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Resourcd File Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. Key Term What it means in the context of the mark scheme Knowledge and Understanding Showing that you understand the material Evaluation and Commentary Critical commentary of the material including use of studies and synoptic A02 points. Range / Breadth Have you presented and explained a good variety of points? Depth/ Detailed Have you fully explained all your points in detail to show the ‘depth’ of your understanding? Elaboration! Well Structured /Coherent Have you structured your arguments in a clear logical order? Does it flow? Have you made links and used connectives?
  • 2. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. Key Term What it means in the context of the mark scheme Accurate/ Relevant You have selected the correct material to answer the question. Issues, Debates & Approaches This is your synoptic A02 (IDA). Terminology Have you used the psychological key terms and if so, have you used them correctly? Punctuation, Grammar & Spelling The quality of your English is also assessed. Superficial/ Rudimentary AVOID THIS AT ALL COSTS. Your work is superficial or rudimentary if your explanation doesn’t adequately show that you understand. Elaborate and explain to show the examiner what you mean!
  • 3. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. Reward/Need Theory of relationship formation argues that relationships are formed on the basis of classical conditioning and association. EVIDENCE Support it with psychological research. May and Hamilton (1980) conducted an experiment to look at the role that association played in relationship formation. They got females to evaluate photos of men whilst they were listening to three different types of music which induced three different types of mood. EXPLAIN Explain what the research shows or suggests. Females evaluated the men most positively when listening to a piece of rock music which induced a positive mood. This suggests that we find mates most attractive when we associate them with a positive feeling or experience. LINK Link it back to your point or the question. This supports the Reward/Need theory of relationship formation as it implies that we form relationships on the basis of learning through association.
  • 4. Think of one study relevant to  Issues:  Ethical issues  Gender bias  Cultural bias
  • 5. Debates  Free will vs determinism  Reductionist vs Holistic  Psychology As a Science  Nature vs Nurture Think of one study you know in psychology where the debate is relevant.
  • 6. Approaches  Evolutionary  Biological  Behavioural  Cognitive  Psychodynamic Think of one study you know in psychology where you have come across the approach.
  • 7. Mark bands for AO2 Rudimentary 1-4 Rudimentary, with very limited understanding. The answer is weak, muddled and incomplete. Material is not used effectively and may be mainly irrelevant. Absent or muddled IDA. QWC has errors. Basic 5-8 Basic, superficial understanding. The answer is sometimes focused and shows some evidence of elaboration. Superficial reference to IDA. QWC lacks clarity, limited use of terms. Reasonable 9-12 Reasonable analysis and understanding. The answer is generally focused and shows reasonable elaboration and/or a line of argument is evident. Reasonably effective IDA. QWC is clear and appropriate. Effective 13-16 Sound analysis, understanding and interpretation. The answer is well focused and shows coherent elaboration and/or a clear line of argument. IDA used effectively. QWC has fluent effective use of terms. Perfection
  • 8. So…A02 Mark bands and IDA • Rudimentary 0-4: Muddled and inaccurate IDA • Basic 5-8: Superficial reference to IDA • Reasonable 9-12: Reasonably effective use of IDA • Effective 13-16: Effective use of IDA Perfection
  • 9. Effective use of issues and debates To access higher marks : 1. Reference to issues and debates should be thoughtful and relevant. 1. It does not have to be substantial. One or two well chosen I&D will be fine (less is more). 1. Candidates should be able to elaborate and explain why the issue or debate is important. 1. It is fine to link one debate to another (e.g. determinism to socially sensitive research).
  • 10. PEEL your way through the IDA • One way of ensuring effective use of issues and debates is to “PEEL” them. 1. Point (make sure it is relevant to question) 2. Elaboration (explain, analyse, review implication) 3. Evidence (to support the point) or further explanation/elaboration 4. Link back to the point or to the question itself
  • 11. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. The reward-need satisfaction model can be criticised for being culturally biased and may therefore lack generalisability to non-Western cultures. EVIDENCE Support it with psychological research. Lott (1994) suggests that in many cultures, it is the woman who focuses on the needs of others. In addition, collectivist cultures do not have the same emphasis on the need for reward and satisfaction of the individual that this theory claims. EXPLAIN Explain what the research shows or elaborate with another example. In addition, arranged marriages , for example, are not based on positive associations made through conditioning, and their formation is for less emotional reasons (e.g family ties, financial reasons) LINK Link it back to your point or the question. This suggests that the Reward/Need theory is not a universal explanation of the formation of relationships and is culturally biased in its interpretation and application as a theory.
  • 12. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. It can be argued that Equity theory is culturally biased in its view of factors that are important in the maintenance of a relationship EVIDENCE Support it with psychological research. Research where men & women were interviewed at the university of Hawaii (relatively individualistic) culture & the university of the West Indies in Jamaica (a relatively collectivistic culture) found differences in how men & women from these different cultures reacted to perceived inequalities in their relationships EXPLAIN Explain what the research shows or elaborate with another example. The Hawaiian sample were most satisfied when they perceived the relationship as equitable, but the Jamaican sample was most satisfied when they perceived themselves to be overbenefiting from their relationship. LINK Link it back to your point or This suggests that the Reward/Need theory is not a universal explanation of the formation
  • 13. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. Carrying out research in this sensitive area raises particular ethical issues. Researchers are reluctant to investigate at such a time in case they cause additional distress. EVIDENCE Or EXPLAIN Support it with psychological research or examples. For example, participants may experience distress when revisiting the issues that led to the breakdown, privacy (many issues are of an intensely personal nature) or confidentiality. In addition, the partner who did not initiate the break up, could experience particular distress. EXPLAIN Or EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or elaborate with another example. Akert (1998), for example, found that the partners who did not initiate the breakup, also tended to be the most miserable, reported the highest levels of loneliness & unhappiness after the end of the relationship rather than the initiators who were less stressed and less upset than their partners. LINK Link it back to your point or the question. This implies that ethical issues are particularly important when researching this area of relationships as the psychological costs to the
  • 14. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. The research into sexual selection often involves animals like peacocks, and the results might not be true of humans. EVIDENCE What does this candidate do? This theory, based on evolutionary ideas is also reductionist because it doesn’t consider non biological influences. In addition, the theory can be seen as deterministic as it sees all of our behaviour as being determined by evolution EXPLAIN Try to write an effective IDA for sexual selection. Examples, cultural bias; gender bias (textbook p55) LINK Link it back to your point or the question. Create a short list of Dos & Don’t’s for IDAs.
  • 15. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. According to the theory of sexual selection, males are more predisposed towards short term mating than are females. EVIDENCE or EXPLAIN Reproductive success for males is determined solely by the number of fertilisations they can achieve. Females on the other hand, are less predisposed towards casual sex because the costs of such inappropriate matings are much higher. EXPLAIN or EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or elaborate with another example. However, Greiling & Buss (2000) suggest that this ignores the possible benefits of short term mating to the female, including using it to exit a poor quality relationship or as a way of producing more genetically offspring. LINK Link it back to your point or the question. This suggests that the theory of sexual selection is gender biased as it only considers the male advantages of short term mating in sexual selection.
  • 16. Look at the mark scheme for a 24 marker and answer the questions.. POINT Make your point. Evolutionary theories are reductionist. (see page 57 of textbook & complete PEEL for this) EVIDENCE Support it with psychological research. EXPLAIN Explain what the research shows or suggests. LINK Link it back to your point or the question. Can you now add any additional points for your Do’s for IDA? In pairs, one partner to write IDA for influence of childhood, the other for culture.
  • 17. examples
  • 18. examples Discuss Genetic factors involved in aggressive behaviour. (4 +16 marks) Basic IDA:
  • 19. examples Discuss Genetic factors involved in aggressive behaviour. (4 +16 marks) Reasonable IDA:
  • 20. examples Outline and evaluate one theory of the maintenance of romantic relationships (4+8 marks) Reasonable IDA: