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  • 1. 1 G543 a selection of student answers- Jan 2011 1. (a) Outline how brain dysfunction can explain criminal behaviour [10] (b) Evaluate individual ( biological) explanations of criminal behaviour [15] Zamira’s answer to 1a) The effect of brain dysfunction on criminal behaviour was assessed in Raine’s study. In this study, research was reviewed and used to distinguish the differences in brain structure between murderers and non murderers. The participants in Raine’s study consisted of people charged with 41 murders who had pleaded not guilty due to reason of insanity. These participants were compared with 41 non murderers. The participants were all matched on certain aspects, such as handedness as all were night handed, 6 were schizophrenic ,however 21 participants had head injury, from the murderers group, which was not the case in the non murderers participants. This was a quasi experiment as the variables of being a murderer or non murderer were naturally occurring. The participants were told to stay off taking any drugs or alcohol prior to taking part and once they had come to the hospital, they were given PET scans, which looked at 10 different sections of the participants brains. From the PET scans, Raine found that there were clear differences between the brain structure of murderers and non murderers. These were shown in the amygdala, whereby murderers showed less activity than non murderers. Furthermore there was less activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is used to inhibit certain actions and controls emotions, Murderers also showed less activity in the corpus callosum which connects the two hemispheres in the brain. This study demonstrated that criminal people have different brain structures to non criminals, which could explain their criminal behaviour. 248 words Mark: AE 9
  • 2. 2 1a Mark Scheme Top Band Criteria ( generic) 1a Mark Scheme – indicative content 1a Examiner’s report
  • 3. 3 Zamira’s answer to 1b) All biological explanations of criminal behaviour take a reductionist and a rather deterministic view. This means that they attempt to try to explain something rather compelx such as criminal behaviour into its smaller components, in this case brain structure and genes. For example Raine’s research on murders and non murderers concluded that there was clear differences in their brain structure, judging from the analysis of PET scans. However Raine’s study failed to take into account other factors, other than biology, which could explain the reason for these people turning to crime. For example, they have not looked at the role of the environment which was studied in Juby and Farrington’s research of upbringing whereby he found that when a person comes from a disrupted family they were more likely to turn to crime. Therefore the biological explanations are reductionist as they only look at biological factors. However, sometimes this can be seen as a positive aspect of research as being reductionist mean that the researchers can study one factor in more depth, and control all others therefore establishing a cause and effect relationship. Biological explanations commonly use scientific equipment in order to study the effect of a certain gene, brian structure or a neurotransmitter . This is shown in Raine’s study, as these researchers used PET scans to analyse how the brain structure of murderers differed to non murderers. Another example is in Dabbs study of the differences in testosterone between female offenders and male offenders. Dabbs studied testosterone differences by analyzing saliva samples of participants. Such biological measures are much more scientific, reliable and objective. Researchers are not able to change the results of PET scans or saliva samples as they are usually done by doctors in a private area, by someone who is likely to not know the aim of the study. An advantage of the biological explanations are therefore that they can be easily replicated by researchers to see consistency in their findings. However, although it may be high in reliability, this means that it lacks validity. Validity means whether the researchers are studying what they intended to study. By carrying out scientific method which the biological explanation for criminal behaviour uses, researchers are not measuring the actual reasoning that a participant has turned to crime in the first place. In conclusion, the biological explanation for criminal behaviour is rather deterministic as well as reductionist so it can not fully explain the reasons for an individual turning to crime as there is the case of individual differences. Different people are exposed to different things in their life which may either push them into a life of crime, or prevent them ( as barriers). 446 words AE Mark: 13
  • 4. 4 1b Markscheme – generic criteria for top band Ib Markscheme – indicative content Examiner’s report
  • 5. 5 4 (a) What is the effect on a jury of evidence being ruled inadmissible in court? [10] Zamira’s answer The effect on a jury of evidence being ruled inadmissible in court has been studied by Pickel. In Pickel’s laboratory controlled experiment, he aimed to find out the effect of evidence being ruled inadmissible in this experiment participants viewed a re-enacted court tral and evidence was included ‘accidentally’ by the research. This critical evidence included information about past convictions or evidence by witnesses. This was an independent measures design as participants were either put into a group where the evidence was ruled admissible, inadmissible, inadmissible with a legal explanation, or had not heard any critical evidence by the judge . In this condition where the evidence was ruled inadmissible with a legal explanation, participants were told why they had to ignore the information such as ‘it could be incorrect’. In this study there were 528 participants all from Bali University in ISA who had participated for credit as part of their psychology course. Pickel found that when the critical evidence had been ruled admissible,there were 42% guilty verdicts, and evidence that was ruled inadmissible without a legal explanation there were 43% guilty verdicts. However, for those participants who were told to rule the evidence inadmissible and were given a legal explanation after, showed much higher guilty verdicts at over 60%. Pickel concluded from this that when attention was brought to the evidence that was accidentally leaked, the participants had clearly not been able to ignore it; and this paid it more attention. 242 words AE mark: 8 COMMENTARY Note that Zamira has learnt a misprint from the textbook. Inspection of the original research paper ( Pickel, 1995 ) reveals that the students were recruited from BALL University in the USA, and NOT from the mythical BALI !
  • 6. 6 Mark scheme 4 (a) – indicative content Examiner’s report 4a
  • 7. 7 (b) Evaluate the usefulness of research into persuading a jury [15] Zamira’s answer to 4b Research into persuading a jury all aim to conduct experiments that are ecologically valid and representative of the wider population. However due to ethical reasons, this is not always possible. Research into persuading a jury commonly lack usefulness, due to the types of participants they experiment on. They often consist of students, as are opportunity sample. In the USA it is a much known fact that university students are asked to participate in experiments in order to gain course credit. For example Pickel’s study consisted of all undergraduate students from Bali University in the USA. In addition, Pennington and Hastie’s study of the way prosecution story is presented, also consisted of a student sample; of 130 undergraduates from NorthWestern and Chicago University. Although students are far more cheaper to get to participate in a study and easier, they reduce the usefulness as they lack ecological validity. This means that there is the problem of being able to generalize the findings of the study to the wider generation. This is because students may differ to the adults in the way they think, as students are all similar ages, class and attitudes. Furthermore students who are taking part in a study for course credit in their Psychology courses, may show demand characteristics. As they are familiar with psychology they may figure out the aims of the researchers, and represent themselves in a way that will make them look good and of what is expected of them. This is a disadvantage of having a student sample and therefore reduces validity as well as the usefulness of the study. A further problem with research into persuading a jury is that they are usually carried out in laboratory conditions , whereby participants do not see a real trial as it would happen in a real case. For example in Pennington and Hasties study of story order and witness order, the 130 student participants listed to an audio tape of a renacted trial. This is a major problem of research into persuading a jury as it lacks mundane realism, meaning that the task is not similar to what it would be like in an actual court case. A jury is not asked to listen to an audiotape of the court case, but instead they watch it happen in front of them. This reduces the usefulness of the study as participants may realise that they are not part of a real jury and decide that they will not put a lot of effort into it as they are not sending down an actual criminal. Nonetheless, it is impossible to study the actual jury in a case due to ethical reasons as the jury swears to secrecy that no information will be passed outside that room. Therefore we can conclude that some research into the persuading of a jury is better than none and any information to juries and judges is useful. For example, from Pennington and Hastie’s study, it would be useful to advise the prosecution to present the story in story order as this produced the most guilty verdicts and the defendant in witness order as this produced the least guilty verdicts. 526 words AE mark: 14
  • 8. 8 Commentary At 526 words this is Zamira’s longest answer and also represents her best mark for a Section B answer Zamira’s grammar and sentence structure is not always clear but happily this does not seem to have precluded the examiner from discerning her meaning and awarding her a high mark. In what ways does Zamira’s answer fulfil the top band mark criteria? part b) mark scheme Top Band criteria ( generic) Mark scheme- indicative content Examiner report
  • 9. 9 Here is Zamira’s answer again, this time with a commentary from me. Does this answer deserve 14 marks out of 15? (b) Evaluate the usefulness of research into persuading a jury [15] Research into persuading a jury all aim to conduct experiments that are ecologically valid and representative of the wider population. However due to ethical reasons, this is not always possible. Research into persuading a jury commonly lack usefulness, due to the types of participants they experiment on. They often consist of students, as are opportunity sample. In the USA it is a much known fact that university students are asked to participate in experiments in order to gain course credit. For example Pickel’s study consisted of all undergraduate students from Bali University in the USA. In addition, Pennington and Hastie’s study of the way prosecution story is presented, also consisted of a student sample; of 130 undergraduates from NorthWestern and Chicago University. Although students are far more cheaper to get to participate in a study and easier, they reduce the usefulness as they lack ecological validity. This means that there is the problem of being able to generalize the findings of the study to the wider generation. This is because students may differ to the adults in the way they think, as students are all similar ages, class and attitudes. Furthermore students who are taking part in a study for course credit in their Psychology courses, may show demand characteristics. As they are familiar with psychology they may figure out the aims of the researchers, and represent themselves in a way that will make them look good and of what is expected of them. This is a disadvantage of having a student sample and therefore reduces validity as well as the usefulness of the study. A further problem with research into persuading a jury is that they are usually carried out in laboratory conditions , whereby participants do not see a real trial as it would happen in a real case. For example in Pennington and Hasties study of story order and witness order, the 130 student participants listed to an audio tape of a renacted trial. This is a major problem of research into persuading a jury as it lacks mundane realism, meaning that the task is not similar to what it would be like in an actual court case. A jury is not asked to listen to an audiotape of the court case, but instead they watch it happen in front of them. This reduces the usefulness of the study as participants may realise that they are not part of a real jury and decide that they will not put a lot of effort into it as they are not sending down an actual criminal. Nonetheless, it is impossible to study the actual jury in a case due to ethical reasons as the jury swears to secrecy that no information will be passed outside that room. Therefore we can conclude that some research into the persuading of a jury is better than none and any information to juries and judges is useful. For example, from Pennington and Hastie’s study, it would be useful to advise the prosecution to present the story in story order as this produced the most guilty verdicts and the defendant in witness order as this produced the least guilty verdicts. Comment [JRS1]: She makes a good beginning by referring from the outset to THREE evaluation issues which could affect usefulness, but does not quite hit the nail on the head. She does not EXPLICITLY refer to ‘usefulness ‘ in her opening statement! SHE knows what she is about to say, but she leaves the reader wondering ., Comment [JRS2]: Now she introduces the key word ‘USEFULNESS’ but she once again does not quite hit the target. She would have done better to EXPLICITLY state the GENERAL evaluation to be discussed ( sampling and generalization/population validity) in this signpost paragraph. Zamira has started with her example, rather than the point it exemplifies. Comment [JRS3]: Point about limitations of using psychology students as SAMPLE, is aptly illustrated with two clear and explicit examples from different research studies. Comment [JRS4]: Did she mean ‘population validity’? No matter, because she has placed her point so clearly in context that we understand it nevertheless. Comment [JRS5]: She develops an argument by ELABORATING her point about the limitation of student samples – she explains WHY we should not generalize from student samples to adults Comment [JRS6]: A new comment about a further limitation of using student samples. This develops the argument further. Comment [JRS7]: Paragraph well concluded and skillfully linked back to the question by use of the key word USEFULNESS. Comment [JRS8]: A good signpost sentence introducing the theme for discussion of the new paragraph. She might have introduced the key term ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY here. Comment [JRS9]: Effective use of example Comment [JRS10]: Effective comment on WHY mock trials may lack EV context of example Comment [JRS11]: New point about ETHICS of conducting ecologically valid studies Comment [JRS12]: Conclusion to part - with important comment – some useful research is better than none ( Note how she presents a counter-argument to the view that the usefulness of all the research is compromised by methodological limitations ) Comment [JRS13]: Perhaps not the best positioning of a final example of the way in which research evidence on courtroom persuasion can be useful. ...
  • 10. 10 Further comment on Pickel’s study In fact, Pickel’s study comprised 3 separate experiments. Both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 investigated student mock jurors’ responses to different types of inadmissible evidence. The examiner’s remarks and the textbook account pertain to Experiment 1 , which used PRIOR CONVICTION evidence. However, Pickel found different results in Experiment 2, adapting the story-line to use HEARSAY evidence. Pickel reports that ‘Experiment 2 participants successfully ignored hearsay evidence …. regardless of whether they received a legal explanation or not, as explained in the short extract below from the DISCUSSION section of Pickel’s 1995 research paper: So the answer to the question of whether judges who are obliged to rule courtroom evidence inadmissible should add a legal explanation must be ‘It all depends.. on a very complex set of factors’. Additionally, we need to be very cautious in generalizing advice to UK judges from research done within the American legal system, where rules and practices concerning inadmissible evidence are somewhat different to common practice in the UK legal system.
  • 11. 11 5 (a) How can fear arousal be used as a method of health promotion? [10] (b) Assess the effectiveness of methods of health promotion. [15] Student answer to Qu 5a : ‘Usha’ Fear arousal can be used as a method of health promotion by encouraging people to adopt health behaviours by creating fear of consequences. A study which looked at how fear arousal affects health promotion was the study by Feshbach in 1953, which aimed to investigate how fear arousal affects the behaviour and emotions of people. A controlled laboratory study was conducted, which involved an entire 9th grade class from a high school in the USA, where the participants (p’s) were of mean age 15. The p’s were divided & randomly allocated to 4 conditions, which were strong fear arousal group. Moderate fear arousal group, minimal fear arousal group & a control group with no fear arousal. Before the experiment started p’s had to do a questionnaire which asked them about their current dental practice. After they completed this, they were given lectures in their groups, by a lecturer on dental hygiene. In the strong fear arousal group the lecture was about consequences of not taking care of the teeth, and photos of tooth decay and unpleasant consequences. In the moderate fear group the lecture was more factual and not so audience directed, with none of the disturbing pictures. In the low fear arousal group the lecture was all about how teeth grow & the functioning of teeth. In the control group the lecture was about the functioning of the eye. After the lecture the p’s had to do a questionnaire talking about how they felt about the lecture & their emotions. A week later the p’s did a questionnaire about any changes to their dental practice. Results showed that after the lecture the strong fear arousal group had positive feedback as they thought the lecture was interesting & the whole school should get the talk. Although some p’s expressed dislike of the disturbing slides. However results showed that the biggest increase in dental practice was in the minimal fear arousal group, which had an increase of over 30%, next was the moderate fear arousal group with an increase of around 20%. There was no significant increase for the high fear arousal group ( 8%) – which wasn’t much different from the 0% increase of the control group. Feshbach concluded that minimal fear is optimal to promote health behaviour. 377 words Mark: AE 9, TL 10
  • 12. 12 5 (a) How can fear arousal be used as a method of health promotion? [10] Mark-scheme Examiner’s Report
  • 13. 13 5 b) Assess the effectiveness of methods of health promotion. [15] Student answer 1: ‘Usha’ There are a number of methods of health promotion, some of which are media campaign use, legislation use and the use of fear arousal- which have all been studied by psychologists. However the effectiveness of these methods depends largely on the studies which investigated these methods and how valid and reliable the results are. In Cowpe’s study on the use of advertisement campaigns to promote health behaviour in 1989, the sample used in this study were the residents of the 10 UK television areas which were studied. This sample only considers UK citizens, and only looks at 10 selected areas of the UK, so findings of the study can’t be generalised to the wider population, especially not to other countries due to differences in culture which may affect results. This decreases the effectiveness of the study at explaining health behaviour promotions in terms of media campaigns. The sample used in Dannenberg’s 1993 study on legislation however, looked at children from 47 schools of Howard county, where this compulsory helmet wearing was enforced, and 2 control groups were also looked at with children from different counties & of the same age groups. This study looks at a large sample of p’s ( over 7000) so it can be said to have reliable results. However, even here- only 3 counties of children were looked at – which may not be sufficient to make generalisations. If more counties were looked at, and more counties, where the law was enforced, were studied then results would be more reliable & generalisable. On the other hand, the methods of health promotion do seem effective when looking at statistical findings of the studies. In Dannenburg’s legislation study- compared to the amount of helmet use the previous year- current helmet use had increased by 17% & the children were all aware of the helmet use law, which is what probably caused the increase of helmet use. In the other two counties however helmet use only increased by 5% in Montgomery & 4% in Baltimore from the previous year. The law wasn’t enforced in these counties, & despite having an educational campaign on bicycle safety in Montgomery- there was no significant increase in Helmet use compared to Baltimore- where there was no campaign. These findings emphasise the effectiveness of the legislation method of promoting healthy behaviour. Similarly, in Cowpe’s 1989 study on media campaigns & chip pan fires-results showed a 33% reduction 6 month after & a 15% reduction 15 weeks after that. This shows how effective media campaign are at promoting healthy behaviour. In conclusion, methods of health promotion are affective at promoting health, as seen by results of research studies. However, making samples more diverse would allow for greater ecological validity. 453 words Commentary Mark : AE: 14 , TL: 13
  • 14. 14 Qu 5b) Mark-scheme Examiner’s report
  • 15. 15 Qu5 Student Answer 2: Melody 5a) How can fear arousal be used as a method of health promotion? [10] Fear arousal can be used as a method of health promotion as it can shock or scare people into adopting a healthy behaviour. This is shown in Feshbach’s fear arousal study, which aimed to investigate the use of fear arousal as a method of health promotion. The sample was a whole 9th grade Freshman class, who were split into four conditions, in a controlled lab experiment. Three of the groups watched a 15 minute slideshow about the dangers of gum disease, with the first group being the most visually ( disturbing ) and the third containing very mild fear arousal. The fourth group was a control group, and were shown a factual slideshow about the human eye. The same lecturer was used in all conditions to account for extraneous variables. Straight after the slideshow, the participants were asked to fill out a self report questionnaire about what they learned, and were given a follow up one a week later. The results found that those in the condition with the strongest fear arousal found the slideshow the most enjoyable, but also the most distressing. It was concluded that the minimum fear arousal condition was the most effective, as the participants learned the most from it. 204 words AE mark: 8 5b) Assess the effectiveness of methods of health promotion. [15] The research into health promotion methods can be useful as they can show how effective they can be. For example, in Dannenbergs helmet safety study, the aim was to assess if legislation was effective as a better deterant for bad health behaviour, such as not wearing a helmet. The study showed that legislation was effective in the sense that many of the children reported they understood and were aware of the law, however, one of the control groups that had the law in place as well as an educational campaign had higher levels of helmet useage suggesting that while legislation is useful, it’s affect is heightened when it is understood why that law is in place. Another way methods of health promotion is effective is that they can inform the public how and why adopting a health behaviour is good. For example, in Cowpe’s study into the effectiveness of Advertising Campaigns, it was found that by explaining how to prevent a chip pan fire instead of what to do just in the event of one resulted in less chip pan fire related incidents, demonstrating this method to be successful. What’s more , fear aroiusal can also be an effective use of health promotion. For example, in Feshbach’s study, he foud that if fear arousal is too strong in health promotion it has the opposite effect, as the participants become desensitized to it, and consequentially the slideshow with high levels of fear arousal became ineffective. This is also shown in Cowpe’s chip pan fire study, in the sense that in the regions where more than one channel was received – so the advert was shown more than once – the levels of chip pan fires weren’t as low as those regions who only saw the advert once. This suggests that over-exposure to a health campaign leads to ineffectiveness also. Overall, it can be said that media campaigns are the most effective when shown in moderation, fear arousal is more effective when it is minimal, and the use of legislation is more effective in conjunction to an educational campaign, so the public understand why the law was passed. 354 words AE mark:13
  • 16. 16 Question 8 Student Answer 1: Usha a) Outline a behavioural explanation of one disorder ( either affective or anxiety or psychotic ) [10] a) A behavioural explanation of one affective disorder is depression. The behavioural explanation of this is that we are all born blank slates & know nothing, so all behaviour is learnt. Therefore any dysfunctional behaviour must also be learnt through either classical conditioning,. operant conditioning or social learning. In terms of depression, the classical conditioning theory suggests we associate one act with another, and this leads to learnt behaviour, so in depression we’d associate some circumstances with a certain mood change, & this can lead to a diagnosis of depression. * According to operant conditioning the theory is that the level of praise and reward encourage a behaviour to be repeated, so in depression there is a lack of positive reinforcement, which leads to depression being diagnosed. * For example, unemployment may be linked to sadness & if one is unemployed for a long time it would be sad & a prolonged episode of this emotion would lead to a diagnosis of depression. Seligman did a study to use the learned behaviour model to explain depression. He used dogs, which learn quickly, to explain the theory. The dogs were given repeated electric shocks to their feet which they couldn’t escape, and the dogs kept trying to escape the shocks but 24 hours later they started showing learned helplessness as they didn’t try & escape any more & just endured the shocks. In subsequent trials where the dogs could escape – they didn’t try to & just stayed and endured the shocks as they had learned that their actions would be futile & the shocks were inevitable. Seligman explained how this is the similar symptom in depressed patients where the main symptom is the expectation that no matter what you do nothing will change. He also highlighted similarities between symptoms of learned helplessness & depression- like passivity, low self esteem, loss of appetite, lowered aggression & more. ( 314 words) Mark AE:9 , TL: 10
  • 17. 17 8a) Mark-scheme 8a Examiner report
  • 18. 18 8b) Compare explanations of the disorder you referred to in part a) [15] As well as the behaviourist explanation, there are the biological & cognitive explanations for depression. The behaviourist explanation considers the environment of the patient and explains depression in terms of classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning. This has been the strengths of lots of research which has been conducted, and is also a useful explanation as it gives us free will – if people can learn dysfunctional behaviour then they can also unlearn them too – via CBT ( cognitive behavioural therapy) which aims to reduce symptoms like self blame. However the behaviourist approach is very reductionist & doesn’t consider any genetic pre-disposition people may have to depression. It is also on the nurture side of the nature/nurture debate as it doesn’t consider the effects of our internal processes on depression. It is also on the nurture side of the nature/nurture debate as it doesn’t consider the nature side and looks at our genetics as a cause for dysfunctional behaviour. There is strong evidence to support this explanation too as there is a lot of scientific and medical data which is reliable to back up this explanation. Measurements used in the biological explanation are also very relable such as PETSCANS and blood tests. The biological explanation is also affective at explaining genetic pre-dispositions to depression – so those more susceptible can be looked at and screeded, to prevent any depression going further down the family tree. However this explanation is also reductionist as it only considers the biology of the individual & disregards the effects of the environment & social factors. The cognitive explanation for depression suggests that faulty thinking processes causes depression, which is looked at in Beck’s study which looked at cognitive distortions in depressed patients. Results showed that compared to psychologically normal individuals – depressed people had more illogical irrational thinking and there was more self blame, desire to escape and low self esteem amongst depressed patients. This does explain the symptoms however it does not consider any genetic pre-dispostions or the effect of our genes on depression. (329 words) Mark: AE: 11, TL: 10 Comment: This was Usha’s final examination question. She came out of the exam worried because she had not FINISHED part b) ! Her upper band mark of 10/15 for Qu 8b) was indeed her lowest mark of any question part. Her answers are in general notably detailed and she had a real struggle to focus on issues rather than content in part b) answers. Nevertheless she did really well.
  • 19. 19 Q8b Mark scheme Q8b Examiner report
  • 20. 20 Qu 8 Student Answer 2: Zamira a) Outline a behavioural explanation of one disorder ( either affective or anxiety or psychotic ) [10] The behavioural explanation for an affective disorder such as depression would argue that depression is brought about by learned helplessness and through operant conditioning and classical conditioning. The behaviour explanation for depression argues that individual life events are what bring about the thoughts of learned helplessness, that whatever they do will not change things. People with depression therefore view events in a negative way. Seligman demonstrated learned helplessness by conducting an experiment on dogs. In his experiment he gave electric shocks at the feet of the dogs. He found from this that group three showed similar symptoms to people with depression; a lack of helplessness, and winning. From this Seligman concluded that depressed patients showed a manifestation of learned helplessness and perceived life events as something they could not change ( 130 words) AE Mark: 7 b) Compare explanations of the disorder you referred to in part a) [15] There are 3 main explanations of affective disorders such as depression; biological, cognitive and behavioural explanations . The three of these could be said to be rather reductionist as they attempt to explain something rather complex, down into smaller components. For example the biological explanation as researched by Wendler explains depression to genes and a lack of serotonin in the brain. However the biological explanation for depression is reductionist as it does not look at the role of the environment in developing depressive symptoms . It also takes the nature side of the nature/nurture debate and therefore fails to balance both aspects. Similarly, the cognitive approach fails to look at the biological explanation for depression. The studies such as Beck, foiund that participants with depression thought differently compared to non depressed patients. They were more lacking self esteem and felt unvalued. However the cognitive explanation fails to take into account the role of somebody’s biological makeup in explaining depression. Nonetheless, it could be seen as better to reduce something complex into smaller components in order to establish cause and effect and to study one component into much more depth. Differences between the explanations lie in the way that researchers from that approach collect data. For example the biological explanation is more scientific and collects quantitative data through techniques like a change in glycemic levels or the change in a neurotransmitter affected by drugs. On the other hand the cognitive approach collects more qualitative data as the explanation includes finding out about the thought processes of patients suffering from an affective disorder. The cogntive explanation as presented by Beck can therefore be seen as more valid as it collects in depth qualitative data involving interviews with patients. In conclusion, there are several differences between the explanation of depression as outlined above, but one thing which they do have in common is that they are reductionist therefore we have to apply them with caution when explaining an affective disorder like depression. (329 words) AE Mark: 13 Comment: This was Zamira’s final question as well. She achieved the same mark as Usha through a different balance between factual detail and accuracy ( part a) and analysis and argument ( part b)