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  • Rollie and Duck 2006
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    • 1. The reward/need satisfaction model The matching hypothesis (Byrne and Clore 1970) From the behavioural approach focus is on direct reinforcement and liking through association (Walster et al 1966) explains why people who are similar in many ways end up together Classical conditioning some people may reward us indirectly in that they are associated with pleasant circumstances May and Hamilton (1980) asked female students how much they liked the look of male strangers whose photographs they were given. • Some students looked at the photos with pleasant music • Others with unpleasant music • Last group were the control with no music. The students who had heard the pleasant music rated the photographs better looking This experiment shows the positive effect (feeling and emotion) can lead to attraction. Evaluation? 1. The more socially desirable a person is (in terms of physical attractiveness, social standing, intelligence, etc) the more desirable they would expect a dating or marriage partner to be. 2. Couples who are matched are more likely to have happy enduring relationships than couples who are miss-matched in terms of social desirability Realistic choices is in play as each person is influenced by the chances of having their affection reciprocated What makes a person socially attractive? Walster et al 1966 tested the matching hypothesis in a dance study. He used 752 first –year undergraduates at the Univerity of Minnesota who were invited to attend a “get acquainted dance” They believed they had been “matched “ with a date – when in fact participants had been randomly matched. Therefore the more attractive the student the more attractive they assumed their date would be. Participants reacted more positively to attractive dates Other factors such as intelligence and personality did not affect liking of the dates. Operant conditioning Some people may reward us directly Argile (1992) points out that some individuals who are rewarding (because they are friendly, helpful and cheerful) tend to be the most liked. • Positive reinforcement - smiling and laughing • Negative reinforcement – When someone helps us escape a state a negative state by offering comfort Murstein 1972 measured the attractiveness level of each partner of actual couples by having their photos judged. Found significant similarity between partner’s level of physical attractiveness. What is it? Research 1! Research 2! What is it? 2 assumptions What makes a person attractive Further research AO2: Participants in relationships are often more concerned with equity and fairness in rewards and demands than with the desire to maximise their own benefits. Limitations of ethnocentrism Non western collectivist cultures show little concern for the receipt of reinforcements. These relationships without reinforcements are very influential and resilient. Gender differences In many cultures women are socialized in to being more attentive to the needs of others rather than the gratification of their own needs. The fulfilment in meeting others needs might be the reinforcement of itself. AO2: Complex matching • It was originally proposed that people paired up with someone of similar social desirability • Compensation may be attractive personality, status & money Gender differences • Physical attractiveness of women is valued more heavily be men. • Physical attractiveness of men is less valued by women. • Gender difference implies that men can compensate in terms of social desirability more than women. Third party influence • Family, friends, dating sites, etc influence the choice of partner
    • 2. 1. Social exchange theories 2. Investment model
    • 3. Based on the principles of operant conditioning which suggest we form and maintain relationships because they are rewarding SET suggests relationships are run like a balance sheet - partners are always trying to maximise their rewards and limit their costs. • We attempt to maximise our rewards and minimise our costs. • The rewards minus the costs equals the outcome. • A successful relationship is a profitable one because the rewards outweigh costs, although a state of ‘loss’ will occur if the costs start to outweigh the rewards (Thibaut & Kelley 1959) Partners use a comparison level – a standard against which all relationships are compared. It is based on memories, experiences and expectations of the future. When a potential partner exceeds the comparison level in terms of profit a relationship will be formed. When another person is met a comparison for alternatives is referred to. The benefits of the new relationship are balanced out against the costs of ending the previous relationship. Profit< comparison level =remain in relationship Profit >comparison level = new relationship begins AO2  Why do people end relationships when there is no alternative?  How great does the disparity in CL need to be in order to be termed unsatisfactory?  Both Argyle (1987) and Duck (1994)- people only consider alternatives once they are dissatisfied with their own one  Moghaddam (1998) – ‘economic’ theories only apply to short-term, high mobility, Western relationships, i.e. University students  Rusbult and Martz (1995) use the profit and loss concept to explain abusive relationships. If investments are high (children, financial security, etc.) and alternatives are low (nowhere to live, no money, etc.) – this will still be a profit situation and therefore women will stay with an abusive partner  SET is reductionist. This theory breaks down relationships into a number of basic social interactions that are focused on the hedonistic (selfish) rewards of a single individual. e.g. wanting to receive gifts and attention. It also fails to take account of the notion of fairness Research support AO2 AO2 States that people strive to achieve fairness in their relationship and become distressed if they perceive unfairness If you give a great deal but receive a little then this results in inequality and therefore dissatisfaction (and vice-versa • Equity does not mean equality • What is considered ‘fair’ is subjective for each partner • e.g. one partner puts less in, it is still equitable if they get less out of the relationship Partner 1’s benefits minus costs = partner 2’s benefit minus costs. • If there is inequity, we are motivated to restore equity which can be done by changing how much input a person puts in or the amount demanded EQUITY THEORY People try to maximize their rewards and minimize the negative experiences within any relationship The distribution of rewards is negotiated to ensure fairness Unfair relationships produce dissatisfaction If the loser feels thee is a chance of restoring fairness he/she will be motivated to save the relationship Research by Walster et al Many SET studies  ecological validity Feeney et al (1994) found that equity theory failed to predict relationship satisfaction because is fails to take into account the considerable variance in the context of modern-day relationships  Gender differences • Prins et al (1993) found Dutch males who perceived inequity in their relationship did not express the desire to have an affair. Women were more likely to respond to inequity by considering an affair. Many stating they had had an extra marital affair for this reason. Kahn et al (1980) found men were more concerned with equity whilst women were more concerned with equality  Cultural variations Gargen et al (1980) found American students preferred equity Moghaddam et al (1993) found European students preferred equality. Social exchange theory evaluation
    • 4. Investment model (Rusbult 1983) As well as considering the balance of rewards/ costs & possible alternatives in a relationship, people also consider how much they had invested in the relationship. She defines investment as ‘anything a person puts into a relationship that will be lost if they leave it’. This may include things such as possessions, children’s welfare and emotional energy. Rusbult asked college students in heterosexual relationships to complete questionnaires over a 7 month period. They kept notes about how satisfactory their relationship was, how it compared with others and how much they had invested in it. Students also noted how committed they felt to the relationship and whether it had ended Rusbult and Martz (1995) applied the investment model to abusive relationships. They asked women living in refuges why they had stayed with their abusive partners instead of leaving them as soon as the abuse began. As predicted by the model, women had felt the greatest commitment to their relationship when their economic alternatives were poor and their investment was great. Le and Agnew (2003) Meta analysis on 52 studies including 11 000 participants. Sample included both heterosexual and homosexual participants. • Found satisfaction is highly positively correlated to commitment. • Relationship between investment and commitment was stronger for heterosexual men. • The relationship between alternatives and commitment was stronger for lesbians than heterosexual women. • Found satisfaction is most prominent variable in  Research support The investment model has been supported by numerous studies including the meta-analysis by Le and Agnew included participants from different ethnic groups as well homosexual and heterosexual relationships  Explains commitment in abusive relationships Rusbult and Martz found women had felt the greatest commitment to relationships when their economic alternatives were poor and their investments were great. Research 1 Rusbult Research 2 Rusbult and Martz Research 3 Meta analsis Le and Agnew Investment model AO2
    • 5. Breakdown Intrapsychic processes Dyadic processes Social processes Grave-dressing processes Resurrection processes If the dissatisfaction is sufficient this will lead to the next set of processesI can’t stand it anymore! Leads to withdrawal or resentment and may result in depression. The individual revaluates the situation and considers alternatives. I’d be justified in withdrawing Partners start talking about the problems in either a constructive or deconstructive way and can lead the relationship being saved or ended I mean it The break up is aired and made public Advice and support are sought from people in the publicIt’s now inevitable This is named after the fact that the relationship has died. An account is created of how, why it came into being as well as how it died. Different stories are offered to different listeners. Time to get a new life How each partner prepares themselves for a later relationship AO2 1. Model focuses on processes rather than distinct phases that people must pass through. 2. Processes may overlap or have common features, but have different purposes and consequences. 3. This research focuses on the potential growth which can come out of relationship breakdown. This growth referred to as resurrection allows people to grow beyond their previous psychological functioning. 4. There appears to be gender differences in the degree to which people report personal growth as a result of a break-up with women reporting more post relationship growth than men 5. Rollie & Duck’s model stresses the importance of communication in relationship breakdown. If we were helping someone to avoid breaking up, listening to how they talk about the relationship and how they talk to their partner can give a clue as to what stage they are at and helps us to see what interventions would help. What I learned and how things will be different
    • 6. Costs related to emotional investment Women prefer mates with resources (who are willing to share) Man’s level of emotional commitment determines likelihood to share Women have higher costs associated with losing emotional investment from their partner as they lose resources and commitment Increasing commitment If breakdown is threatened, men exploit the fact that women value emotional commitment. They may try to maintain sexual access by increasing their emotional investment. Reputational damage If you end a relationship and hurt your partner, it damages your reputation & your chances of getting another partner. Therefore, you act sympathetically to your partner during the breakup Infidelity Males have an evolved desire for sexual variety (Buss & Schmitt 1993) – why? Infidelity serves this desire. Or it can be used as a tactic to end the relationship quickly – and have a replacement all lined up! Therefore males are more likely to engage in infidelity. 2 basic assumptions: 1. There are sex differences in what a male and a female look for in a mate 2. These are determined by the level of investment in the child-rearing process 4 Predictions from evolutionary psychology
    • 7. Costs related to emotional investment Women prefer mates with resources (who are willing to share) Man’s level of emotional commitment determines likelihood to share Women have higher costs associated with losing emotional investment from their partner as they lose resources and commitment Increasing commitment If breakdown is threatened, men exploit the fact that women value emotional commitment. They may try to maintain sexual access by increasing their emotional investment. Reputational damage If you end a relationship and hurt your partner, it damages your reputation & your chances of getting another partner. Therefore, you act sympathetically to your partner during the breakup Infidelity Males have an evolved desire for sexual variety (Buss & Schmitt 1993) – why? Infidelity serves this desire. Or it can be used as a tactic to end the relationship quickly – and have a replacement all lined up! Therefore males are more likely to engage in infidelity. Perilloux & Buss 2008 p 110 Aim was to test the evolutionary predictions relating to the breakdown of relationships • Participants were 98 males and 101 females with the mean age of 20.6 years from university. • All participants were heterosexual and had experienced at least one break up. • 69% were white Caucasian and the rest were from other ethnic backgrounds • 80% had experienced a rejector role in a break up & 71% had experienced this role as the rejectee • Participants either completed a questionnaire online or in person. Females associated higher cost to the loss of a partner’s emotional investment Males found that increasing their commitment prevented a break up Rejectors indicated a higher cost of being seen as cruel and heartless compared to rejectees Male rejectors more than female rejectors engaged in sex with other potential mates prior to the break-up. AO2  Research by Perilloux and Buss confirms evolutionary predictions  Narrow range of participants – low ecological validity Age Students Heterosexual  Reliance of self-report data – social desirability bias Too much focus on ultimate cause = ancestors’ behaviour, whilst it ignores proximate cause = contemporary behaviour. It can be argued that be looking at adaptive significance it may lead to more valid treatments. Reductionist & determinist  Difficult to disprove – can’t be falsified
    • 8. • Charles Darwin (1871) proposed two main mechanisms which determine the evolution of an animal’s characteristics to ensure survival:Natural selection This is the process by which animals that are best adapted to their environment (the fittest) are more likely to survive Sexual selection Competition between males for mates Males evolve characteristics which increase chances of being selected by females Intra-sexual selection Members of one sex (usually male) compete with each other for access to members of the other sex. Traits which lead to success will be passed on. Inter-sexual selection Normally the females then makes a selection between the males.
    • 9. Product of preferences formed in the EEA Pays to be picky as the genetic quality of your mate will determine half the genetic quality of your offspring. Selection indicators Selection for provision Selection for mental characteristics Facial preferences Age, health, strength, disease resistance, etc . Females favour males that offer gifts. Providing meat or making nests, etc. Eases burden during pregnancy & feeding of young. Fisher – some cultures offer sex for meat exchange. Human brain size has x3 over last 2 million years. Evolution of language was crucial Facial attractiveness is linked to the advertisement of good genes. Patel & Bodmer Relative hairlessness –believed that this came about because it is clear whether or not the individual has parasites – if the individual doesn’t have parasites, the clear skin would advertise it, and therefore the person would be more likely to get a sexual partner Buss p113 Women in all cultures showed a preference for older men with resources. Men universally placed more emphasis of physical attractiveness especially the hour glass figure representing her fertility and reproductive value. Men of all cultures desired a partner who was younger than they were an average age of just under 25. Both men and women both wanted partners who were intelligent Miller Love of novelty (neophilia) Music, art and humour would have been highly valued during EEA Grammar and Thornhill Females are attracted to males with masculine features including large jaw and prominent cheekbones) These characteristics are a result of the male sex hormone testosterone. Testosterone is also known to suppress the immune system Therefore healthy men with masculine features model sexual dominance and a healthy immune ? Research ? ? Research ? ResearchResearch Buss evaluation – make sure you read the full study!  Large scale sample: over 10000 people from 37 different cultures  Means that findings can be generalised to all humans  Emic bias  Use of two different questionnaires showed that results were consistent (or reliable)  Sampling methods may not have been representative  Opportunity sampling and the use of volunteers may lead to bias in the sample ) Responses to questionnaires may not reflect how people actually do make choices  People may tend to give what they see as socially acceptable responses.  Difficult to be sure that people’s preferences are due to evolution rather than influence of society – issue with falsification
    • 10. Consequences of sexual selection Short term/ long term mate preferences Sperm competition Logic of sexual selection states that the more females a male impregnates the greater the chance of survival for his genes. How ever the consequences of casual sex are much more costly for the female. Therefore there will be gender difference in approach to short term mating In many species females mate with more than one male during a breeding season Therefore sperm competition is also an important factor in determining which males are successful in fertilizing the egg. In fact males do not compete for females, they primary compete to fertilise an egg. As a result males have evolved: Larger penises Larger testicles Larger ejaculations Faster swimming sperm Buss & schmidt Confederates approached member of the opposite sex (in a public space at a uni) & asked “would you go to bed with me tonight? /Would you come over to my apartment tonight or would you go on a date with me tonight?” Harvey and Harcourt 1984 • Female chimpanzees are highly promiscuous • male chimpanzees have evolved large testicles in an effort to improve their chances of reproduction to have the most sperm. • Gorillas usually live in a group which consists of one adult male and two or three adult females. • The male gorilla can therefore afford to have tiny testicles Baker and Bellis show that by comparison male humans have medium sized testicles suggesting that females in the EEA were moderately ? ? Research Research
    • 11. Revision does not include parent- offspring conflict
    • 12. Parental investment theory • Trivers suggested that the reason females express more choosiness in a mate is due to the fact that they have a higher investment in offspring compared to males. • Trivers defined parental investment as an investment by the parent in a individual offspring that increases the offspring’s chance of survival. Female gametes (eggs) are less numerous and more expensive to produce than male gametes (sperm) • Females = can have a limited number of offspring • Males = potentially a unlimited number The sex that invests the least (males) will compete over access to the sex that invests the most (female)
    • 13. Maternal investment Paternal investment • More effort and time in rearing process • Mother carries developing embryo and foetus for 9 months • Infants are completely dependent on mothers for milk for up to 2 years • Gradual increase in brain-size = more difficult childbirth • Children remain dependent on their parents until at least their teenage years • Human males can opt out of parental investment is a way that females cannot • Can devote little time and effort to parental care • Males have less certainty of determining fatherhood from offspring • Cuckoldry – the use of valuable resources in providing for children that are not their own. Unfaithful mate may lead to the division of resources away from her and the family Unfaithful mate may lead risked investing in offspring that were not his own. Buss 1995 suggested that sexual jealousy may have evolved as a solution to these problems Women become jealous when there is a shift in emotional focus (and loss Men are more jealous of the sexual act itself. ? ? effect of unfaithfulness Effect of unfaithfulness Result Result Evolved response? Gener (2007) Maternal/ paternal preparedness Procedure: Sample - 91 undergraduates that were not parents and went to State University of New York. Completed parental investment perception scale. Next, participants were exposed to a number of statements that presented sacrificial scenarios regarding parenting Findings: No gender differences in perception of parental readiness. However, Males showed significantly higher ANS (Autonomic nervous system) arousal compared to females when presented with scenarios that emphasized the psychological costs of parenting. Males are less prepared to confront issues associated with parenting than females Evaluation: Males may have experienced greater SDB when completing self-reports Ethnocentric Nature/ nurture debate Approach (evolutionary evaluation) Evaluation of sex differences in parental investment • Males do help out! • Model states that fathers are more likely to share resources with children who know are their own and less likely to share with those with whom they do not have a blood relationship. However, this is a oversimplification & research by Anderson et al confirms this (pg117) • Research by Buss et al (1992) found male students showed more distress (galvanic skin response) when asked to imagine sexual infidelity of their partner; females showed more concern about emotional infidelity. • Are gender differences evolutionary or the result of social learning?
    • 14. The internal working model Bowlby proposed that the attachment with the primary care giver (monotropy) would be the basis of a continuity hypothesis which proposed an internal working model. The attachment type with primary care giver will be how you relate to adult relationships. Ainsworth strange situation • Insecure avoidant • Insecure resistant • Secure attachment Hazan and Shaver (1987) Published a “love quiz” in an American newspaper called the Rocky Mountain News. They received 620 replies sent in from people aged from 14 to 82. They classified the respondents’ according to Mary Ainsworth’s infant attachment types: secure, anxious-resistant and anxious-avoidant Findings Hazan & Shaver found a strikingly high correlation between the infant attachment types and the adult romantic love styles. Conclusions Hazan & Shaver concluded that there was evidence to support the concept of the internal working model having a life-long effect. However, they did concede that not everyone stayed true to their infant attachment style and that some people did change as they grew older. Feeney et al (1994) Found that anxiety about attachment issues was the driving force behind a range of destructive patterns of communication in intimate relationships. Morrison et al (1997) Students with avoidant or ambivalent attachment styles described more hostility in their intimate relationships than secure attachments. The greater attachment security the more interdependence in their relationships. Meta analysis by Frayley (1996) found significant positive correlations for the relationship between early attachment and quality of adult relationships The internal working model The love quiz <3 Further research Hazan and ShaverEvaluation • Participants were recording their memories of infant experience and such memories may not always be accurate (retrospective data). • The sample was subject to volunteer bias. • The respondents were self-reporting - and people do not always give truthful answers. • It is important to bear in mind that Hazan & Shaver only established a correlation. Therefore, cause-and- effect cannot be assumed from their work. • Hazan & Shaver repeated the Love Quiz in 1993 and again found strong evidence for a correlation between infant attachment type and adult love style - though the correlation was not quite as strong this time. (In total the two Love Quiz studies involved 1200 participants.)High reliability Over all evaluation for the influence of childhood experience on adult relationships Gender bias Reductionist Ethics Nature/nurture Approach Determinism Ethnocentrism Scientific method Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) may be developed when an infant fails to create a bond or attachment with a caregiver during infancy. Other causes include neglect, and frequent change of care giver. Children display either indiscriminate social behaviour or lack of responsiveness. Shown to have a long lasting and strong impact on adult romantic relationships.
    • 15. Relationship with parents Post divorce relationship Interactions with peers - In infancy secure attachment = explore immediate environment - In adulthood = confidence in explorations outside the family, including the formation of intimate relationships with other adolescents Mother daughter relationship: Can take the form of allegiances. Often based on negativity towards father based on mutual disappointment. Parentification is when mother’s disclose sensitive information to the daughter who then feels responsible to care for the mother and act as the parent. Can significantly contribute to the daughters adjustment in adulthood. Father-son relationship Stronger correlation between quality of father-son relationship and quality of adult relationships compared to father-daughter. Boys with an affectionate and trustful relationship with their father felt greater satisfaction with their romantic partners in Qualter and Munn found that children learn about themselves as a direct result of their experience with other children. Personal value Trust Confidence Acceptance These characteristics are important in later romantic relationships Simpson et al (2007) Method: Studied 78 participants at 4 key stages of their life. 1. Caregivers reported on the child's attachment behaviours. 2. At 6-8years old, teachers rated how well they interacted with peers. 3. At 16, the children were asked to describe their close friendships. 4. As young adults, the participant’s romantic partners were asked to describe their experiences during their relationship Findings: Participants who were securely attached as infants were rated as having higher levels of social competence as children, were closer to their friends at 16 year old, and were more expressive and emotionally attached to their partner in early adulthood Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development a major task of adolescence is working through intimacy issues. Social learning theory states that parents may transmit ideas about opposite-sex relationships through the process of modelling. Adolescents learn The effect of secure attachment Erikson’s psychosocial development The effect of: mother-daughter and father-son relationship In post divorce relationship What is we learn from peers Key research Longitudinal study on 4 key stages Evaluation An example of a longitudinal study in psychology. What are the advantages of a longitudinal study? • Enables one to infer causation from temporal ordering • I.e. whether an experience at one point in time is likely to influence behaviour at subsequent points in time. • Does not provide researchers with a statement of pure causality, but does allow researchers to predict with reasonable accuracy what the outcome would be under specific circumstances. • E.g. children with more secure attachment experiences appeared to enjoy better quality romantic relationships in adulthood.
    • 16. Individualist cultures Collectivist cultures • Individualistic cultures have a focus on the individual • Relationships are based on freedom of choice • Reliance on others is undesirable • Greater emphasis on I than we! • Collectivist cultures have a focus on the group • Relationships are based on “the good of the family” • Members are encouraged to be interdependent • The family is considered more important than the individual Exposure to potential partners • In western cultures we voluntarily interact with a number of people • We therefore have a big choice in who we date • We have a large “pool” of potential relationships • In non western cultures there are less urban areas • And less social mobility • Interaction with strangers is rare • This means they have less choice in who they can interact and have a relationship with • In societies with traditionally reduced mobility arranged marriages would make sense 3 types of arranged marriages: The planned type: Parents plan the whole arrangements. Bride and groom may only meet on the day of the wedding. Chaperoned interaction: Males tell their parents about their desires and they try find someone who matches. Joint-venture type: Both parents and children are involved in selecting the mate. Open dating may be involved. Cultural differences in romantic love: Spreecher et al (1994) asked “If a boy/girl had all the other qualities you desired, would you marry this person if you were not in love with him/her” to American, Japanese and Russian students -The Japanese were as romantic as the Americans -Both expressed reluctance to marriage without “love” -Russian students were far more practical about marriage and were more likely to settle for a loveless marriage provided all other requirements were met. Levine et al in 1995 found that only in traditional, collectivist cultures such as Thailand, India and Pakistan were students willing to compromise. These societies considered romantic love to be a luxury Issue of divorce Most cultures have provision for divorce, but there is greater stigma attachment to divorce in traditional cultures which continue to use arranged marriages. Betzig (1989) studied divorce in 160 countries and found the following causes of divorce in descending order: Infidelity Sterility Cruelty Maltreatment Huang (2005) outlines some of the key influences on divorce in Asian countries: Rapid urbanisation Stress of modern day work has spilled into marital relationships Enhanced choice More choice about whether to leave abusive relationships Loosening of social control over marriage Families are gradually loosing their influence over couples Increased leniency of divorce laws There is a positive correlation between reduced legal restrictions and divorce rate Growth of individualism More emphasis on union of 2 individuals rather than 2 families The importance of romantic love Media influences means that cultures adopt a western view of love 1. Individualism verses collectivism • Much of our understanding of these terms is derived out of Hofstede (1980) analysis of data on 100 000 employees in 50 different countries • However, research over the last 10 years has begun to cast doubt on the usefulness of the distinction. • For example Japanese and American have the same view on romantic love 2. Voluntary verses involuntary relationships pg. 127 Within immigrant communities there appears to be a gradual transition from traditional patterns of mate selection towards a more Westernised approach. For example, in a study of 70 Hindu Gujurati couples living in Leicester: 8% had completely arranged marriages 75% had been introduced via a third party 3. Is choice related to satisfaction? Myers et al (2005) asked 45 individuals (22 couples and one widowed person) living in India in arranged marriages to complete a questionnaire measuring marital satisfaction. The responses were then compared with individuals in the US in marriages of choice. • There were cultural differences in the factors considered important for a successful marriage. • US placed high importance on love as a prerequisite for marriage. Whereas in India love was considered less important. • Even though there were different factors involved, satisfaction in the marriages were equal 4. Permanent or impermanent relationships? • The less permanent view on relationships in the West is a recent phenomenon. • 50 years ago divorce was very rare in the West. • Urbanisation and mobility have lead to the increase of divorce rates. • Differences of divorce rate between West/East may be better measured as a product of increasing urbanisation around the world.

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