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  • 1. Introduction to Sociological theory MR WHITE
  • 2. Introduction/starter  Why is it important ?  What does it attempt to achieve?  Read extract – class discussion – interpret ideas/understanding
  • 3. ‘Foundering Fathers’ introduced  Marx (Marxism)  Durkheim  (functionalism)  Weber (Structural &  Action theory)
  • 4. Other perspectives /‘schools of thought’ / Paradigms  Structural functionalism (Parsons)  Neo- Marxism (Gramsci)  Symbolic internationalism (mead)  Feminism – liberal, Black ,Post modern + Radical  Post-modernism
  • 5. Today - focus on Marx  Key ideas  This is a structural, conflict theory – it believes society is capitalist, full of conflict between the classes and one which affects every bit of our lives.  Key terms  Alienation Capitalism Labour Power  Commodity Proletariat Inequality  Conflict Communism mass production
  • 6. Key Ideas – Continued ( Marx)  Statements:  Marxism is a theory designed to promote the ‘good society’ (similar to functionalism)  It is part of the modern belief that societies can be achieved in social organisation through the application of human knowledge  Marxism rests upon the belief that the potential for individual fulfilment and freedom is linked inextricably to the potential for the progress in a social organisation
  • 7. Key Idea’s Marx  Statements:  Economic system central to Marx theory. All social activity is therefore based around this argument  The opportunity to be free in a modern society is only possible when the ‘class-based’ productive system characteristics of capitalism is abolished.  Marx believed eventually the lower class would rise up against the unjust capitalist system and therefore form a communist society
  • 8. Durkheim  Key Ideas  Durkheim states that society controls the individual, we are constrained & controlled by it. (social Facts- Positivist approach)  We can study society scientifically  Research is key to the discipline of sociology  Key Terms  Anomie Social Facts Collective conscience  Social solidarity Social Cohesion Division of Labour  Suicide Morality Norms + values
  • 9. Durkheim Continued  Statements:  For Durkheim, then, the achievement of social life among humans, and the existence of social order in society which he calls ‘social solidarity’- is ensured by culture: collective standards or rules of behaviour  The body is often uses as metaphor to describe functionalism  Social facts are all the social structures (like law) norms and values that exists to control us all, these are constraints which affect us all.  Consensus theory
  • 10. Weber  Key Ideas  Weber’s theory recognised both the value of structural + action theory.  While society does have the power to control us all, ultimately, it was created by us & can be destroyed by us, too.  Weber mix micro + macro theory to see which external forces people are vulnerable to.  Key Terms  Verstehen Social action Rationalization  Causality Status Structures of authority  Class Bureaucracies Micro + Macro
  • 11. Weber Continued  Statements:  ‘The fate of our times is characterized by rationalization and intellectualization and, above all, by the disenchantment of the world’  Weber was one the first sociologists who fused history with sociology to come up with his idea. (causality – causes in history)  Class, status and Party. – important ‘weberian’ concept.
  • 12. Task/ Class discussion  Study information  Feedback ideas  Which theory do you tend to agree with ?  How do you think society works ?  Contemporary examples ?  Conclusion  Keep hand-outs for future reference