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  • 1. Notes to teachers • I used this as a carousel activity. Printed off all the slides and had three source tables (Durkheim, Marxist, Foucault) • Slide 2 = detailed learning objectives • Last couple of slides part of the plenary – but mainly questioning!
  • 2. A* A/B C Durkheim What are the functions of punishment? Evaluate Durkheim’s distinction between retributive justice in traditional societies from restitutive justice in modern societies. How is punishment expressive? How does Durkheim distinguish retributive justice in traditional societies from restitutive justice in modern societies? How does punishment reinforce shared values? How punishment in modern society different from that in traditional society? How does punishment benefit society? Marxist views How does punishment benefit the mode of production? How is punishment ideological? Evaluation How does punishment benefit the type of economy? (Think about capitalism, feudalism and slavery) How is punishment ideological? Evaluation How does punishment benefit capitalism? Foucault How does Foucault distinguish between sovereign power and disciplinary power? Evaluation How does Foucault argue punishment has changed since the 19th century? How does surveillance lead to self-surveillance? (e.g. with reference to the panopticon and a contemporary example) Evaluation What is surveillance? How does surveillance (eg CCTV) affect people’s behaviour? How does Foucault’s work compare to Durkheim’s?
  • 3. Emile Durkheim (1893)
  • 4. Qs • What were traditional societies like? • What sorts of punishments were used in traditional societies? • What function did punishment perform in traditional societies? • How is compensation an example of restitutive justice? • How effective might restitutive justice be? • How does restorative justice affect victims? • How does the increased use of restorative justice reflect the shift in emphasis towards victimology?
  • 5. Punishment in traditional societies How do these pictures illustrate retributive justice?
  • 6. Punishment in traditional societies: How is stoning an example of retributive justice?
  • 7. Some examples of medieval punishment: How are these examples of retributive punishment?
  • 8. Punishment in modern society How is compensation an example of restitutive justice?
  • 9. Punishment in modern society How is community service an example of restitutive justice?
  • 10. Restitutive / Restorative justice • 11 min radio clip talking about the murder of their son by a gang of youths in the street./ restorative justice • Link to Cambridgeshire police website page explaining restorative justice
  • 11. Marxist views
  • 12. How are prisons like factories?
  • 13. Stretch and challenge: Can you relate this cartoon to globalisation?
  • 14. Marxist • Punishment is related to the nature of class society and ruling class interests • Function of punishment is to maintain the existing social order • Part of the repressive state apparatus • The form of punishment reflects the economic base, each type of society has its own penal system • Under capitalism, imprisonment becomes the dominant form of punishment because the capitalist economy is based on the exploitation of wage labour
  • 15. Michel Foucault (1977) A post-modern view of Punishment
  • 16. Qs • How does surveillance become self- surveillance?
  • 17. Sovereign Power • In the past (before 19th century), the monarch had power over people and their bodies • Punishment was inflicted on the body eg corporal punishment • Punishment was a public spectacle eg public execution
  • 18. Punishment as a public spectacle Stretch and challenge: When do you think this picture was taken? To what extent can the date be used to criticise Foucault’s claims?
  • 19. Punishment as a spectacle in 18th century QR code links to the diary entrant from an attendee at a public execution Source: ‘The Madding Crowd, 18th century London http://www.pbs.org/kqed/demonbarber/madding/learnedpigs.html But it was the spectacle surrounding the punishment of criminals that was perhaps the most anticipated and popular form of mass entertainment. Whippings, floggings, being paraded through the streets in chains and enduring the "pillory" - an open forum for mockery and verbal abuse - were common punishments for petty crimes. Executions were an even more elaborate affair and quite often were set aside as public holidays. Occasionally, engraved invitations would be sent out. On average, around 35 criminals were hanged each year at the infamous Tyburn Tree, and later at Newgate Prison. Monday was the standard execution day so chaplains could spend Sunday evening preparing the condemned. Large crowds of rowdy, jeering onlookers - sometimes in numbers of 30,000 or more (80,000 was the record) - would arrive in the morning to follow the prisoner to the hanging platform. Men, women, children, gentry and paupers alike, all attended these executions in the hopes of witnessing a particularly dramatic declaration, a last-minute reprieve or a courageous, applause-worthy farewell from the doomed "malefactor.“
  • 20. Disciplinary Power • Becomes dominant from the 19th century • Seeks to also govern the mind or ‘soul’ • Does so through surveillance
  • 21. The panopticon
  • 22. The prison guard is put in the middle and just by rotating their body, can see all the inmates in their cells. It’s a bit like being him:
  • 23. • Surveillance turns into self-surveillance and discipline becomes self-discipline • Foucault argues that the prison is one of range of institutions that, from the C.19th increasingly began to subject individuals to disciplinary power to include conformity through self-surveillance • Thus argues that the change from sovereign to disciplinary power in the penal system reflects how power operates in society as a whole
  • 24. Criticisms • Foucault exaggerates the extent of control. Eg Goffman’s study shows how inmates are able to resist controls in institutions such as prisons and mental hospitals
  • 25. Check Your Understanding 1. Functionalist view 2. Marxist view 3. Postmodern view a) Surveillance and discipline as a form of power/knowledge exercising control over the population b) Punishment as boundary maintenance – re-affirms the collective conscience c) Punishment serves an ideological function, eg mops up unemployed
  • 26. Check Your Understanding 1. Functionalist view 2. Marxist view 3. Postmodern view a) Surveillance and discipline as a form of power/knowledge exercising control over the population b) Punishment as boundary maintenance – re-affirms the collective conscience c) Punishment serves an ideological function, eg mops up unemployed

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