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  • 1. 1 A2 Independent Study Addiction Booklet Name Class
  • 2. 2 TASK 1: Biological explanation of addiction.Due Complete the glossary below: Dysphoric Tolerance Nicotine Relapse Addictive behaviour Withdrawal symptoms Answer the questions below: 1. Does the biological explanation of addiction support free will or determinism? Explain your answer. 2. Independent research: What is neuroadaptation? How does this explain why people develop withdrawal symptoms? 3. Use the term ‘reductionist’ to criticise the biological explanation of addiction
  • 3. 3 KEY STUDY: Kendleret al. (1999) investigated the heritability of nicotine dependence in a sample of female twins. Genetic factors contributed to a total of 72% of the variance in liability to nicotine dependence and the remaining variance was explained by unique environmental factors. Complete the table below based on this study: AIM: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ FINDINGS: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ SUPPORTING STUDY (what study supports their findings?) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ CONCLUSIONS: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Quick Question – Provide two weaknesses of this study ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  • 4. 4 TASK 2: Learning model of addiction.Due Pick a study that supports the learning explanation of addiction and complete the grid below based on this study:
  • 5. 5 Pick a study that refutes the learning explanation of addiction and complete the grid below based on this study: Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  • 6. 6 TASK 3: Cognitive and learning models of addiction.Due 1. Explain the difference between the cognitive and learning models of addictive behaviour. 2. Explain two evaluative points concerning each of the cognitive and learning models of addictive behaviour. 3. Outline what is meant by cognitive myopia and explain how it relates to addictive behaviour.
  • 7. 7 KEY RESEARCH: Wikler (1948) an American doctor noticed that patients who had been treated for drug addiction experienced uncomfortable withdrawal-like symptoms if they returned to places associated with their former drug use. 1. Use the term unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response to explain Wikler’s findings. 2. What implications could there be for treatment programmes? 3. Explain thecue exposure theory. Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  • 8. 8 TASK 4: Vulnerability factors of addiction and influence of media on addiction. Due.. 1. Francis (1996) found that people who are more moody, irritable and anxious (high N) and those who are more impulsive and aggressive (high P) are more likely to have problems with substance dependence. Explain one methodological weakness of Francis’ study: 2. Describe research into at least two factors that may contribute to vulnerability to addiction. 3. Explain what is meant by ‘psychoticism’ and explain how this is different from ‘extraversion’. 4. What role might the media have in the origins of addictive behaviour? Provide evidence in your answer.
  • 9. 9 5. Early survey studies have found small, but significant, positive relationships between reported exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking beliefs and behaviors among young people (Aitken, Eadie, Leather, McNeill, and Scott, 1988; Atkin and Block, 1981; Atkin, Hocking, and Block, 1984; Atkin, Neuendorf, and McDermott, 1983). These effects were small, however, and some studies failed to find substantively meaningful relationships between alcohol advertising and drinking beliefs and behaviors among young people (e.g., Adlaf and Kohn, 1989; Strickland, 1982; Strickland, 1983). Provide a methodological weakness of the studies above: Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  • 10. 10 Task 5: Psychological interventions to addiction.Due… Complete the glossary below based on learning-based techniques on treating addictive behaviours: Aversion therapy Contingency contracting Cue exposure Self management techniques 1. Give a brief evaluation of aversion therapy as a treatment for addiction. What are the strengths and weaknesses? 2. What cues are there for smoking? 3. What cues are there for gambling? KEY RESEARCH: Higgins et al (1994) Aim: To change the behaviour of people with a serious cocaine problem Method: Sample was 28 cocaine addicts (all white males from Vermont) they had their urine tested several times a week for traces of cocaine, and every time it was clear of any cocaine they were
  • 11. 11 given vouchers. The vouchers started with a value of $2.50, but every time they were clear of cocaine the value went up by $1.50, so that if they had ten consecutive clear tests they would receive $17.50 for the next clear test. If they had one test that showed traces of cocaine then the payments went back to $2.50 again. The vouchers were backed up with counselling on how best to spend the money (e.g. sports equipment or a family meal) Findings: 85% stayed in the programme for 12 weeks (higher than average). Two thirds stayed for 6 months. Evaluation: 1. Provide a weakness of this study using the term ‘real life’ 2. Provide a weakness of this study using the term ‘population validity’ 3. Given the apparent success of the programme would you recommend the approach to government think tanks? If yes, why? If no, why not? 4. Given the fact that drug users are basically being paid to keep drug-free, do you think this is good use of taxpayers’ money? 5. What other operant-type incentives could be used instead of money? Do you think they would be as effective as the voucher system? Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  • 12. 12 Task 6: Biologicalinterventions.Due… Three classes of interventions have been approved for smoking cessation. Describe each of them below: Buproprion Nicotine replacement products Varenicline (most recent approval) 1. Provide a brief description of nicotine vaccines. What supporting research is there for the effectiveness of these vaccines? 2. Briefly describe how methadone works 3. Briefly describe how naltrexone works 4. Complete the two A02 points below concerning biological interventions
  • 13. 13 Point: Biological interventions may ignore the underlying reason(s) for addiction Explanation: Elaboration: Point: Addicts may return to their addictive behaviour when the drug is stopped Explanation: Elaboration: Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed: *end of booklet*
  • 14. 14

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