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  • 1. Topic D: Why do we have phobias? Use this checklist to ensure that you have covered all the areas needed for success in your exams. The following topics will be covered in class. However, it will be your responsibility to make sure that you catch up with any topics you miss and to actively revise the different areas. Topic area Readings to improve your understanding Covered in class Revised 1 Revised 2 Explaining the question: Why do we have phobias? Causes of phobias including: i the evolutionary explanation of preparedness ii Social Learning Theory (modelling and vicarious reinforcement) iii classical/Pavlovian conditioning (association and generalisation) Pages 130-135 The nature-nurture debate in relation to understanding phobias. In the examination, students could be asked to demonstrate their understanding of stimulus material drawing on key terms and explanations. Pages 136-137 Investigating the question: questionnaires The following terms and their use when referring to methodology: i questionnaire ii open-ended and closed questions iii rank scales (eg Likert style questions) iv standardised instructions v response bias vi social desirability. Pages 138-149 Questionnaires as a research method including evaluation Pages 140-141 Ethical issues of laboratory experiments using animals including social isolation, number and choice of species Pages 142-143 Practical issues of laboratory experiments using animals including three practical issues Pages 144-145 The aims, procedures and findings (results and/or conclusions) and evaluation of i Cover-Jones (1924) The case of Little Peter ii Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984) Fear of animals. What is prepared? Pages 146-149 Why psychology matters Flooding and systematic desensitisation as therapies used to treat phobias Pages 150-151 The ethics of flooding and systematic desensitisation as therapies used to treat phobias, including the guidelines of distress and right to withdraw Pages 152-153 The role of a clinical psychologist including: i who they might work for ii what they do iii skills required iv qualifications required v chartered status vi what they might do to help a person with phobias. Pages 154-159 Exploring the question further Cultural issues in the development of phobias using Heinrichs et al, (2005) Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Pages 160-161