• Determinism is the principle that all human behaviour comes from either internal or
• It also states that everything happens for a reason and there is a cause and effect
• Everything that did happen was the only possible thing that could have happened
at that point in time and space, given the causes.
Hard Determinism –
• Every human action has a cause – one action is performed rather than
Soft Determinism –
• Argues people’s behaviour is a direct result of the environment.
Biological Determinism –
• Behaviour that is determined by factors inside ourselves, for example:
inherited behaviour, inherited through genes. Links with hard determinism.
Environmental Determinism –
• Determined by factors that are outside of ourselves.
But we still cannot control these factors. Links with soft determinism.
• Free will is the principle that we are able
to do whatever we like and the
consequences depend on our actions.
• It allows people to make up their own
minds based on the temptations and
stimulations of the world around them.
• There may guidelines set due to law, but
in the end the choice is still your own.
• Hierarchy of needs is a diagram which
represents the basic needs of a human.
• The table was created by Maslow who
believed in the humanistic approach
that states that individuals possess a
set of motivation systems unrelated to
rewards or unconscious desires.
• People must satisfy lower level basic
needs before progressing on to meet
higher level growth needs.
• Life experiences may cause an
individual to fluctuate between levels
of the hierarchy.
says that behaviour results
from the interactions with
the external world and the
possibility of punishment or
perspective says that
are the cause of human
Freud created the psychodynamic approach and was deterministic. He
believed that all feelings and behaviours are a result of childhood
experiences and everything we say and do is a result of something else.
This was shown in his study into Little Hans and his phobias and dreams.
The behaviourist approach states that all behaviour is learned and shaped
by the environment. For example in the Bandura study it is demonstrated
how aggression is learned and shaped by role models. Two other studies
that support this approach is classical conditioning in Pavlov and operant
conditioning in Skinner.