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  • 1. CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR
  • 2. Defining and measuring crime: In very simple terms, a criminal act is any ________ that breaks the law. However, some researchers argue that crime really occurs when someone _______ to break the law. Other psychologists argue that behaviour is only criminal if it is intended and if it actually causes damage or harm to another person or their property. What counts as criminal behaviour also depends on factors such as: ____ and _______. In terms of ____, certain behaviours have become more or less acceptable than in the past. E.g. male homosexuality was illegal in the UK up until 40 years ago, but now homosexual people have the same rights as heterosexual people. In terms of _______, certain behaviours are acceptable in some countries but not in others. For example, euthanasia is against the law in the UK and many other countries, but has been legalised in countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. Even if we agree that it is simpler to define crime as any act against the law, then it is still difficult to actually _______ this. Official measures rely on accurate recordings and reporting by police forces that then pass on their crime figures on to the government’s Home Office. Question: Why may people not report crime if they or somebody they know was a victim? Answer: 1) 2) 3) Time Behaviour Culture Intends Time Measure Culture
  • 3. Criminal personality: A collection of traits that make a person different from ‘normal’, law abiding people Impulsiveness Self-importance Pleasure-seeking Being over-optimistic Lacking in feels of guilt Another problem with defining crime as any act against the law is that this would make most people criminals. Studies have shown that nearly adult has broken the law. In most cases these are minor offences. Psychologists believe major offenders have a different type of personality from ‘normal’ people. Although a number of psychologists agree on the idea of a separate criminal personality, there is less agreement on the characteristics of this personality. However, common characteristics include:
  • 4. Brain dysfunction is only evident in some criminals, so it does not reliably predict whether someone is going to be a criminal or not In addition, brain dysfunction may not be genetic. It could be caused by problems in birth or pregnancy, through illness or injury, or through environmental factors (diet, pollution, etc.). This shows that it is hard to predict exactly what causes criminal behaviour. Critics of the biological theory argue that there cannot be one criminal gene that accounts for all criminal behaviour: It is hard to believe that the same gene is responsible for violent crimes such as rape, theft, etc. In addition, crimes do not really ‘exist’ in the sense that society creates them, so can there really be a gene behind crimes? The idea that criminals have a different set of features from other people is not well supported by evidence. Even when criminals appear to look different, it can be explained by other factors besides genetics. For example, society may be prejudiced against looks and this is why certain types of people end up turning to crime, being arrested, or being sent to prison. The biological theory clearly ignores the influence of the social environment on criminal behaviour. The fact that crime seems to run in families can equally be explained by the theory that children learn their criminal behaviour from their parents and others, and so it continues through generations.
  • 5. The answers in the heading! The social learning theory supports the nurture side of the nature/nurture debate because you are learning behaviour through observing and imitating others. For example, if a child sees his older brother threatening someone with a knife and getting away with their belongings, the younger brother may be motivated to copy him. However the theory states that we only copy people who aspire to be, or look up to. This is also known as a role model. Vicarious Reinforcement: When someone’s behaviour is reinforced because they observe how another person is rewarded for the same behaviour. Use the information above to fill in the blanks. We are more likely to ………….. Others if we see them to be a …………………. Or if they see another person getting …………….. for their behaviour. This is called………………………………… There is evidence that shows that people, especially …………….. are ………………. by ……………….. and other onscreen formats. This why we have certifications on films and ………………………….
  • 6. Role Model // Rewarded // Children // Influenced// Rewarded // Vicarious Reinforcement // Parental Guidance Warnings // Imitate // Gaming Use the space below to make notes on anything you do not understand
  • 7. What was the AIM of Mednick et Al's study? To see if criminal behavior is due to genes or upbringing To see if criminal behavior is due to gender or sex To see if criminal behavior is due to our country of origin Procedure: Mednick et al carried their adoption study in _________. They accessed the criminal records of over _________ males born between 1942 and ______. They then compared these men’s records with the criminal records of their _________ biological and their ________ parents. Results: Did have biological parents who were convicted of a crime Did not have biological parents who were convicted of a crime Did have adoptive parents who were convicted of a crime 24.5% 14.7% Did not have adoptive parents who were convicted of a crime 20.0% 13.5% From this you can tell: People convicted of the most crimes had parents who _________________________. People convicted of the least crimes had parents who ________________________. This shows that if a person’s biological parents have been convicted of a crime, then they were nearly twice/three/four times more likely to commit a crime themselves than adoptees whose biological parents had not been convicted of a crime. However, if their adoptive parents had been convicted of a crime, this had far less/far more of an effect. A strong correlation was shown between biological parents and their sons/daughters for property crimes. Also if a biological parent had three/four/five or more convictions, then they were significantly more likely to produce a son/daughter who also committed a crime compared with biological parents with no convictions. T o s e e i f c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r i s d u e t o o u r c o u n T o s e e i f c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r i s d u e t o o u r c o u T o s e e i f c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r i s d u e t o o u r c
  • 8. Conclusion: Mednick concluded that genetics/nurture played a greater role in the development of criminal behaviour, as opposed to environmental factors, however the environment was/was not considered irrelevant. Limitations: The study relied on records of criminal convictions that may have been unreliable. As with any criminal records, they rely on crimes being reported or detected, and criminals then convicted. Give an example of how the study could be unreliable _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ A common problem with adoptions is that most children spend some time with their biological parents before being removed or given up for adoption. Even though over 90% of the adoptee in the Mednick et al. study were adopted before the age of 2, many still spent some of their early lives with their biological parents. This is sometimes described as a ‘contamination effect’. A number of psychologists believe that the experiences we have very early on in our lives are crucial to our development. If we bear in the mind that some of the children being studies spent some time with their biological parents, then this may explain the relationship between their behaviour and their biological parents’ behaviour. Sum this criticism up in your own words _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Explain why the core theory is gender biased _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Give one limitation of the core study. (2 marks) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
  • 9. Applications of Research into Criminal Behaviour: Crime Reduction Applications of research into criminal behaviour include strategies for reducing crime, such as use of prisons, rehabilitation and crime prevention techniques. Rehabilitation The aim of rehab is to teach criminals appropriate behaviour however the system does not attempt to punish crimes or to stop them happening. Crime Prevention By placing restrictions or bans on what is viewed on screen is used to prevent anti-social behaviour which has been witnessed on the on screen activity. Also it is a way of stopping ‘copycat’ crimes. With technology expanding this is becoming more difficult to control. Use of Prisons This is a form of punishment. This is intended to make an offender not wish to repeat and criminal actions. You are about to advertise a new online game called ‘Crime City.’ The aim of the game is for the main character Jason to get from point A to point B destroying everything in your path whilst completing secret missions for your drug dealing boss. You have to take into account that the context in the game is not appropriate for children. What certificate would you make it and why? Why could Jason be seen as a role model?
  • 10. PERCEPTON
  • 11. Draw an example for each of the illusions below: Geometric illusion Ambiguous figure fiction wow I am crying because you filled out this table so beautifully wow you are really talented wow I’ve never seen anything so beautiful in my life wow don’t I look cute when I cry wow wow wow Perception is…
  • 12. These lovely baby dogs are confused by psychology. Can you help them explain what shape constancy and colour constancy are? Hello friend, did you know that visual constancies allow us to see things as remaining the same even though their physical characteristics are constantly changing!? Two examples of visual constancies are shape constancy and colour constancy!! YAY! I don’t understand shape constancy because I’m just a little puppy. woof What does colour constancy even mean?
  • 13. Depth Cues! Match up the following depth cues to their definition and an example: Texture Gradient The closer you are to an object, the more detail you can see it in. For example, imagine you are Dorothy and are standing on the yellow brick road. The bricks closer to you will be clearer to see, but as they get further away they become less detailed. Linear Perspective This depth cue allows us to interpret the distance of an object such as a road or bridge. For example, when looking down a stretch of motorway the sides of the motorway seem to come together eventually. This point is known as the vanishing point. If the image is higher to eyes (i.e. above the horizontal halfway line) it is often seen as further away than object lower to the eyes. Height in the Plane When an two objects are expected to be the same size, but when looking at them they are not. Our brain interprets this to mean that the larger object is closer to us, and the smaller object is further away. Relative Size This is when one object is partially covering another, and our brain interprets this to mean that the partially covered object is further away Superimposition
  • 14. The constructivist theory proposes that we construct our perception of the world based on what we see in front of us and past experiences. E.g. We may not recognise a new member of the class as quickly because we have no experience of it. Top-down processing- The constructivist theory supports the idea of Top-down processing. This means when the brain is sorting out objects of information, it makes use of past experiences. This would mean a person’s perception is affected by what you expect to see (what you’ve already seen). This is as well as cultural features, motivation, expectations, and memory. This is the perceptual set- a tendency to perceive the world based on what you’ve already seen, which sets expectations of what should be seen.  Expectations- This effects a person’s perception because you expect things to be a certain way, therefore you will see it in the way that you expect it to be.  Motivation-This may affect a person’s perception because, for example, if you are hungry, food may stand out more than if you weren’t hungry.  Cultural features-You see things as you do because of what is socially acceptable, e.g. if religion is the main influence on a culture, the world may belong to God, however other cultures may see the world as their own to mould into how they think it should be.  Memory-What you perceive will be based on what you have already seen. For example, if you see something new, you have no views on it, as it is new. The only way you can make sense of it is to relate it to things you already know or that you have already seen. Criticisms of the core theory  If perception is based so heavily on individual experiences, why do people tend to perceive the world in a similar way?- It is very rare that we disagree with people about what we see in front of us. People seeing the world the same way would suggest that the information is coming from the environment, and not past experiences.  If perception requires experience, how do we explain the new-born baby’s ability to perceive their world?- Some studies show new-born babies have some perceptual abilities. For example, young babies seem to recognise faces.  The effect of illusions questions rather than supports the constructivist theory- Logically, we should not fall for the same illusion time and time again. If perception is about experience, we should only be fooled by an illusion we have seen once, yet we are fooled time and time again.
  • 15. Gap fill (Theory) The constructivist theory is based on the idea of ___-____ processing. This means the mind uses a __________ set of factors that will affect perception, in order to perceive the world. For example, __________ will effect what we see because, for example, if you are hungry, food is more likely to stand out. The other factors are ________ factors, e.g. perhaps religion or socially accepted ideas, your ______, as you can only perceive something based on what you have already seen, and finally, your ____________, because you tend to see things as you would expect to see them. Questions (Theory) 1) Explain the idea of top-down processing from the core theory of perception. 2) What is the perceptual set? 3) Give your own example of how each factor of the perceptual set may affect a person’s perception. 4) If a person is hungry, what is likely to interest them the most at that time? Questions (Limitations) 1) If people tend to perceive the world in the same way, where would this mean the information would be coming from, and what would this be instead of? 2) Give an example of how new-born babies may have some ability to perceive the world. 3) Why does the effect of illusions question rather than support the constructivist theory?
  • 16. 1) The nativist theory is the opposite of the constructivist theory, and supports the role of:  Nature  Nurture [1] 2) Describe this role. [1] 3) The Nativist theory states that Perception is the result of a  Bottom-up process  Top-down process [1] 4) Describe this type of process. [1] 5) The Nativist Theory states that we perceive the world:  Based on expectation and motivation.  By using information that is in the environment. We see the world as it is. [1]
  • 17. 6) The nativist theory states that perception is the result of a _______________ process rather than a ______________ process. _______________________ means that perception is immediate or direct and is data-driven. It starts with independent information from the ___________________ and works its way upwards to an interpretation of that information. (Top-Down, Environment, Bottom-up Processing, Bottom-up) [4] 7) We perceive the world around us by using the information that is out there in the _________________. We perceive the world as it is. The roles of the mind/brain are to simply ____________ and integrate the information coming through our eyes. The _____________ Theory would argue that this happens as naturally as something like breathing. This would explain why we perceive what happens around us so quickly, and why as humans, we tend to see the world in _______________. We have all _____________ in the same way so we perceive the world in the same way. (Integrate, evolved, Nativist, the same way, environment) [5] 8) Which process is this passage an example of? ‘You are in the passenger seat of a car travelling along a main road and you are just aware of distance because of what has been called the optic flow hitting your eyes, the road rushing at you from a distance.’ [1]
  • 18. Identify which statements are true or false. Describe the Results of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Only one area was empty T/F The participants were all male T/F There were 3 types of objects T/F The experiment was conducted in the UK T/F Used a repeated measures design T/F There were 45 objects in total T/F It was conducted by Haber and Levin in 2001 T/F The participants went up 1 at a time T/F
  • 19. Match the Objects with the right description. Limitations Fill in the gaps: The sample was not very _______________. The sample of _________ was too small. There was also __________ _______ as the study used all __________. The setting was ______________, if the participants’ are from the __________ it could have ____________ the findings. Haber and Levin used a ______________ to check familiarity of objects to each ______________, but participants’ could have _____________ them differently. Judging distance correctly could have been a ______________. CoincidenceArtificial Representative Gender Bias Distorted Nine Males City Questionnaire Person Perceived 15 Cardboard Geometric Figures 15 Real World Objects of similar sizes universally 15 Real World Objects of different sizes universally Doors, Milk Bottles, Biros Squares, Triangles, Pentagons Christmas trees, Vases, Teddy Bears
  • 20. Subliminal advertising Brief sound or _________ that is directed at us without us being __________, there is a less than ____ _____of us noticing it. It can make us do something because our _________ _________ has heard or seen it. Research has been done into ____________ _____ being played in a shop. The __________ can effect what customers got. When French music was played more French _________ was bought. It is the same with __________. Advertising for the brain Match up the boxes: Context in advertising Advertised like this, which jeans look more appealing? Left Eye Left Eye Right Eye Right side of brain Left Side of brain Left Eye Deals with Language Left Eye Deals with Emotional Left Eye
  • 21. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • 22. Age-related changes, e.g. how children think and behave differently as they get older. ______________________________________________________________ The same stages, in a fixed order, that the development of a child’s ability to think goes through. ______________________________________________________________ The pattern or order of the development of thinking that is the same for all children everywhere ______________________________________________________________ The logical rule that quantity does not change even when things are re- arranged: the ability to understand that changing the form of an object or substance does not change the amount or volume. ______________________________________________________________ _ Zone Of Proximal Development Conservation Universal Stages Invariant Stages Cognitive Development The gap between where a child is in their learning and where they can potentially get to with the help and support of others. ______________________________________________________________ Fill In each box with the correct buzzword that is listed at the bottom
  • 23. Match up the sensori-motor stage (from birth to about 2) Fill in the gaps: Piaget noticed that children of the same age often got answers ………………..in the same way. This changes with …………. Piaget observed his …………. children at home and playing with friends. Kept detailed diaries of things they said and did as they mature. Also inventing a number of tasks to experiment on other children’s thinking at different ages and ………….. Observed how children solved problems in their natural settings. Such as …………., ………………….. and …………………. Watched them solve problems and asked them to explain the reasoning behind their decisions. He put together a general stage theory of cognitive development. Came to the conclusion that ‘children are little …………………’ and begin to explore the world the moment they first open their eyes and begin to think about it all. They are actively involved in making sense of what they ……….….., ……………, …………….. and discover- just like scientists. Body schema(s) Motor co-ordinate Object permanence The infant learns to co-ordinate different body parts The infant recognises that it exists physically The infant knows that an object or person still exists even if they cannot been seen Words: wrong, age, three, stages, cribs, sandboxes, playground, scientists, see, hear, feel
  • 24. Match up the pre-operational stage (from about 2 to about 7) Match up the concrete operational stage (from about 7-11) Formal operational stage (11+) Adolescents develop the new lifelong ability to think about, and solve sophisticated abstracts problems. They are at their best at this stage. Unable to work backwards in their thinking Seeing and thinking of the world only from your point of view Animism Treat inanimate objects as if they are alive Egocentrism Reversibility Linguistic humour Seriation Conservation When children start understanding and enjoying word games When children know that the properties of certain objects remain the same even if they appear to change Ability to put things into rank order
  • 25. Criticisms: fill the brackets:  The cognitive stages are not as fixed or rigid as Piaget proposed. (reason)  (Criticism) Some argue that only about 50% of adults in fact make it to the formal operational stage.  Development is not an automatic biological process. (reason)  (Criticism) Not all thinking is an exercise in logic or problem solving. (Example)  Thinking does not develop in the same way for children everywhere. (Example)  (Criticism) Some critics would say that this does not make it a proper theory as theories should offer reasons for why things happen.
  • 26. My hypothesis is… Procedure Piaget used a ……………….……… study in his experiment. To do this he compared children of different ……… , the ages ranged from …..…… years old. The children were shown, one at a time, two ……………….. parallel rows of ……………. . He then changed the …………….. of the counters as each child ……………….. stretching one row out but not ……………. or ……………. any counters. The children were asked ‘which row has more counters? Or are they the same?’ ages, identical, counters, removing, 2-11, cross-sectional, adding, layout, watched Findings More 2-7 year olds (pre-operational stage) chose the manipulated row, than 7-11 year olds (concrete operational stage). Why? . . .
  • 27. Pizza dog says well done for completing this! You’re doing great! You can finish this booklet, I believe in you! I love you all!!! Limitations   
  • 28. Applications of research into cognitive development- educating children: Fill in the boxes: Piaget’s influence on education: Vygotsky’s influence on education: Discovery learning Peer support Children can only learn what their current cognitive stage allows them to. He argued that other people can advanced a child’s thinking by providing a support framework or scaffold on which the child can climb and achieve. The spiral curriculum Role of the teacher
  • 29. Use these for revision
  • 30. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  • 31. Non-verbal Communication-Key concepts ‘Actions speak louder than words’ During face-to-face conversation only ___ of the message is conveyed through your words, ___ is revealed by the tone in your voice and ___ comes through your gestures, facial expression and posture. As well as talking with our tongues we appear to talk with our ____ _________. Gestures, facial expressions and ______ are all types of body language. Gestures = body _____ that send a _____ message to someone. A _____ is a gesture it tells us that the person has a cold. Holding your head in your arms tells us that the person is _____. There are ________ gestures which have been invented for a purpose. (e.g. a police officer moves and stops traffic with ____ movements which motorists ________). There are also very special coded gestures for ____ people Posture This is where we ‘ take it from the ____’ it is the way in which we _________ something by the _____we adopt( the way we _______ ourselves). ________of the head, hand, legs and ____ can tell others what is going on in our _____ such as our mood or ________. Facial expressions The____ is the most important part of your body for conveying information, especially about feelings and attitudes. It has been calculated that there are about ___ types of _____. But there are only really ___ other expressions that can be reliably identified:  Surprise  Fear  _____  Disgust  Happiness  ________ The face has more than 44 more muscles __ on each side.Movement posture special torso communicate attitude 100 Sadness six stance body language 7% sneeze recognise stance signals visual mind feet Anger arm 55% bored face 22 35% deaf feet technical position
  • 32. 1. Fill in the gaps. The social learning theory is about how people , and notice what key people and , and react to getting praise for doing something and being told off for doing something . The key concepts are: • O • I • R • P • R M The social learning theory basically argues that non-verbal communication is a behaviour rather than a , instinctive one. 2. How do significant cultural variations in non-verbal communication act as proof for the Social Learning Theory? 3. True or False? Reinforcement is one of the key concepts of the SLT: T or F The SLT explains why examples of non-verbal communication persist after being punished: T or F The Study of Yuki et al doesn't support the Social Learning Theory: T or F Cultural variations are proof of the Social Learning Theory: T or F 4. Match the definitions to the key concepts Observation A person who other people aspire to be like. Imitation Doing, saying and behaving the same as the 'model' who was being observed (Copying). Reinforcement To watch someone with the purpose of learning about behaviour. Punishment A process in which a behaviour is strengthened because the consequences are positive. Role Models Negative consequences following an action. Core Theory- Social Learning Theory
  • 33. The Core Study: Yuki et al (______) Yuki et al wanted to show that how we interpret ______________ is a procedure of our culture and _____________. Japanese citizens tend to focus more on the _________ to recognise their feelings, whereas Americans tend to look more at the ________. A __________________ study was used. ____ American volunteer students took part it this study and ____ Japanese students took part. The information was collected using a set of pre-determined questions which are the same for all respondents, also known as a _____________. The scale used to measure the ‘happiness’ of each emoticon was from __ to __. __ being sad, and __ being happy. There were __ computer generated faces. The researches then worked out the ________ rating for each face within the culture. Did the results match the hypothesis? Yes or No? This study supports the _________ theory, and suggests that non-verbal communication is _______ and therefore is Nurture/Nature Learnt 2007 eyes 95 average cross-cultural questionnaire 1 9 facial expressions 1 118 6 core 9 mouth socialisation Circle the answer
  • 34. For each emoticon state: -Your own personal opinion (whether you think it’s happy or sad) and why. -How you think Japanese citizens would rate it (happy or sad) and why. -How you think American citizens would rate it (happy or sad) and why.
  • 35. Social skills training works on the __________that non-verbal communication is ______, this is argued by the _____ _______ ____. Social skills training is the application of our knowledge of non-verbal communication to situations in which people need help in ____, this can involve giving an individual the ability to stand up for themselves when normally they would ‘give in’ to others and doing so without using _________ body language. Helps people to understand other people’s body language and to be able to speak __________ using their own body _________. Rehabilitation of offenders Probation teams working with ________ use social skills training. The theory is that by teaching the offenders new ways of ____________ they will be able to deal with situations better in the ______. This helps to reduce their risk or __________ because they can resist peer pressure to commit a crime. There are _____ main mechanisms used in social skills training. 4 mechanisms _________- trainer demonstrates correct behaviour (role play) _______- offender is invited to imitate the models good behaviour ____________- trainer comments on the offender’s performance (reinforcement) _________- tasks between sessions, transferring newly acquired skills to real life and using them Managing conflict Social skills ________ is now used for training employees. Professions such as the armed forces, police force and social services have to manage _______ frequently. These are situations where others(e.g. pupils, patients, offenders) are being threatening or aggressive, these situations need to be dealt with and diffused. Customer service training Many jobs nowadays involve working with the _____. This is always about managing conflict but also about creating good __________. This is important when workers come ______________ with their customers. So therefore __________ communication and social skills awareness is a key requirement. language Assumption non-verbal Practice reoffending learnt communicating aggressive social learning theory Homework coping offenders future Modelling conflict public impressions face-to-face appropriately training four Feedback
  • 36. Telling others what we’re thinking by some recognised body movement. It can be conscious (i.e. we are aware of doing it) or unconscious (i.e. unaware of doing it) Non-Verbal Communication Communicating something physically through our body, for example our body movement, gestures, touching, keeping a distance and so on. Facial Expressions Body Language Social learning Imitation Punishment Cultural variations Reinforcement Role Model Observation Communicating something through the movement of muscles in the face, for example by moving eyebrows, lips, eyes and so on To watch someone with the purpose of learning about their behaviour A process in which behaviour is strengthened because the consequences are positive How a person’s behaviour with, towards and around others develops as a result observing and imitating others, both consciously and unconsciously Doing, saying and behaving the same as the ‘model’ who was observed doing, saying or behaving (what we call copying) An individual who other people aspire to be like This describes differences in behaviour across different countries, societies or communities Negative consequences following an action