Eyewitness TestimonyEyewitness Testimony
Elizabeth LoftusElizabeth Loftus
Aims/Objectives:Aims/Objectives:
 Aim:To start looking at memory inAim:To start looking at memory in
everyday life:everyd...
Task:Task:
Fill in the handouts. You have 5Fill in the handouts. You have 5
minutes to do this.minutes to do this.
Answers to tasks:
VISUO-SPATIAL
SKETCHPAD
HOLDS VISUAL
MEMORIES
EG: FACES
EPISODIC BUFFER ADDED IN 2000 (BADDELEY)
INTEGRA...
Eyewitness Testimony:Eyewitness Testimony:
 You may be surprised how difficult it is toYou may be surprised how difficult...
Task:Task:
 In pairs and without looking anything up,In pairs and without looking anything up,
try to do the following 2 ...
 Watch the clip carefully. Half way through IWatch the clip carefully. Half way through I
will stop the video and you mus...
SchemasSchemas
 Knowledge packages built up through our experience ofKnowledge packages built up through our experience o...
Research findings on the role ofResearch findings on the role of
schemas:schemas:
 Brewer and Treyens (1981) looked atBre...
Continued:Continued:
 In an unexpected recall task the following results wereIn an unexpected recall task the following r...
Task:Task:
1.1. Why do you think that some p’s recalledWhy do you think that some p’s recalled
seeing a skull in the offic...
EWT Stages:EWT Stages:
1.1. The witness encodes info into LTM (the eventThe witness encodes info into LTM (the event
and t...
Factors affecting EWT:Factors affecting EWT:
 The main factors affecting accuracy ofThe main factors affecting accuracy o...
Anxiety and EWT:Anxiety and EWT:
 A real crime or violence, usually imparts aA real crime or violence, usually imparts a
...
Diagram of Yerkes-Dodson law:Diagram of Yerkes-Dodson law:
Recall
Anxiety levels
Optimum recall,
past this point,
recall d...
Continued:Continued:
 Deffenbacher (1983)Deffenbacher (1983) was one of the first to investigate linkswas one of the firs...
Research Methods:Research Methods:
 What ethical issues may arise from theWhat ethical issues may arise from the
Yuille a...
Continued:Continued:
 Research thatResearch that supportssupports this idea comes fromthis idea comes from Peters (1988)....
Task:Task:
Answer questions on pageAnswer questions on page
18 of the handout.18 of the handout.
What did we doWhat did we do
today?today?
Aims/Objectives:Aims/Objectives:
 Aims: To look at key research onAims: To look at key research on
EWT and also other fac...
Task:Task:
 You will be given a short test to do withYou will be given a short test to do with
the work we did in Tuesday...
AnswersAnswers
 Remember the test is out of 12.Remember the test is out of 12.
1.1. B)B)
2.2. Age, anxiety and misleading...
Task:Task:
 In pairs I want you to make a list ofIn pairs I want you to make a list of
reasons why age may effect recall ...
Age of witness:Age of witness:
 Age does seem to play a role in how muchAge does seem to play a role in how much
informat...
Continued:Continued:
 In a study specific to EWTIn a study specific to EWT Ochsner et al (1999)Ochsner et al (1999) asked...
Evaluation:Evaluation:
 Research support:Research support: Cohen and Faulkner (1989)Cohen and Faulkner (1989)
showed p’s ...
Continued:Continued:
 Conflicting evidenceConflicting evidence: Coxon and Valentine (1997) found that: Coxon and Valentin...
 The Eyewitness Test: How do you stack up? –The Eyewitness Test: How do you stack up? –
 Whilst watching the clip on eye...
Task:Task:
 Note down your thoughts on the methodsNote down your thoughts on the methods
issues in the previous clip.issu...
LoftusLoftus
 Factors affecting eyewitness testimony:Factors affecting eyewitness testimony:
 Elizabeth Loftus is a psyc...
 Leading QuestionsLeading Questions::
 Loftus and Palmer (1974):Loftus and Palmer (1974): investigated how information g...
VerbVerb Mean Speed EstimatesMean Speed Estimates
SmashedSmashed 40.840.8
CollidedCollided 39.339.3
BumpedBumped 38.138.1
...
 ConclusionConclusion
 We can conclude that people’s memory for anWe can conclude that people’s memory for an
event can ...
 Evaluation:Evaluation:
 A similar follow up study was done whereA similar follow up study was done where
participants w...
Research methods:Research methods:
 Do you think that demand characteristicsDo you think that demand characteristics
may ...
Task:Task:
 Complete the eyewitness testimony taskComplete the eyewitness testimony task
on page 24. You have 2 minutes.o...
Tasks:Tasks:
 In pairs complete the EWT tasks on pagesIn pairs complete the EWT tasks on pages
25-28.25-28.
 You have 10...
Past paper questions.Past paper questions.
 Answer the following questions:Answer the following questions:
 18,19,2018,1...
Recap:Recap:
What did we doWhat did we do
today?today?
 Finish past paper questions for homework! HandFinish past paper ...
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Resourcd File

277 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
277
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Resourcd File

  1. 1. Eyewitness TestimonyEyewitness Testimony Elizabeth LoftusElizabeth Loftus
  2. 2. Aims/Objectives:Aims/Objectives:  Aim:To start looking at memory inAim:To start looking at memory in everyday life:everyday life:  Objectives:Objectives:  To be able to understand the basis ofTo be able to understand the basis of EWT (Eyewitness Testimony).EWT (Eyewitness Testimony).  To begin to understand the various stagesTo begin to understand the various stages of EWTof EWT  To begin looking at factors that effect EWTTo begin looking at factors that effect EWT
  3. 3. Task:Task: Fill in the handouts. You have 5Fill in the handouts. You have 5 minutes to do this.minutes to do this.
  4. 4. Answers to tasks: VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD HOLDS VISUAL MEMORIES EG: FACES EPISODIC BUFFER ADDED IN 2000 (BADDELEY) INTEGRATES INFORMATION from the central executive, the visuo- spatial sketchpad and phonological loop LIMITED CAPACITY CENTRAL EXECUTIVE MODALITY -FREE. ROUGHLY THE SAME AS ATTENTION ALLOCATES RESOURCES TO OTHER COMPONENTS
  5. 5. Eyewitness Testimony:Eyewitness Testimony:  You may be surprised how difficult it is toYou may be surprised how difficult it is to remember what a 10p looks like withoutremember what a 10p looks like without having one in front of you.having one in front of you.  There will be a number of inaccuracies.There will be a number of inaccuracies.  We do not need to have 100% recall for allWe do not need to have 100% recall for all information we use everyday. For exampleinformation we use everyday. For example we only need to know the shape of coinswe only need to know the shape of coins and notes to be able to use themand notes to be able to use them correctly.correctly.
  6. 6. Task:Task:  In pairs and without looking anything up,In pairs and without looking anything up, try to do the following 2 tasks.try to do the following 2 tasks.  1.1. Draw a picture of a 10p coin, front andDraw a picture of a 10p coin, front and back.back.  2.2. Write down the person on the front of aWrite down the person on the front of a £5 note. Write down the words written at£5 note. Write down the words written at the top of the front of the note of anythe top of the front of the note of any denomination (i.e. £5, £10, £20, £50).denomination (i.e. £5, £10, £20, £50).
  7. 7.  Watch the clip carefully. Half way through IWatch the clip carefully. Half way through I will stop the video and you must writewill stop the video and you must write down all the changes you saw in the clip.down all the changes you saw in the clip. Over all there are 21. You have 3 minutes!Over all there are 21. You have 3 minutes!  Test Your Awareness : Whodunnit? - YouTubeTest Your Awareness : Whodunnit? - YouTube
  8. 8. SchemasSchemas  Knowledge packages built up through our experience ofKnowledge packages built up through our experience of the world. They also help us to interpret newthe world. They also help us to interpret new experiences.experiences.  For example-knowing that there will be tables and chairsFor example-knowing that there will be tables and chairs in a restaurant. This would be your restaurant schema.in a restaurant. This would be your restaurant schema.  They help to fill in gaps in knowledge we have.They help to fill in gaps in knowledge we have.  However they can lead to distortions when newHowever they can lead to distortions when new information doesn’t fit properly into our existinginformation doesn’t fit properly into our existing knowledge.knowledge.  Cultural experiences and stereotypes affect memory.Cultural experiences and stereotypes affect memory.  These distortions are particularly interesting when weThese distortions are particularly interesting when we look at EWT.look at EWT.
  9. 9. Research findings on the role ofResearch findings on the role of schemas:schemas:  Brewer and Treyens (1981) looked atBrewer and Treyens (1981) looked at the effects of schemas on visualthe effects of schemas on visual memory. They asked 30 p’s, one at amemory. They asked 30 p’s, one at a time, to wait in a room that had beentime, to wait in a room that had been set up to look like an office for 35set up to look like an office for 35 seconds. In the room there wereseconds. In the room there were objects such as a desk, chair, calendarobjects such as a desk, chair, calendar and typewriter.and typewriter.  These objects were compatible with anThese objects were compatible with an office schema.office schema.  However there were a few items thatHowever there were a few items that were non-compatible, such as a skull, awere non-compatible, such as a skull, a pair of pliers and a brick.pair of pliers and a brick.
  10. 10. Continued:Continued:  In an unexpected recall task the following results wereIn an unexpected recall task the following results were found:found:  P’s recalled the obvious office items that fitted withP’s recalled the obvious office items that fitted with schema expectancy, but were less successful atschema expectancy, but were less successful at recalling the strange items.recalling the strange items.  8 p’s, however, recalled the really bizarre item-the skull.8 p’s, however, recalled the really bizarre item-the skull.  Most errors in recall were substitutions. For example p’sMost errors in recall were substitutions. For example p’s would add in items that weren’t there such as pens,would add in items that weren’t there such as pens, books, and a telephone, which would have a highbooks, and a telephone, which would have a high schema expectancy but weren’t there on this occasion.schema expectancy but weren’t there on this occasion.
  11. 11. Task:Task: 1.1. Why do you think that some p’s recalledWhy do you think that some p’s recalled seeing a skull in the office (Brewer andseeing a skull in the office (Brewer and Treyens, 1981)?Treyens, 1981)? You have 3 minutes to answer the question.You have 3 minutes to answer the question. Prepare to feedback.Prepare to feedback.
  12. 12. EWT Stages:EWT Stages: 1.1. The witness encodes info into LTM (the eventThe witness encodes info into LTM (the event and the person involved), may be partial as theand the person involved), may be partial as the event occurs quickly, at night andevent occurs quickly, at night and accompanied by rapid, violent, complex action.accompanied by rapid, violent, complex action. 2.2. Witness retains info for a time. Memories mayWitness retains info for a time. Memories may be lost or modified during retention, otherbe lost or modified during retention, other activities may interfere with the memory itself.activities may interfere with the memory itself. 3.3. Witness retrieves memory from storage. WhatWitness retrieves memory from storage. What happens next is there may be a presence orhappens next is there may be a presence or absence of info that may affect the accuracy ofabsence of info that may affect the accuracy of the memory.the memory.
  13. 13. Factors affecting EWT:Factors affecting EWT:  The main factors affecting accuracy ofThe main factors affecting accuracy of memory can be placed into twomemory can be placed into two categories:categories: 1.1. Witness factorsWitness factors: age, race, gender and: age, race, gender and individual response to anxiety or stress.individual response to anxiety or stress. 2.2. Event factorsEvent factors: duration of event and level: duration of event and level of violence witnessed.of violence witnessed.  We will be looking at age, anxiety andWe will be looking at age, anxiety and the effect of misleading information.the effect of misleading information.
  14. 14. Anxiety and EWT:Anxiety and EWT:  A real crime or violence, usually imparts aA real crime or violence, usually imparts a feeling of anxiety or stress on thefeeling of anxiety or stress on the witnesses.witnesses.  The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908)The Yerkes-Dodson law (1908) suggestssuggests that up to a point, stress improvesthat up to a point, stress improves performance but after that point, it has aperformance but after that point, it has a bad effect on performance. Deffenbacherbad effect on performance. Deffenbacher (1983) proposed that the effect of stress on(1983) proposed that the effect of stress on EWT followed that law.EWT followed that law.
  15. 15. Diagram of Yerkes-Dodson law:Diagram of Yerkes-Dodson law: Recall Anxiety levels Optimum recall, past this point, recall declines.
  16. 16. Continued:Continued:  Deffenbacher (1983)Deffenbacher (1983) was one of the first to investigate linkswas one of the first to investigate links between stress and EWT. He found that as we becomebetween stress and EWT. He found that as we become moderately stressed/anxious, performance in EWT improves.moderately stressed/anxious, performance in EWT improves. As we hit the peak of stress our levels of accuracy drop becauseAs we hit the peak of stress our levels of accuracy drop because we feel fatigued.we feel fatigued.  A naturalistic study byA naturalistic study by Yuille & Cutshall (1986)Yuille & Cutshall (1986) studiesstudies witnesses to a robbery where people had actually been killed orwitnesses to a robbery where people had actually been killed or wounded. They found that witnesses were very accurate despitewounded. They found that witnesses were very accurate despite the extreme levels of stress.the extreme levels of stress.  This has been supported by a study byThis has been supported by a study by Christianson & HubinetteChristianson & Hubinette (1993)(1993) where victims of a bank robbery who had been subjectedwhere victims of a bank robbery who had been subjected to the most stress, were actually the most accurate witnesses.to the most stress, were actually the most accurate witnesses. Perhaps because their lives depended on it?Perhaps because their lives depended on it?
  17. 17. Research Methods:Research Methods:  What ethical issues may arise from theWhat ethical issues may arise from the Yuille and Cutshall (1986) study? ExplainYuille and Cutshall (1986) study? Explain your answer.your answer.  Do the same for the Christianson andDo the same for the Christianson and Hubinette (1993) study.Hubinette (1993) study.  Work in small groups on this activity. YouWork in small groups on this activity. You have ten minutes!!have ten minutes!!  Prepare to feedback. Remember thesePrepare to feedback. Remember these points can be used as evaluation points!points can be used as evaluation points!
  18. 18. Continued:Continued:  Research thatResearch that supportssupports this idea comes fromthis idea comes from Peters (1988).Peters (1988). Tested people visiting their local health centre. TheyTested people visiting their local health centre. They visited the nurse, for an injection, then spent time with avisited the nurse, for an injection, then spent time with a researcher.researcher.  A week later they were asked to describe the researcherA week later they were asked to describe the researcher and the nurse. It was found that they remembered theand the nurse. It was found that they remembered the researcher better than the nurse. This was due to the factresearcher better than the nurse. This was due to the fact their anxiety levels were heightened at the time they weretheir anxiety levels were heightened at the time they were chatting to the researcher (after injection).chatting to the researcher (after injection).  Deffenbacher (2004):Deffenbacher (2004): reviewed his earlier approach and thereviewed his earlier approach and the claims it was over simplistic.claims it was over simplistic.  He now believes that as stress increases, so does theHe now believes that as stress increases, so does the accuracy of the memory. When it hits the maximum thereaccuracy of the memory. When it hits the maximum there is a catastrophic collapse, and accuracy is then severelyis a catastrophic collapse, and accuracy is then severely lacking.lacking.
  19. 19. Task:Task: Answer questions on pageAnswer questions on page 18 of the handout.18 of the handout.
  20. 20. What did we doWhat did we do today?today?
  21. 21. Aims/Objectives:Aims/Objectives:  Aims: To look at key research onAims: To look at key research on EWT and also other factors of EWT.EWT and also other factors of EWT.  Objectives:Objectives:  To understand age and EWT.To understand age and EWT.  Students will understand the keyStudents will understand the key research. Loftus and Palmer.research. Loftus and Palmer.  To be able to effectively answer shortTo be able to effectively answer short answer questions on the topic so far.answer questions on the topic so far.
  22. 22. Task:Task:  You will be given a short test to do withYou will be given a short test to do with the work we did in Tuesdays lesson.the work we did in Tuesdays lesson.  You will have 5 minutes to do the test.You will have 5 minutes to do the test.  After the test is over swap your answersAfter the test is over swap your answers with the person next you.with the person next you.
  23. 23. AnswersAnswers  Remember the test is out of 12.Remember the test is out of 12. 1.1. B)B) 2.2. Age, anxiety and misleading informationAge, anxiety and misleading information 3.3. The Yerkes-Dodson law.The Yerkes-Dodson law. 4.4. Yes. It has a negative effect.Yes. It has a negative effect. 5.5. Yes. It does improve.Yes. It does improve. 6.6. False- We can’t remember information very well.False- We can’t remember information very well. 7.7. They could remember more.They could remember more. 8.8. YesYes 9.9. The researcher. This was because they were paying more attentionThe researcher. This was because they were paying more attention to the needle and not the nurse.to the needle and not the nurse. 10.10. False. He said his previous ideas were to simple.False. He said his previous ideas were to simple.
  24. 24. Task:Task:  In pairs I want you to make a list ofIn pairs I want you to make a list of reasons why age may effect recall ofreasons why age may effect recall of information.information.  Think mainly about children and olderThink mainly about children and older people.people.  You have ten minutes. Prepare toYou have ten minutes. Prepare to feedback.feedback.
  25. 25. Age of witness:Age of witness:  Age does seem to play a role in how muchAge does seem to play a role in how much information we can recall.information we can recall. Dent (1988)Dent (1988) found thatfound that children perform significantly worse than adultschildren perform significantly worse than adults when recalling details of events and also don’twhen recalling details of events and also don’t do as well when asked specific questions.do as well when asked specific questions.   However, if they are interested in a topic childrenHowever, if they are interested in a topic children can recall just as well as adults do.can recall just as well as adults do. (King and(King and Yuille, 1987).Yuille, 1987).  Children also appear to accept inaccurateChildren also appear to accept inaccurate information from adults for fear of contradictinginformation from adults for fear of contradicting adult authority figures.adult authority figures.
  26. 26. Continued:Continued:  In a study specific to EWTIn a study specific to EWT Ochsner et al (1999)Ochsner et al (1999) askedasked children to watch a staged theft. They found morechildren to watch a staged theft. They found more accurate recall compared to children who saw the stagedaccurate recall compared to children who saw the staged event without the theft.event without the theft.  In this case it could be that the children consolidated theIn this case it could be that the children consolidated the memory of the theft by telling others about it, or took thememory of the theft by telling others about it, or took the theft more seriously.theft more seriously.  Older people also have poor recall of events. Their recallOlder people also have poor recall of events. Their recall drops below that of young people and middle ageddrops below that of young people and middle aged people. They are more likely to make mistakes and arepeople. They are more likely to make mistakes and are poor at recalling specific details.poor at recalling specific details.  Elderly men in particular are more prone to distortionsElderly men in particular are more prone to distortions through post-event misleading information.through post-event misleading information.
  27. 27. Evaluation:Evaluation:  Research support:Research support: Cohen and Faulkner (1989)Cohen and Faulkner (1989) showed p’s a film of a kidnapping and thenshowed p’s a film of a kidnapping and then presented them with misleading details. It waspresented them with misleading details. It was found that the older p’sfound that the older p’s (mean age 70)(mean age 70) were awere a lot more likely to than the younger p’slot more likely to than the younger p’s (mean(mean age 35)age 35) to have been mislead by theto have been mislead by the suggestive information.suggestive information.  Loftus et al (1991)Loftus et al (1991) also found this when p’salso found this when p’s were shown a video tape of a crime the olderwere shown a video tape of a crime the older p’s were found to be more suggestible than thep’s were found to be more suggestible than the younger adults who saw the tape.younger adults who saw the tape.
  28. 28. Continued:Continued:  Conflicting evidenceConflicting evidence: Coxon and Valentine (1997) found that: Coxon and Valentine (1997) found that when comparing the suggestibility of children, young adultswhen comparing the suggestibility of children, young adults and elderly people after watching a videotape of a crime, theand elderly people after watching a videotape of a crime, the elderly p’s were worse at recall. However it was seen thatelderly p’s were worse at recall. However it was seen that when they were tested for suggestibility they were no worsewhen they were tested for suggestibility they were no worse than the young adults. In fact they were seen to be lessthan the young adults. In fact they were seen to be less suggestible.suggestible.  Other conflicting evidence:Other conflicting evidence: It is still unclear why these ageIt is still unclear why these age effects occur. It could be that the younger p’s have been moreeffects occur. It could be that the younger p’s have been more used to memory tests recently. Or it could be that the older p’sused to memory tests recently. Or it could be that the older p’s poorer health may be a factor in decline in memory. In fact itpoorer health may be a factor in decline in memory. In fact it may be this that is the important factor, not age.may be this that is the important factor, not age.
  29. 29.  The Eyewitness Test: How do you stack up? –The Eyewitness Test: How do you stack up? –  Whilst watching the clip on eyewitnessWhilst watching the clip on eyewitness testimony think of methodological issuestestimony think of methodological issues that you think could effect this study.that you think could effect this study.
  30. 30. Task:Task:  Note down your thoughts on the methodsNote down your thoughts on the methods issues in the previous clip.issues in the previous clip.
  31. 31. LoftusLoftus  Factors affecting eyewitness testimony:Factors affecting eyewitness testimony:  Elizabeth Loftus is a psychologist who argues thatElizabeth Loftus is a psychologist who argues that eyewitness testimony in court is very unreliable.eyewitness testimony in court is very unreliable.  She looked at whether people reconstruct memory,She looked at whether people reconstruct memory, whether the memory persists (stays) or whether theywhether the memory persists (stays) or whether they can be ‘led’ in to answering in a certain way.can be ‘led’ in to answering in a certain way.
  32. 32.  Leading QuestionsLeading Questions::  Loftus and Palmer (1974):Loftus and Palmer (1974): investigated how information giveninvestigated how information given after an event affects a witness’s memory for that event.after an event affects a witness’s memory for that event.  45 participants took part45 participants took part. They all saw a video of a traffic. They all saw a video of a traffic accident.accident.  After the video they were all asked the same questions aboutAfter the video they were all asked the same questions about the accident.the accident.  Apart from 1 question which was about the speed the carsApart from 1 question which was about the speed the cars were going.were going.  9 participants had the question with the word ‘smashing’9 participants had the question with the word ‘smashing’  The other group had the verbsThe other group had the verbs ‘hit’, ‘bumped’, ‘collided’,‘hit’, ‘bumped’, ‘collided’, ‘contacted’.‘contacted’.  Results: Group withResults: Group with ‘smashing’‘smashing’ estimated the highest speedestimated the highest speed of the cars.of the cars.  The participants were not very good at estimating how fast theThe participants were not very good at estimating how fast the cars were actually travelling.cars were actually travelling.  Speed estimates depended on the verb used.Speed estimates depended on the verb used.
  33. 33. VerbVerb Mean Speed EstimatesMean Speed Estimates SmashedSmashed 40.840.8 CollidedCollided 39.339.3 BumpedBumped 38.138.1 HitHit 34.034.0 ContactedContacted 31.831.8
  34. 34.  ConclusionConclusion  We can conclude that people’s memory for anWe can conclude that people’s memory for an event can be influenced by the questions theyevent can be influenced by the questions they are asked about it and those questions canare asked about it and those questions can distort (change) our long term memory for andistort (change) our long term memory for an event.event.  We don’t know whether the reported speed wasWe don’t know whether the reported speed was due to a genuine change in the participant’sdue to a genuine change in the participant’s memory, or through demand characteristicsmemory, or through demand characteristics (participants guessing the true nature of the(participants guessing the true nature of the experiment). (Gross, 2003experiment). (Gross, 2003).).
  35. 35.  Evaluation:Evaluation:  A similar follow up study was done whereA similar follow up study was done where participants were given a question aboutparticipants were given a question about whether they had seen broken glass on the roadwhether they had seen broken glass on the road (there was none). 14% of participants with ‘hit’(there was none). 14% of participants with ‘hit’ reported seeing glass. Whereas 32% of thereported seeing glass. Whereas 32% of the participants with the word ‘smashed’ reportedparticipants with the word ‘smashed’ reported seeing glass. There seems to be evidence thatseeing glass. There seems to be evidence that suggests post event misleading questions cansuggests post event misleading questions can have an adverse effect on EWT.have an adverse effect on EWT.
  36. 36. Research methods:Research methods:  Do you think that demand characteristicsDo you think that demand characteristics may affected the results of Loftus andmay affected the results of Loftus and Palmers study? Explain your answer.Palmers study? Explain your answer.  What extraneous variables could haveWhat extraneous variables could have effected the results of the study?effected the results of the study?  What method was used? And how mightWhat method was used? And how might that have effected the results?that have effected the results?  Work in pairs to answer the questions.Work in pairs to answer the questions. You have ten minutes.You have ten minutes.
  37. 37. Task:Task:  Complete the eyewitness testimony taskComplete the eyewitness testimony task on page 24. You have 2 minutes.on page 24. You have 2 minutes.  Prepare to feedback.Prepare to feedback.
  38. 38. Tasks:Tasks:  In pairs complete the EWT tasks on pagesIn pairs complete the EWT tasks on pages 25-28.25-28.  You have 10 minutes to do this.You have 10 minutes to do this.
  39. 39. Past paper questions.Past paper questions.  Answer the following questions:Answer the following questions:  18,19,2018,19,20 andand 2222 from page 40 of thefrom page 40 of the handout.handout.  Write on a separate sheetWrite on a separate sheet
  40. 40. Recap:Recap: What did we doWhat did we do today?today?  Finish past paper questions for homework! HandFinish past paper questions for homework! Hand in next lessonin next lesson

×