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    Resourcd File Resourcd File Presentation Transcript

    • Complete the Research methods PLC Be honest!!
    • Is psychology a science? What are the main features of science? ‘THEOR’ Is psychology a science? What are the main features of science? ‘THEOR’ Empirical methods Empirical methods ObjectivityObjectivity ReplicabilityReplicability Theory construction Theory construction Hypothesis testing Hypothesis testing
    • The role and purpose of peer review Purpose 1: Allocation of research funding Purpose 1: Allocation of research funding Purpose 2: Publication of research in journals and books Purpose 2: Publication of research in journals and books Purpose 3: Assessing the research rating of uni depts Purpose 3: Assessing the research rating of uni depts AO2?
    • Research methods and concepts Research methods and concepts Types of experiments: 1)Labs 2)Fields 3)Natural Types of experiments: 1)Labs 2)Fields 3)Natural Experimental design: 1)Independent- group 2)Matched pair 3)Repeated measures Experimental design: 1)Independent- group 2)Matched pair 3)Repeated measures Self-report techniques: 1)Q’aires 2)Interviews Self-report techniques: 1)Q’aires 2)Interviews Observational studies: 1) Naturalistic vs controlled 2) Overt/covert Observational studies: 1) Naturalistic vs controlled 2) Overt/covert Correlation analysis: 1)Relationships Correlation analysis: 1)Relationships Case studiesCase studies
    • Research methods and concepts Research methods and concepts AimsAims hypotheseshypotheses DIRECTIONAL , NON DIRECTIONAL, NULL one-tailed two-tailed Pilot studies Pilot studies
    • VALIDITY RELIABILITY ConsistencyAccuracy How to assess reliability: 1)Split half method 2)Test-retest method 3)Inter-rater reliability How to assess reliability: 1)Split half method 2)Test-retest method 3)Inter-rater reliability How to assess validity: 1)Face validity 2)Concurrent validity How to assess validity: 1)Face validity 2)Concurrent validity
    • SAMPLING VOLUNTEERVOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITYOPPORTUNITY RANDOMRANDOM STRATIFIED/QUOT A STRATIFIED/QUOT A SNOWBALLSNOWBALL ETHICAL ISSUES ?
    • TYPE 1 ERROR TYPE 2 ERROR We wrongly reject the null hyp when in fact its true – because we’ve been too lenient with the sig level We wrongly accept the null hyp when in fact its false – because we’ve been too strict with the sig level
    • Things to remember when selecting a Stats test A) 3D’s 1) Data 2) Design 3) Difference/relationship B) What to look for in a Critical Values table 1) Spearman's Rho, Mann- Whitney, Wilcoxon – no. of participants (N) 2) Chi-squared – df (rows-1) x (columns -1) 3) One-tailed/Two-tailed test 4) Significance level e.g. 0.05/0.10 C) When to reject the null hypothesis 1) Rule ‘R’ for Spearman’s Rho & Chi-Squared: Obs value > Critical value 2) Mann-Whitney & Wilcoxon Obs value < Critical value
    • Reporting a study and what to include? ABSTRACTABSTRACT INTRO – aims/hyps INTRO – aims/hyps METHOD -Exp design -Participants (sampling) -Apparatus -Procedures (counterbalancing, order effects) -Ethics METHOD -Exp design -Participants (sampling) -Apparatus -Procedures (counterbalancing, order effects) -Ethics RESULTS -descriptive -inferential RESULTS -descriptive -inferential DISCUSSIONDISCUSSIONREFERENCESREFERENCES
    • QUANTITATIVE/ QUALITATIVE DATA Advantages  Disadvantages  Qualitative data 1) Emphasis on quality 2) Focus on meaning E.g. Case Studies and unstructured interviews 1) Produces neat conclusions 2) 1) Oversimplifies reality and….. Quantitative data 1) Emphasis on quantity 2) Focus on numerical forms E.g. Experiments and content analysis 1) Rich in detail 1)
    • ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF QUALITATIVE DATA INDUCTIVE – BOTTOM-UP Letting themes emerge INDUCTIVE – BOTTOM-UP Letting themes emerge DEDUCTIVE – TOP-DOWN Researcher starts with preset catergories/themes DEDUCTIVE – TOP-DOWN Researcher starts with preset catergories/themes CONTENT ANALYSIS- technique for analysing qualitative data of various kinds. Data can be placed into categories and counted (quantitative) or can be analysed in themes (qualitative). CONTENT ANALYSIS- technique for analysing qualitative data of various kinds. Data can be placed into categories and counted (quantitative) or can be analysed in themes (qualitative). TRIANGULATION – using more than one research method and comparing the results for the same topic TRIANGULATION – using more than one research method and comparing the results for the same topic