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  1. 1. The Cognitive Approach to Psychopathology v=Oo4OnQpwjkc
  2. 2. Specification – Unit 2 - 20th May • Explaining abnormality: • • Key features of psychological approaches to psychopathology including the cognitive approach
  3. 3. Learning Objectives • All students will be able to outline two key features of the Cognitive Model of psychopathology and two AO2 points - E/D • Most students three - C/D grades • Some students four -A/B grades
  4. 4. What do you notice about the picture? How does it link to the lesson?
  5. 5. Examination Question • Outline and evaluate the cognitive approach to psychopathology (12 marks) • Outline and evaluate one or more psychological approaches to psychopathology (12 marks)
  6. 6. What is it in a nutshell? • The cognitive approach links psychological disorders to dysfunctional thoughts and perceptions, especially negative views of the self, the world and the future.
  7. 7. Cognitive approach This approach stresses the role of cognitive problems (such as irrational thinking) in abnormality functions. This approach was founded by Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck They developed this approach as they saw faults in the behavioural approach as it didn’t take into account mental processes. The rationale behind the cognitive approach are that the thinking processes between a stimulus and a response are responsible for the feelings that form part of the response.
  8. 8. Why? ● Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis were concerned that little attention was paid to underlying cognitive processes and what goes on in the mind. ● Therefore they developed the cognitive approach to abnormality as a combination of behaviourism and cognitive models.
  9. 9. Hey! I'm Albert Ellis! I'm oneof thefounders of thecog approach to abnormality! I'm Aaron Beck! I also founded thecog approach to psychopathology. Hey! Look over there, it'stheY12sfrom BlytheBridge! NiceDicky bow, mate!
  10. 10. Cognitive processing • The cognitive model emphasises that cognitive processing is an important influence in psychological adjustment. The sleeping dog, whose real nature is unknown, is seen differently by the two cats.
  11. 11. Key features Ellis 1962 Irrational thinking – the cognitive approach assumes that emotional problems can be linked to distortions in our thinking processes These distortions can take the form of negative thoughts, irrational beliefs and illogical errors such as polarized thinking (believing you are totally worthless if you are not loved by everyone you know) Or overgeneralization ( drawing negative conclusions on the basis of a single event) These maladaptive thoughts, according to the approach, take place automatically and without your full awareness.
  12. 12. Key features ● How we see ourselves RAWR!.. okay it needs work
  13. 13. stimulus thinking feeling behaviour outcome thinking feeling behaviour outcome maladaptive I can’t sit exams Fear of failing Leave college Psychological problems adaptive I must try harder determination Work harder success
  14. 14. The cognitive triad and errors of logic Beck 1967 Beck believed that negative thoughts were the cause of mental disorders and was particularly interested in depression. He identified two mechanisms that he thought were responsible for depression; 1. Errors in logic – people making illogical conclusions leads to overgeneralization and negative feelings which leads to depression 2. Cognitive triad – 3 forms of negative thinking that were typical of those who suffer from depression
  15. 15. Negative views about the world Negative views about the future Negative Views about oneself
  16. 16. Negativeviews about theworld about thefuture Negativeviews about oneself “Meh” Negative viewsabout thefuture “My futureisdull, I tell you!” “Well I just suck!”
  17. 17. Cognitive Triad – Beck 1979 The negative triad is Beck’s model of depression. It is based on pessimistic thoughts about the self, the world and the future.
  18. 18. ... ● Early experiences in life influence the development of the schemata. ● Example – traumatic experiences early on may lead to the development of negative schemata such as insecure attachment may lead to the schemata of “I am not loved by anyone and am all alone” Boohoo. Woe isme!
  19. 19. NATs ● Negative schemata, when activated can lead to negative automatic thoughts also known as NATs. ● In the cog approach NATs are misplaced and dysfunctional. Some people think they are useless Thisisagnat... but not that kind!
  20. 20. NATs continued ● Negative automatic thoughts are unconscious and create rapid responses to certain situations. They can be identified in the cognitive biases that depressed people apply when they interpret situations and prevent the person from seeing the positive side to life. Don't worry, behappy! OooooOO...
  21. 21. Cognitive biases
  22. 22. Thenegativeschemataisshown through Aaron Beck'smodel of depression (1979) and it givesa clear exampleto thecog approach to psychopathology. It involvesthreenegativeschemata. Thisisshown on thenext slide I did this. Huzzah! xD I hope they like this dickie bow...
  23. 23. Challenge • In pairs thought shower AO2 points • • Model PEE ing on board
  24. 24. Evaluation of the model There is clear evidence for cognitive biases in depression and anxiety disorders. For instance in panic a person may exaggerate their symptoms such as raised heart rate. As stated by Clarke (1986) Therapy based on the cog model can be very effective for depression and anxiety disorders The development of schemata is rather vague and lacks in detail and it is not always clear how irrational thoughts should be defined/measured
  25. 25. Evaluation of the model This approach does not take into account biological or genetic factors but emphasises the importance of cognitive factors in psychological disorders. In some cases depression can lead to irrational thinking rather than the other way around for example it may be depression causing negative thoughts not the negative thoughts causing depression Negative thoughts sometimes reflect an accurate view of the world and this is called depressive realism. This means life circumstances should be looked at instead of cognitive biases
  26. 26. Evaluation of the modelEvaluation of the model Strengths • Offers a useful approach to disorders such as depression & anorexia. This is because it considers the role of thoughts & beliefs, which are greatly involved in these problems. • Cognitive therapies have often successfully treated anxiety, stress & eating disorders • It allows a person to take control and positively change their own behaviour • Weaknesses • Faulty cognitions may simply be the result of the disorder, not the cause. • Cognitive therapies may take a long time & may be costly. • Cognitive therapies may be more affective when combined with other approaches. • The treatments work better with some conditions than others • The individual may feel to blame for their problems.
  27. 27. Evaluation • The cognitive approach takes no account of biological or genetic factors in psychopathology •
  28. 28. Evaluation Research support – research has shown that people who suffer from mental disorders do exhibit patterns associated with maladaptive functioning Irrational thinking - cause or effect ?, the model doesn’t attempt to explain the origins of irrational thinking nor does the treatment address the origins Individual responsible – the cognitive model has also been criticised as it suggests everyone should be self sufficient.
  29. 29. Challenge • Fan n Pick
  30. 30. Challenge • Read and highlight sheet on Koster et al • Transform using 10 words and pictures
  31. 31. LOs Revisisted