 3000 children ages 3-7 • looking at the background characteristics of children – home environment and experiences of daycare Findings/Conclusions: • children who spent longer in day care were rated by their teachers as more anti-social • if day care was of high quality, then the impact of day care was reduced • suggests high quality can reduce but not eliminate negative effects PEER RELATIONS Belsky and Rovine (1988) • used the SS on infants who received 20+ hours a week of day care before they were 1 year old Findings/Conclusions: • these children were morel likely to be insecurely attached compared with children at home Alison Clarke-Stewart (1994) • studied 150 children Findings/Conclusions: • those in day care were more advanced in their social development than children who stayed at home with their mothers Advances in: •social development • independence • compliance requests • social interactions with peers Field (1991) • found that the amount of time spent in full time day care was positively correlated to number of friends children had at school
  30. 30. The Impact of Daycare AO2 Other factors affect aggression: • a mother’s sensitivity to her child was a better indicator of reported problem behaviours, than was the time spent in childcare LIMITATION because... • children’s development is more strongly affected by factors at home than those in day care Methodological limitations of peer relations: • many of the studies feature correlation LIMITATION because... • it is inappropriate to conclude that day care had caused influence on peer relations MEDIATING FACTORS Quality of day care • when staff-to-child ratio is poor and/or there is a high turnover of staff, children will not be able to make secondary attachments as they will be looked after by a series of familiar strangers LIMITATION because... • this is expected to be associated with negative effects • NICHD study – low-quality day care was associated with poor social development Lack of commitment: (Howes and Hamilton 1992) • secure attachments occurred with only 50% of day-care staff, but with 70% of mothers LIMITATION because... • lower rate of attachment probably reflects lower quality and closeness of the caregiver relationship – day care assistants are less committed to the child (Gregg et al 2005) • only group of children affected by day care were children whose care consisted solely of unpaid care by a friend, relative or neighbour Individual Differences: (NICHD study 1997) • children whose mothers lacked responsiveness did less well in day care (might be insecurely attached) (Egeland and Hiester 1995) • insecurely attached children did best in day care • securely attached children were the ones that became more aggressive
  31. 31. Influence of Research in Attachment INFLUENCE: 1. Improving quality of day care • supports Bowlby’s theory of attachment  Supports the usefulness of secondary attachment figures in providing continuous emotional care INFLUENCE: 2. Caring for children in hopsital • supports Robertson’s research  Any negative effects of emotional disruption could be avoided if substitute emotional care was provided as well as links with existing attachment figures INFLUENCE: 3. Adoption • supports Hodges and Tizard  Shown that a failure to form attachment early in life may have long- term consequences INFLUENCES: 1. Improving quality of day care: How has this been applied to everyday life?  London, the Soho Family Centre: • Centre’s programme based on attachment theory • each child is ensured close emotional relationships 2. Caring for children in hospital: How has this been applied to everyday life?  Visiting arrangements have been changed in conditions such as hospitals and foster homes 3. Adoption: How has this been applied to everyday life?  Children are now adopted within the first week of birth 4. Improving the quality of parenting: How has this been applied to everyday life?  Circle of security helped caregivers learn to respond more sensitively to their young children
  32. 32. Influence of Research into Day Care How do Bowlby and Ainsworth support the importance of sensitivity care in day care? BOWLBY: social releasers and secure base AINSWORTH: healthy, secure attachments are formed with adults who respond with the greatest sensitivity to an infant’s behaviour Other factors linked to sensitivity: • staff-to-child ratios • minimal staff turnover • having qualified and experienced staff  High quality sensitive care How NICHD study supports the fact that sensitivity is not always being provided in day care: 23% of infant care providers give ‘highly’ sensitive infant care  50% of them provide only ‘moderate’ sensitive care  20% are ‘emotionally detached’ from the infants Influence of research: 1. Importance of high quality day care (Field, 1991) How is this relevant to day care:  The importance of high quality day care was found by Field as the greatest benefits of day care on peer relations as it is linked to it 2. Good staff-to-child ratios (NICHD study, 1999) How is this relevant to day care:  Day care staff could only provide sensitive high- quality care if the ratios were as low as 1:3 3. Minimal Staff turnover (Schaffer 1998) How is this relevant to day care: Consistency of care = good outcomes  when staff come and go children may either fail to form attachments to staff, or if they have they may suffer anxiety associated with disruption of attachment when staff go 4. Qualified and experienced staff (Sylva et al, 2003) How is this relevant to day care: Quality of care provided was positively correlated with the qualification levels of the day care staff  higher the qualifications – better outcomes in terms of the social development of the children

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