PSYA1: Developmental Psychology:
Attachment Independent Study
Booklet
Class:
Name:
In this topic you will:
 Understand ex...
Key Word Definition
Learning theory
Primary
attachment figure
Attachment
Classical
conditioning
Operant
conditioning
Key S...
___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________...
1. What is a longitudinal study?
2. Does this support or refute the learning theory of attachment? Why?
Completed (Y/N): D...
2. __________________________________ Bowlby believes children have an innate drive to
become attached because it has long...
seen as evidence that the baby has formed an attachment. This has usually developed by
one year of age.
o After 9 months -...
Task 3: Types of attachment. Due…
The Strange Situation is a procedure for assessing the quality of
attachment between the...
Ainsworth identified three different types of attachment. Complete the table with a description of how each attachment typ...
The Strange Situation – conclusions
Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
Ainsworth suggested the ‘caregiver sensitivity hypothes...
Task 4: Cultural variations in attachment and privation. Due…
Answer these questions about Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’...
One method that psychologists have used to study the affects of privation is to
consider case studies of individual childr...
Explain how each of the following factors might be used to assess the usefulness of
studies of privation:
Completed (Y/N):...
Task 5: Day Care. Due…
Further research into the effect of day-care on
children’s aggressive behaviour
Baker et al (2005)
...
Further research into the effect of day-care on children’s peer
relationships
Shea (1981)
What was done: Shea video-taped ...
15
Complete the table below:
Research which has found that
children in day care are more
aggressive
Research which has fou...
16
The effect of day-care on children’s social development –
Peer relationships
Complete the table below:
Research which h...
17
Task 6: Other variables which may affect the child’s
experience of day-care. Due…
Other factors which
may be important:...
18
The implications of research for improving day care
provision
Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
Attachment research has fo...
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  1. 1. PSYA1: Developmental Psychology: Attachment Independent Study Booklet Class: Name: In this topic you will:  Understand explanations of attachment, including: - learning theory - Bowlby’s theory  Understand Types of attachment: secure attachment, insecure-avoidant and insecure resistant  Understand the use of the “Strange Situation” in attachment research  Understand cultural variations in attachment  Understand the effects of disruption of attachment, failure to form attachment (privation) and institutional care  Understand the impact of different forms of day care on children’s social development, including: - the effects on aggression and peer relations TASK 1 – Explanations of attachment: Learning theory. Due… Complete the tables below.
  2. 2. Key Word Definition Learning theory Primary attachment figure Attachment Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Key Study: Harlow (1959) Read through in your textbook and fill in the boxes below using the APFC format. AIM: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ PROCEDURE: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ FINDINGS: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ CONCLUSIONS: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
  3. 3. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Quick Question – What is this study testing? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Schaffer and Emerson (1964) Procedure: Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson conducted a longitudinal study on 60 babies at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of their life. The children were all studied in their own home and a regular pattern was identified in the development of attachment. The babies were visited monthly for approximately one year, their interactions with their carers were observed, and carers were interviewed. Evidence for the development of an attachment was that the baby showed separation anxiety after a carer left. Results: They discovered that baby's attachments develop in the following sequence: o After 7 months - Special preference for a single attachment figure. The baby looks to particular people for security, comfort and protection. It shows fear of strangers (stranger fear) and unhappiness when separated from a special person (separation anxiety). This is seen as evidence that the baby has formed an attachment. This has usually developed by one year of age. o After 9 months - Multiple attachments. The baby becomes increasingly independent and forms several attachments. Conclusions: The results of the study indicated that attachments were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby's signals, not the person they spent most time with. The most important fact in forming attachments is not who feeds and changes the child but who plays and communicates with him or her. Now answer these questions on the Schaffer and Emerson study:
  4. 4. 1. What is a longitudinal study? 2. Does this support or refute the learning theory of attachment? Why? Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed: Task 2: Explanations of attachment: Bowlby’s theory theory. Due… Complete the gaps below: Key principles 1. __________________________________ Bowlby believed that all children form a number of attachments but one of these is of significant importance. Infants also form a number of other attachments forming the Hierarchy of attachments. Bowlby believed that the primary attachment was to the person who responds most sensitively to the social releasers. This bond forms the foundations for emotional development, self esteem and relationships with peers lovers and their own children. Secondary attachments act as a safety net. Children raised with no secondary attachment appear to lack social skills.
  5. 5. 2. __________________________________ Bowlby believes children have an innate drive to become attached because it has long term benefits (similar to imprinting). This innate drive ensures that infants stay close to the care giver for food and protection. These behaviours are adaptive because they increase the chances of survival and reproduction. 3. __________________________________An innate readiness to for an attachment with the mother. This takes place in the sensitive period 4. __________________________________As attachments are innate there is likely to be a crucial period of time for attachments to form. Bowlby believed this was before a child turned 2 and a half. 5. __________________________________These are characteristics that elicit care giving. These could be smiling crying. 6. __________________________________Protection is a vital part of attachment. It acts as a secure base where a child can explore his/her surroundings. This is part of independence. 7. __________________________________Is a group of concepts a child learns in regards to what expect from a relationship. It is developed in early childhood and is created by the attachment the child has. This could be a relationship of trust or one of uncertainty. 8. __________________________________This is the idea that there is a link between early attachments and later emotional behaviour. I.e. those who have a secure attachment as a child will continue to be socially and emotionally competent. Schaffer and Emerson (1964) Procedure: Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson conducted a longitudinal study on 60 babies at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of their life. The children were all studied in their own home and a regular pattern was identified in the development of attachment. The babies were visited monthly for approximately one year, their interactions with their carers were observed, and carers were interviewed. Evidence for the development of an attachment was that the baby showed separation anxiety after a carer left. Results: They discovered that baby's attachments develop in the following sequence: o After 7 months - Special preference for a single attachment figure. The baby looks to particular people for security, comfort and protection. It shows fear of strangers (stranger fear) and unhappiness when separated from a special person (separation anxiety). This is
  6. 6. seen as evidence that the baby has formed an attachment. This has usually developed by one year of age. o After 9 months - Multiple attachments. The baby becomes increasingly independent and forms several attachments. Now answer these questions below: 1. Does this support or refute Bowlby’s theory of attachment? Why? 2. Summarise supporting research for Bowlby’s theory of attachment below: Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  7. 7. Task 3: Types of attachment. Due… The Strange Situation is a procedure for assessing the quality of attachment between the infant and mother. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth et al (1978) and involves a series of episodes where the child is left alone and adults come in and out of the room. The procedure lasts for 22 minutes in total. Ainsworth assessed the quality of attachment on the basis of the child’s response to specific episodes of the procedure. Explain each of the following terms, in relation to the Strange Situation:  Who were the participants? What was the main aim of the study?  Separation anxiety:  Stranger anxiety  Reunion behaviour  The Strange Situation uses a controlled observation methodology. Explain how this differs from a naturalistic observation:
  8. 8. Ainsworth identified three different types of attachment. Complete the table with a description of how each attachment type responded to each episode of the procedure: TYPE OF ATTACHMENT Mother present (exploration) Mother leaves (separation anxiety) Stranger enters (stranger anxiety) Mother return (reunion behaviour) Secure Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant
  9. 9. The Strange Situation – conclusions Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed: Ainsworth suggested the ‘caregiver sensitivity hypothesis’ as an explanation for different attachment types. Explain what this is: What is the ‘temperament hypothesis’ and how does it offer an alternative explanation for different types of attachment? (Kagan, 1982) What reasons can you think of to explain why some infants develop different types of attachment than others?
  10. 10. Task 4: Cultural variations in attachment and privation. Due… Answer these questions about Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s (1988) meta analysis of cross cultural studies of attachment: What do we mean by ‘culture?’ What is a meta-analysis? What do the results of the Van Ijzendoorn study tell us about the level of secure attachment across different cultures? Which country has the highest number of insecure avoidant infants? Which country has the highest number of insecure resistant infants? Explain one strength and one weakness of research into cross-cultural variations in attachment:
  11. 11. One method that psychologists have used to study the affects of privation is to consider case studies of individual children who have been raised in conditions where no attachment bond has been made. You will watch a video of some of these cases, and will research two of them for your homework assignment. Use this page to summarise the most important aspects of each case. You should include:  Age when discovered  Conditions they were kept in  Physical, cognitive and emotional effects of privation  Care after discovery Evaluation of privation case studies Genie (Curtiss, 1977) The Czech twins (Koluchova, 1976)
  12. 12. Explain how each of the following factors might be used to assess the usefulness of studies of privation: Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed: Use case study method of research: Used retrospective data: Ethical issues:
  13. 13. Task 5: Day Care. Due… Further research into the effect of day-care on children’s aggressive behaviour Baker et al (2005) What was done: Following introduction of day care for all in Quebec, the proportion of 0 to 4 year olds in day care rose by 14%, and the number of married women returning to work also increased. Baker et al analysed data on 33,000 children of two-parent families. What was found: • In the period after day care became widely available, aggression among 2 to 4 year olds increased by 24% in Quebec, compared to 1% in the rest of Canada. • The wellbeing of parents also declined, with a greater incidence of hostile parenting and dissatisfaction with spouses. Conclusion: Day care can increase aggressive behaviour. Evaluation: Relations between parents, and parents’ attitudes, also changed. This means that it is difficult to know whether the day care itself directly caused aggressiveness in the children, or whether this was at least partly caused by the different adult behaviours at home. EPPE project (1991) What was done: Studied over 3000 children in UK, between 3 and 7 years old. What was found: • Sammons et al (2003) analysed data and showed that there is a slight risk of antisocial behaviour when children spend more than 20 hours per week in nurseries. • This risk increases noticeably when they spend more than 40 hours a week in care. • Melhuish (2004) noticed increased aggression amongst children whose carers are constantly changing. Conclusion: Day care can increase anti-social and aggressive behaviour. The longer young children spend in day care, particularly nursery care or a care environment where they lack a constant care figure, the more pronounced the aggressive behaviour is. Evaluation: Supported by the US NICHD study, which also found increased aggression among children in day care. Shea et al (1981) What was done: Shea video-taped 3- and 4-year old children at playtime during their first 10 weeks at nursery school. What was found: • Children became more sociable the longer they were at nursery. • The amount of aggressive behaviour towards one another decreased. • These changes were greater in children attending for 5 days a week, compared to those attending for just 2 days a week. Conclusion: Day care can increase sociability and decrease aggressive behaviour. Evaluation: The fact that aggression reduced more in children attending for 5 days a week rather than 2 days a week, suggests that it was the day care that caused this effect rather than just the children maturing. ALSPAC (1991-1992) What was done: The progress of 14,000 children born in the UK between 1991 and 1992 was followed. What was found: No negative effects of day care, including no evidence of increased anti-social behaviour or aggression. Conclusion: Day care may not increase aggressive behaviour between children. Evaluation: This was a large-scale study, and therefore the findings can be generalised with caution to other children, at least in the UK.
  14. 14. Further research into the effect of day-care on children’s peer relationships Shea (1981) What was done: Shea video-taped 3- and 4-year old children at playtime during their first 10 weeks at nursery school. What was found: Children became more sociable the longer they were in day care. They stood closer together and engaged in more rough-and-tumble play, and moved further away from teachers. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: A well-structured observation, looking at measurable behaviour (distance, frequency of interaction…). Findings supported by other studies, such as Clarke-Stewart (1994), Andersson (1989, 1992), and the EPPE project Clarke-Stewart (1994) What was done: Studied 150 children attending school for the first time. They had experienced different forms of day care. What was found: Children who had attended nurseries could cope better in social situations, and were able to interact better with peers, compared with children previously looked after in family settings. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: A relatively small study, with just 150 participants. This means we can generalise findings, but with caution. Andersson (1989, 1992) What was done: Studied the social and cognitive progress of children attending Swedish day care. What was found: Children who attended day care were able to get along with other children better, were more sociable and outgoing, and had better abilities to play with their peers than children who did not attend day care. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: Swedish day care is particularly good quality. However, findings are supported by other studies, such as Shea (1981), Clarke-Stewart (1994) and the EPPE project EPPE project What was done: Studied over 3000 children in UK, between 3 and 7 years old. What was found: Children who attended day care showed increased independence and peer sociability at 5 years. This study also found that an early start in day care (between 2 and 3 years) was also linked with being more sociable with other children. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: A large sample size means that findings can be generalised with relative confidence, at least to other UK children. DiLalla (1988) What was done: Carried out a correlational study into time spent in day care and pro-social behaviour. What was found: DiLalla found a negative correlation between the amount of time spent in day care and pro-social behaviour: children who spent more time in day care were less cooperative and helpful in their dealings with other children. Conclusion: Day care can harm peer relations. Evaluation: Useful evaluative point for contrasting with studies which found a more positive outcome.
  15. 15. 15 Complete the table below: Research which has found that children in day care are more aggressive Research which has found that children in day care are less aggressive (or that day-care makes no difference to levels of aggression) Study 1: Study 1: Study 2: Study 2: Study 3: Study 3: What evaluation points can be made about the research above? (Make at least 3 points)
  16. 16. 16 The effect of day-care on children’s social development – Peer relationships Complete the table below: Research which has found that day-care has a positive effect on peer relationships Research which has found that day-care has a negative effect on peer relationships Study 1: Study 1: Study 2: Study 2: Study 3: Study 3: What evaluation points can be made about the research above? (Make at least 3 points) Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  17. 17. 17 Task 6: Other variables which may affect the child’s experience of day-care. Due… Other factors which may be important: Summary of research evidence The quality of the day care The amount of time spent in day care . The type of day care The child’s attachment type
  18. 18. 18 The implications of research for improving day care provision Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed: Attachment research has found that separation is stressful for the child. How can day care providers minimise this distress? Attachment research suggests that the day care environment should provide the child with a secure and warm attachment. List as many ways as you can think of that a day care centre might help the child develop this quality of attachment:

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