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Section C model
answers
D r a y t o n M a n o r H i g h S c h o o l
[ T y p e t h e c o m p a n y a d d r e s s ]
[ T y p ...
Assumption 2m
All human behaviour is a result of internal mental processes such as memory, thinking,reasoning,
problem-sol...
Strength is that the results have many practical applications that benefit society. For example, in L &
P, the results sho...
Assumption
It assumes there are clearly identifiable systematic changes that occur in a
An individual’s behaviour from con...
Strengths and weaknesses 12m
One strength of the developmental approach is that it offers positive applications to real li...
It assumes that all that is psychological is first physiological – that since the mind appears to
reside in the brain, all...
Strengths may include:
One strength of the physiological approach is that it uses scientific methods to collect data to
su...
Assumption
• One assumption of the social approach is that other people and the surrounding
environment are major influenc...
Strengths and weakness
• One strength of the social approach is that it helpsunderstand how behaviour
can be influenced by...
Assumption
One assumption of the individual differences approach is that everyone
is different and that therefore our beha...
Thigpen and Cleckley findings cannot be generalised to any other individuals whose
experience of multiple personality diso...
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Resourcd File

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  1. 1. Section C model answers D r a y t o n M a n o r H i g h S c h o o l [ T y p e t h e c o m p a n y a d d r e s s ] [ T y p e t h e p h o n e n u m b e r ] [ T y p e t h e f a x n u m b e r ] [ P i c k t h e d a t e ] Miss Khan [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]
  2. 2. Assumption 2m All human behaviour is a result of internal mental processes such as memory, thinking,reasoning, problem-solving and language. How does the cognitive approach explain EWT 4M • Loftus and Palmer suggested that there are two types of information that make up memory of anevent: information gathered from perceiving the event and information gathered after the event. These two pieces of information become integrated and if the information after the event is influenced by leading questions the individual is left with an inaccurate memory of that event. In their study students watched film clips of car crashes and were then asked leading questions about the crashes. For example some students were asked, “About how fast were the cars travelling when they crashed into each other?” whilst others were asked, “About how fast were the cars travelling when the hit each other?” Those with the verb crashed in the question responded with faster speeds than those with the verb hit. This shows that any testimony relating to an event may therefore be inaccurate Similarity and difference 6m - Both Loftus and Palmer and Baron-Cohen used laboratory experiments to investigate how cognitive processes influence behaviour. For example Loftus and Palmer presented participants with a video clip of multiple car accidents and then a questionnaire asking how fast the cars were travelling. In Baron-Cohen study participants were given pictures of eyes and asked to identify the adjective describing the emotion. • One difference between the studies is the sample used to collect data, Loftus and Palmer used 45 American students in experiment one and 150 students in experiment two, whereas Savage-Rumbaugh studied pygmy and common chimpanzees known as Kanzi, Mulika, Austin and Sherman. Strengths and weaknesses One strength of the cog approach is that it is a very scientific approach as it uses lab experiments to collect data which allow variables to be manipulated therefore cause and effect can be established for example in L & P between the verb changes and the estimates of speed. This allows conclusions to be drawn easily such as eyewitness testimony is affected by leading questions. In addition the procedure of lab experiments is standardised so the results are reliable, for example Baron Cohen showed each participant the same eyes, for the same amount of time. Cognitive approach
  3. 3. Strength is that the results have many practical applications that benefit society. For example, in L & P, the results show that eyewitness testimony can be altered by leading questions. Therefore have useful applications in courts and law in that eyewitness testimony cannot always be believed. One weakness of the cog approach is that there is low ecological validity as majority of studies are lab based. For example in L & P, the participants didn’t see a real crash only a video so the results are less valid as there was no emotional response. This means that because the results are less valid, they can’t be applied to everyday life as results could alter if witnessing a real crash. In addition BaronCohen only showed the eyes to participants to test theory of mind when in real life emotion is judged by body language as well as eyes. Another weakness is that the cognitive approaches is reductionist and it reduces complex human behaviour down to internal mental processes and ignores the influence of genes, hormones and social processes for example savage rumbaugh argue that chimps can learn language through observation however there are biological mechanisms that prevent chimps from having vocal ability of humans.
  4. 4. Assumption It assumes there are clearly identifiable systematic changes that occur in a An individual’s behaviour from conception to death. How does it explain aggression 4m As children grow, through the social learning processes of observation, imitation and Reinforcement, they learn to be aggressive. This was shown in Bandura’s ‘Bashing Bubo doll study where children who observed a model being aggressive to a bobo doll, later reproduced more aggressive acts resembling those demonstrated by the model than those who either observed a model behaving passively with the doll or who saw no model at all. If this behaviour is reinforced in any way, as they develop over time, children learn to be aggressive. Conservation 4m As children grow up and mature mentally, their cognitive abilities develop so they can cope with and understand increasingly complex phenomena. This was shown through Samuel and Bryant’s conservation experiment where the mean number of errors made by children in all three conditions (standard, one judgement, fixed array) decreased with age, showing their ability to conserve got increasingly better as they got older. The study also showed that conservational abilities develop gradually as the child’s cognitive abilities develop because children were able to conserve number before they were able to conserve mass or volume Similarity and difference 6m - Both Bandura and Samuel and Bryant used a laboratory experiment which allowed them a high level of control. Bandura controlled their experiment by having the same number of boys and girls see either an aggressive or a non-aggressive model, by using the same 3 rooms, and by displaying the toys in exactly the same way for every child. Every child also witnessed the same stylised acts of either aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour acted out by the models. Samuel and Bryant controlled their experiment by having an equal number of 21 children of equal mean age in each subgroup – standard, one question, fixed array. In addition every child had 4 attempts with each type of material – counters, play dough, liquid, and the order in which the children undertook the tasks was systematically varied to prevent order effects. - A difference between two developmental studies is that Bandura’s and Samuel and Bryant’s samples were drawn from different places. Bandura’s sample was drawn from Stanford University Nursery School in California, America whereas Samuel and Bryant’s participants came from various schools and playgroups in Crediton, Devon, England - Developmental
  5. 5. Strengths and weaknesses 12m One strength of the developmental approach is that it offers positive applications to real life which benefit society, for example Bandura’s study on how children learn aggression helps us understand what factors can lead to aggression in adults and to prevent aggression one should expose children to positive role models. SimilarlyFreud’s study helps offer a unique understanding of phobias and how they can be a form of projected anxieties which can be overcome with therapy.  Another strength of the developmental approach is that it adds to the continuing nature versus nurture debate. [S]The study by Bandura shows the influence of nurture on the development of aggressive behaviour. Those children exposed to the aggressive model reproduced more acts of aggression than those children exposed to a non-aggressive model or no model at all, suggesting children can learn (nurture) imitate behaviour. However, although the children’s natural aggressive tendencies were controlled for as they were pre- matched for aggression and equally distributed between the groups, one cannot be certain children in the aggressive group were not naturally more pre-disposed to aggression. [E] Likewise, although Samuel and Bryant’s study showed conservational skills develop with age, suggesting this is due to a child’s natural (biologically determined) developing cognitive abilities, one cannot be certain that the environment (nurture) they were brought up in at home and/or school did not significantly influence these abilities. [E]  A weakness of the developmental approach is that it is often claimed to be reductionist as it attempts to provide a complete explanation for a complex behaviour by focusing on one single factor.[W] Bandura in his Bashing Bobo experiment tried to show that children can learn aggressive behaviour simply by watching and then imitating aggressive behaviour displayed by a significant model. However other factors are also likely to influence whether or not a child will become aggressive e.g. biological influences such as testosterone levels which are known to affect aggression levels. [E] Likewise, Freud tried to claim that Little Hans’ fear of horses was a subconscious fear of his father as he was experiencing the Oedipus Complex. This is reducing the development of complex phenomena of phobias down to one basic factor whereas other influences such as the biological need to survive and the influence of past experiences e.g. seeing someone being bitten by a horse, are also likely to influence whether or not an individual develops such a phobia. A final weakness of the developmental approach is that it is reductionist, this is because it reduces complex human behaviour down to rigid stages, for example Samuel Bryant found participants were able to conserve number, mass and volume by the age of 8½ but that very few were able to do this at the age of 5½. They therefore suggested that children under the age of 5½ cannot conserve but that those over the age of 8½ could. These are very rigid demarcation lines for the development of conservation skills and do not consider the effect of the child’s social and educational environment which may help or hinder their development of such skills. One should therefore be cautious about making definitive statements about age-related development because everyone is an individual who develop at their own speed depending on their own natural abilities and the environment in which they are raised all of which is ignored by the developmental approach.
  6. 6. It assumes that all that is psychological is first physiological – that since the mind appears to reside in the brain, all thoughts, feelings and behaviours ultimately have an identifiable and measurable physiological cause 18 (b) Describe how the physiological approach could explain changes in the brain. People who use navigational skills constantly in their work, show a different physiological structure in the part of their brain which deals with these skills compared to people who do not use these skills as frequently. This was shown in Maguire’s study which compared the volume of grey matter in the hippocampi of taxi drivers and non-taxi drivers. Results showed drivers suggesting a physiological basis for taxi divers’ navigational abilities Describe how the physiological approach could explain difficulties faced by those with split brain. 4m The physiological approach could explain the difficulties experienced by individuals with a ‘split-brain’because their brains work differently to those of ‘normal’ people. As a result of having their corpus callosum severed, the two hemispheres of the brainwork independently and unlike a ‘normal’ brain do not transfer information from one side to another. This inability to transfer information means ‘split-brain’patients cannot do certain things a ‘normal’person can. This was demonstrated in Sperry’s study which showed that, if an object was presented to the left visual field which was registered by the right hemisphere of ‘split-brain’ patients, they were unable to name what they had seen. A ‘normal’person would have no difficulty naming the objectThis is because the language centre of the brain is in the left hemisphere and in ‘split-brain’ patients information presented to the right hemisphere cannot be transferred to the left for identification through language Describe one similarity and one difference between any physiological approach studies. Similarity: One similarity is that Both Maguire and Dement and Kleitman used complex scientific apparatus. Maguire used and MRI scanner to measure the volume of grey matter in the hippocampi of taxi and non-taxi drivers, and Dement and Kleitman used an EEG machine to measure gross brain and grey matter Sample difference. Maguire used16 British (London-based) male licensed taxi drivers who had passed ‘the knowledge’. All were right-handed and between 32 and 62 years of age with a mean age of44. and a control group of 16 non-taxi drivers who were matched with the taxi drivers on age, gender and right- handedness, whereas Dement and Kleitman used 9 adult Americans as participants seven male and two female adults were studied intensively. Physiological
  7. 7. Strengths may include: One strength of the physiological approach is that it uses scientific methods to collect data to support its claims. Most of the research has employed sophisticated techniques that accurately and objectively measure internal biological processes which cannot be manipulated by researchers making the research valid, reliable and scientific. For example Dement and Kleitman used EEG and EOG measures to identify brain wave and eye movement patterns. Similarly Maguire used PET scans to measure grey matter and hippocampi volume in the brains of taxi drivers. Another strength of the physiological approach is that it provides good evidence for the nature side of the nature nurture debate as it shows we are determined to some extent by our biological processes. For example Sperry found that those participants who had their corpus callosum removed had two independent hemispheres and that each hemisphere has different functions i.e. the left is in control of language. In addition the posterior hippocampus has been implicated in spatial awareness. This shows that our biology does determine behaviour to some extent. However a weakness of the physiological approach is that it is reductionist as it assumed complex human behaviour is simply a result of biological factors and ignores the role of free will, nurture, social and cognitive factors. For example Maguire found that the longer taxi drivers had been driving the larger their grey matter in posterior hippocampus which suggests experiences influence our biology. Another weakness of the physiological approach is that the data collected tends to lack ecological validity as it is all based in lab environments which are highly controlled and artificial. As a result the findings may not be applicable to real life. For example Dement and Kleotman measured dreaming in a lab environment and asked participants to abstain from caffeine and alcohol, this may not reflect real sleeping patterns to can’t generalise from the results.
  8. 8. Assumption • One assumption of the social approach is that other people and the surrounding environment are major influences on an individual’s behaviour,thought processes and emotions . How does the social approach explain helping behaviour 4m • The environment and situation we are in are major influences on whether or notindividuals will help another person. Piliavin’s study showed that when in a closedarea individuals tend not to diffuse responsibility and that the more people therewere present when the incident occurred, the more people went to help the victim.They also found that if a victim is lame people are more likely to help than if thevictim is drunk. Also, if a victim is the same race as a potential helper they are more likely to help them How does the social approach explain obedience 4m • The social approach, as demonstrated throughMilgram’s study could explain obedience. Firstly, asMilgram himself suggested the environment – YaleUniversity – may have influenced participants as to the worthiness of the study and the competence of theexperimenter, resulting in high levels of obediencewhich may not be found in a less prestigious setting.Secondly, the presence of what appeared to be a legitimate authority figure, dressed ina white lab coat, carrying a clip board, influenced the participants’ behaviour as they believed him to be atrustworthy and knowledgeable individual who shouldbe obeyed Similarity A similarity between the Paladin study and the Milgram study is that they both have problems of ethical issues. The Piliavin study has issues of psychological harm from moral dilemmas of whether we should help those in need of help and has a lack of right to withdraw as the participants are stuck in the carriage. The Milgram study also has problems of psychological harm, from the idea of physically harming someone and the feeling of a lack of right to withdraw from the money reward and the prods used Difference A difference between the two studies is the country/environment in whichthe studies were conducted in that Milgram’s was conducted in Americawhereas Reicher and Haslam’s took place in England./Milgram carried out hisexperiment in Yale University which is in the New Haven area of Connecticut,USA, whereas Reicher and Haslam created their mock prison at Elstree Studios in London, England. Social
  9. 9. Strengths and weakness • One strength of the social approach is that it helpsunderstand how behaviour can be influenced by nurture more so by how otherpeople and the situation in which people find themselves. For example, Milgram suggested thehigh levels of obedience found in his experiment weredue not only to the presence of a legitimate authorityfigure but also because the study was conducted in arenowned educational establishment.Similarly Piliavin found that helping behaviour was maximised when the vict8im was with a cane and a model intervenes. This indicatesthat to get desirable behaviour one must ensure the people involved and the situation are appropriate • Another strength of the social approach is that it canprovide explanations for a great many phenomena.The big moral question in the middle of the twentieth century was how the horrors of WW2 could havehappened. Was the killing of so many Jews becauseGermans were particularly obedient to authority figures? Studies like Milgram’s have shown that,under the right conditions, Americans (andsubsequently other cultures) will obey authority figureseven when the command requires destructive behaviour. His findings therefore not only helpexplain the obedience of the Germans to Hitler’sinhumane commands but open up researchopportunities to investigate how such atrocities may be prevented in the future. • A weakness of the social approach is reductionist as it assumed all individuals are influenced by the group and underestimates the influence of individual differences on behaviour. Although Milgram’s study showedthat 65% (26/40) of the participants were prepared toobey the authority figure and give electric shocks up to450 volts, 35% (14/40) were not prepared to go to such extremes. Individual differences in personality as well asupbringing influence behaviour; so suggesting thatbehaviour is totally influenced by one’s social environment is reductionist. • A further weakness of the social approach is that much of the research it has generated has raised several ethical issues, this is because of the use of field experiments participants are unable to give informed consent and often their privacy is invaded. For example Piliavian looked at helping behaviour on New York subways and found that participants often help an ill victim over a drunken victim. Participants were unaware that this was an experiment. Similar in Reicher and Hallam study into prison behaviour many of the guards were bullied and suffered from psychological harm so much so that the study had to be terminated after 8 days.
  10. 10. Assumption One assumption of the individual differences approach is that everyone is different and that therefore our behaviour will vary between person to person because of personality traits we already have in us Describe how the individual differences approach could explain multiple personality disorder. Each individual has his/her own experiences and personality and experiences his/her own traumas. Some repressive personalities try to bury memories in their unconscious mind so they do not have to deal with them. Some may even try to forget them. Through this repression and not dealing with unwanted emotional trauma some individuals may adopt another personality to help them deal with the repressed memories. For example in Thigpen and Lockley’s study, Eve White was a shy, repressive housewife who had experienced traumas such as her mother making her kiss her dead grandmother, a man damaging his arm in a saw mill incident and her mother cutting herself. Eve Black emerged, who was the opposite of Eve White with a separate set of memories and a regressive personality. Therefore someindividuals with certain past experiences and a particular disposition may develop other personalities to help them cope with childhood trauma. With reference to Griffiths’ study, describe how the individual differences approach could explain gambling addiction. 4m This approach can explain gambling because it focuses on differences between people rather than commonalities between people. Griffiths in his study into fruit machine gambling looked at the behaviours of regular and non-regular gamblers. He found regular gamblers were more likely than non-regular gamblers to personalise the machine by saying such things as ‘The machine likes me’, and to make more irrational vocalisations than non-regular gamblers such as ‘I lost because I wasn’t concentrating.’ Such behaviours show that regular gamblers behave differently to non-regular gamblers showing that individual differences are strong factors affecting gambling behaviour Describe one similarity and one difference between any studies that take the individual differences approach One similarity between Rosenhan and Griffiths’ study is that both are high in ecological validity. That is the results from both experiments can be applied to everyday life. For example both studies were carried out in real life environments/situations. Rosenhan carried out his experiment in a real hospital and Griffiths carried out his study in a real arcade. Adifference between two studies that take the individual differences approach is that Thigpen and Cleckley in their study into multiple personality disorderonly studied one individual – Eve White, whereas Rosenhan’s sample consisted of any of the staff on duty during the time of the study in the 12 hospitals selected for the investigation. This means that Individual differences
  11. 11. Thigpen and Cleckley findings cannot be generalised to any other individuals whose experience of multiple personality disorder is likely to be very different to that of Eve whereas Rosenhan’s findings are very likely to be representative of most staff in psychiatric wards across the USA. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the individual differences approach using examples from any studies that take this approach. One strength of the individual differences approach is that it takes experiences and personalities into account. For example, Thigpen and Cleckley’s case study on Eve White was very detailed and involved longitudinal, unstructured interviews, hypnosis and psychometric tests to gain a wider understanding of her past and her different personalities. This means that although it is timeconsuming, expensive and arguably subjective, the approach is holistic and specific to the individual whose experiences and personalities may be different to those of others. The approach allows the study of rare behaviours. Multiple personality disorder was very rare around the time of Eve White’s case and quite unheard of. Furthermore the individual differences approach has many practical applications for real life that benefit society. For example Griffiths’study of the cognitive biases and unique heuristics of gamblers allows rehabilitation of gambling addiction to be more informed and cognitive behavioural therapy, for instance, to be used to change the way gamblers think so they can lead healthy lives. In addition Rosenhan highlighted the importance of humane treatment towards patients and to reduce hospital hierarchies. A weakness of this approach is that the techniques used are not fully objective and therefore open to bias. In the Rosenhan study pseudopatients gathered their data through participant observation and then recorded their findings in daily diaries. These are not objective measures and the use of observation as a research method offers opportunities for behaviour to be misinterpreted. Although pseudopatients recorded that staff avoided eye- contact as much as possible and linked that to being because they did not want to converse with insane people, this could actually be because people in general try to avoid eye-contact when asked personal or awkward questions e.g. ‘Do you know when I will be discharged?’ Likewise Thigpen and Cleckley claimed that the 3 Faces of Eve were significantly different. However to an impartial witness, video evidence taken during the 100 hours of interviews, often makes the differences in the personalities impossible to identify, suggesting that the techniques used to gather data in this study were open to at least researcher bias A further weakness of this approach is that it often raises such ethical concerns as consent, deception, invasion of privacy and psychological stress. Participants (hospital staff) in Rosenhan’s first study were deceived firstly by the fact that they were unaware that they were involved in a psychological study and secondly by the pseudopatients faking illness. They may then have become very distressed when they were told they had wrongly identified sane people as insane and concerned that both their jobs and their reputations were in jeopardy. This is extremely unethical, after all one would expect people attending a hospital claiming to hear voices to be genuine. Likewise, although Evewas a willing participant in Thigpen and Cleckley’s study she may well have suffered additional stress through the intensive 100 hours+ of interviewing, the use of hypnosis, the entire physiological and psychological testing etc. She is likely also at times to have felt an invasion of privacy, particularly once a video of her interviews had been formulated and sold on the commercial market

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