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• ### Resourcd File

1. 1. Dealing with the results: Descriptive statistics Aims: to learn about averages, how to find the mode and draw a bar chart
2. 2. Starter Questions: • Dan is studying schemas in eyewitnesses. He started by making two films of people in a park with a group of his friends in the background. In one film the friends were wearing t-shirts, in the other they were wearing hoodies. • Dan did a study with two groups of participants and each group saw one of the films. He told the participants that they would watch a film and answer questions about it, and that they could leave at any time. • Dan told the participants about windows being smashed in cars near the park and asked the participants questions about which people in the film might have been involved. As the two films were made at different times, the questions about most of the people in each film had to be different. However, the question about the group of people in the background (his friends in hoodies or t-shirts) was always the same. • Questions: • Create a hypothesis for Dan’s study (2) • The two films used the same group of Dan’s friends. Explain why Dan needed to do this. (2) • The two films were made at different times. Explain why this was a weakness in the procedure of this experiment. (2)
3. 3. • More people will say that my friends smashed the windows when they had seen the film with my friends wearing hoodies than the one where they were wearing t-shirts
4. 4. • 1 mark per marking point. Max 1 mark for an appropriate term. 1 mark for an explanation. 1 mark for elaboration relating specifically to study (of term or explanation). • control/standardise/only the IV affects the DV; • so that the only difference between the two conditions was the hoodies/clothes; • any differences in DV due to clothes not faces of friends/how they look; • So that Dan knows the differences in the DV (who smashed the windows) was caused by the clothes (the IV) not differences between people in the films. (2 marks)
5. 5. • 1 mark per marking point. 1 mark for identifying the concept of situational variables changing (accept implicit identification). 1 mark for elaboration eg describing how it could affect participants’ answers. • Or credit two different reasons • other things could have changed eg night/day; OWTTE • any possible situational variable eg: • there could have been other (suspicious-looking) people around for one video and not the other; • the light may have been different making the view of the friends clearer/less clear;
6. 6. Key concepts: • Descriptive statistics: ways to summarise results from a study. They can show a typical or average score or how spread out the results are. • Bar chart: a graph with separate bars. Usually there is one bar for each condition in an experiment • Mode: an average that is the most common score or response in a set.
7. 7. Quick check • 2,3,3,6,8,9,12,15,21,22 • What is the mode? • 3 • 6,4,7,3,6,2,8,6,3,2,1,8,9,5 • What is the mode? • 6
8. 8. Draw a bar chart: • Remember the conditions of the experiment (the IV) go along the x-axis. The total or average score goes on the y-axis (up the side) • Use the data on pg41 • Extension answer quick check QA on pg41 and Q2 on pg41
9. 9. Bingo Controls Descriptive statistics Experimental design Experiment Repeated measures design Mode Hypothesis Aim Order effects Fatigue effects Average Independent measures design Bar chart Research
10. 10. Median • Median: an average that is the middle number in a set of scores when they are put in order from smallest to largest • You would use it where the scores are on a rating scale. • Range: a way to show how spread out a set of results are by looking at the biggest and smallest scores
11. 11. Quick check • 6,4,6,2,3,6,1,8,2 • 7,4,2,3,2,8,7,6,5,1 • Work out the medians and range from the above two sets of data • Work out the medians and range from this set of data: • 0.5,1,0.2,0.3,1.5,0.8,0.7,0.6,0.4,1 • 4, 7 • 4.5, 7 • 1.2
12. 12. Can you think of a keyword from research methods and perception starting with these letters? Names do count!B C D M R V
13. 13. Can you think of a keyword from research methods and perception starting with these letters? Names do count! Bartlett, binocular depth cues, BAR CHART Cones, CONTROLS Depth cues, DEPENDENT VARIABLE Monocular depth cues, MODE, MEDIAN Rods, REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN Visual illusion, VALIDIITY
14. 14. H/W Conduct the Palmer experiment with someone at home- bring the results with you and a calculator