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Resourcd File Resourcd File Document Transcript

  • GCSE Psychology Unit 2: Learning Revision Sheet Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience. Principles of classical conditioning Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired (UCS + CS) to give a response UCR, that is at first causedby the UCS is eventually elicited by the CS alone and is called the CR. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – something that causes an unconditioned response (e.g. food) Unconditioned response (UCR)– an uncontrollable behaviour that happens automatically (e.g. salivation) Conditioned stimulus (CS)– the cause of the conditioned response and is not related to the response at first (e.g. bell) Conditioned response (CR) – occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented The contributions of Pavlov Pavlov noticed that dogs salivate (UCR) when given food (UCS) and used classical conditioning to get dogs to salivate (CR) when a bell (CS) was sounded. Conclusion: Pavlov conditioned the dogs to associate the bell with food. Other important terms linked to classical conditioning: Extinction – when response to a stimulus no longer happens Spontaneous recovery – although the behaviour may become extinct, it may occur again (not forgotten) Generalisation – not distinguishing between different sorts of stimulus (e.g. tone of bell makes no difference) Discrimination – ability to distinguish between different sorts of stimulus (e.g. tone of bell makes a difference) Watson and Raynor Conducted research into classical conditioning using a young boy called ‘Little Albert’. Little Albert was not afraid of most things and enjoyed playing with a white rat. He did, however jump at a loud noise. When he was playing with the white rat, a loud noise was made by banging an iron bar behind him. After several times of this occurring, Little Albert became afraid of the white rat. Conclusion Little Albert learned through classical conditioning to associate the white rat with a fear response. This generalised to other things such as a white rabbit and other fluffy things. Principles of operant conditioning Operant conditioning is a learning process that uses rewards and punishments to shape behaviour. Positive reinforcement – making behaviour more likely to be repeated by giving rewards Negative reinforcement – anything that strengthens behaviour because it stops an unpleasant experience Punishment – anything that weakens behaviour and stops it happening Thorndike’s law of effect Thorndike conducted experiments on cats. He noticed that a hungry cat could learn to open a latch so it could escape its cage in order to get some fish. At first the cat accidently knocked the leaver to open the door. It was returned to the cage and each time it escaped, the cat took less time to open the latch. From this study Thorndike created the Law of effect, which states that if behaviour is followed by pleasurable experience it is more likely to be repeated. However, if the behaviour is followed by something unpleasant, then it is less likely to be repeated. The contributions of Skinner Skinner took Thorndike’s ideas and introduced terms to explain how operant conditioning works. He developed the ‘Skinner box’ which had a lever that, if pressed, could dispense food pellets, he placed either a rat or a pigeon in the box and they learned to press the leaver for food. Skinner found that once the animal had realised that the lever produced food, they continued to press the lever for the food reward. Skinner concluded that behaviour can be shaped and maintained by its consequences. He introduced the terms to define what was happening during the behaviour shaping.: Operant conditioning, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Punishment Treating phobias A phobia is an irrational fear, a kind of anxiety disorder in which the sufferer has a relentless dread of a situation, living creature, place or thing. Systematic desensitisation (Classical Conditioning) This therapy works on the idea that phobias can be unlearnt. This works on the idea that it is impossible to be relaxed and anxious at the same time and the aim of the therapy is to replace the  Research has shown that systematic desensitisation does work for a variety of phobias.  It has been very successful in reducing
  • GCSE Psychology Unit 2: Learning Revision Sheet anxiety caused by the phobia with relaxation. The patient is taught to relax and then, with the therapists help, produces a hierarchy of fears with the most fearful one at the top and the least fearful at the bottom. The patient begins with the least fearful and when they can relax with that they can move to the next fearful stage. At each stage they must be able to relax before moving on to face the next stage in the hierarchy. anxiety in young children.  There are not many ethical concerns because the patient is kept relaxed and don’t move on to the next stage until they are comfortable.  Treatment may take a very long time and the patient may not complete it if they feel there isn’t enough progress.  There is a lack of follow up studies to see if the patient stays cured. Flooding (Classical Conditioning) This therapy works on the idea that it is impossible to stay anxious for a long period of time. In this therapy the person with the phobia is confronted with their most fearful situation and is unable to escape. They are kept in the fearful situation until their fear subsides due to the fact that it is impossible to maintain an anxious state for a long period of time.  There is evidence that this technique does work.  It is quicker and cheaper than systematic desensitisation.  There are ethical considerations with this technique, not least that the person is exposed to extreme fear. Aversion Therapy (Classical Conditioning)changing unwanted behaviour The idea of the therapy is to stop unwanted behaviour by associating it (through conditioning) with something unpleasant. It has been used to treat alcoholics by using classical conditioning procedures. The alcoholic is given a drug that reacts with alcohol and causes sickness if taken together. The alcoholic learns to associate alcohol with being sick.  For some people Aversion Therapy is effective.  it is not effective for all  There are ethical considerations with this method because of the effects on the patient. Token economy (Operant Conditioning) – changing unwanted behaviour The purpose of token economy is to change unwanted behaviour. It is used in institutions such as prison or school. People are rewarded with tokens for appropriate behaviour. The tokens (called a secondary reinforcer) are worthless but can be exchanged for something that is needed or valued (called a primary reinforcer). The institution sets a ‘price’ on each primary reinforcer or activity so that each person has to earn them (e.g. a prisoner would earn some tokens to watch some TV), The overall idea behind Token Economy is to promote good and appropriate behaviour with rewards.  Token Economy has been used successfully in prisons, mental hospitals and schools.  The outside world does not reward appropriate behaviour therefore outside prison or hospital the unwanted behaviour could return.  There are ethical considerations as the system could be open to abuse by people in authority changing the boundaries and making the inmate do more and more work in order to get one token.