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  • 1. Causes of stress 1. Work – Johansson – High risk & control group in Sawmill 2. Hassles & Life events – Kanner et al – Correlating everyday hassles and life events with psychological symptoms 3. Lack of control – Geer & Maisel – Car crash photos, control, predictability and neither conditions Methods of measuring stress 1. Physiological – GSR, EMG, URINE TEST 2. Self report – Visual analogue scale, questionnaire 3. Combined – using both techniques Techniques for managing stress Cognitive – Stress Inoculation Training – Meichenbaum – Test anxiety experiment – compared against Systematic Desensitisation Behavioural – Biofeedback – Budzynski – Using EMG to reduce tension headaches Social – Social Support – Waxler-Morrison – Social support and breast cancer survival rates Diagnosis 1. Categorising – Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM International Classification of Disease ICD 2. Definitions – Jahoda – Ideal mental health AIRPAP Rosenhan & Seligman – Failure to function Adequately SUMOVIV 3. Gender bias – Ford & Widiger – HPD & ASPD Explanations of dysfunctional behaviour 1. Biological – Genetic – Schizophrenia – Gottesman & Shields – review of adoption and twin studies 2. Behavioural – Watson & Rayner – conditioned phobia in “Little Albert” 3. Cognitive – Beck – Depression – Faulty thoughts, processing and behaviours Treatments of dysfunctional behaviour 1. Biological – Karp & Frank 1995 2. Behavioural – McGrath – Systematic desensitisation with noise phobia case study 3. Cognitive – Beck (Cognitive therapy) Characteristics of disorders 1. An anxiety disorder – Phobia 2. A psychotic disorder - Schizophrenia 3. An affective disorder – Bipolar disorder Explanations of a disorder (Phobias) 1. Behavioural – Watson & Rayner 1920 (classical conditioning) ‘Little Albert’ 2. Biological – Genetics – Ohman et al 3. Cognitive – DiNardo 1998 (anxiety) Treatments of a disorder (Phobias) 1. Behavioural – McGrath 1990 (Systematic desensitisation) 2. Biological – Leibowitz (Phenelzine) 3. Cognitive – Ost and Westling (cognitive behaviour therapy)

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