Academy/Free
Schools
Academies are self-governing schools that are free from local authority control and are funded
direct...
Comprehensivisation This replaced the tri-parte system, it is where secondary schools taught all students the same
materia...
Educational
Maintenance Award
(EMA)
2004 the government introduced the Educational Maintenance Award nationwide to try and...
Gender Identity This is how people perceive themselves and construct themselves in terms of their gender roles
and biologi...
Micro Level These are theories such as interactionism that focus on small scale, micro level interactions
between individu...
Present Time
Orientation
Seeing the present as more important than planning for the future
Primary
Socialisation
This is t...
Specialist Schools 85% of secondary schools are now of this type, they were introduced to drive up standards,
choice and i...
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  1. 1. Academy/Free Schools Academies are self-governing schools that are free from local authority control and are funded directly by the government. Those in charge of the school have more freedom to control how that school is run. Acceptance Of Hierarchy This is the idea that school teaches us our place in the social order. Teachers follow orders from their head and students from their teachers. It mirrors the hierarchy in the work place. Achieved Status This is the idea that you earn your role in society in terms of your merits. Anomie This is an absence of social norms or chaos. Anti-School Subcultures A subculture is a culture within a culture with its own set of norms and values. Laddish sub cultures that reject education rather than embrace it. Anti-school sub cultures consist of not accepting teachers authority or acting up in lessons as a sign of rebellion Ascribed Status This is the idea your role in society is given to you or is fixed in the society to which you are born into. Banding This is where students are put into ability streams(bands) for all of their subjects. Bedroom Culture This is the idea that girl’s leisure time is based around reading, talking and being creative it may give them an advantage in education. Bourgeoisie These are the ruling classes, the capitalists Capitalism This is a system of society based upon free market principles, the pursuit of profit and the accumulation of wealth. Although Marxists view it as a system where the bourgeoisie exploit the proletariat. Class This is a way of dividing society into groups based upon socio-economic status. Collective Consciousness This is Durkheim’s term for everyone in society having agreed norms and values in society. Collectivism Where you put your friends before your own individual achievement e.g. messing about inside and outside of class with your mates is more important than doing well for yourself Communism This is a society everyone where is equal as long as they contribute to society. Compensatory Education These are government policies that are aimed at combating the negative effects of deprivation. For example, EMA or Surestart.
  2. 2. Comprehensivisation This replaced the tri-parte system, it is where secondary schools taught all students the same material, regardless of their ability. The school you went to is based upon catchment area. Correspondence principle Education mirroring the workplace. Cream Skim This is where schools choose the best academic students to be at their school instead of choosing the less academic students. These tend to be middle class students. Crisis in masculinity This is where males are having identity crisis there are no clear cut male gender roles in western society as there are fewer traditional male jobs and women have made their way onto the job market. Cultural Capital This is the knowledge, attitudes, values, language and tastes of the middle classes. The socialisation if these give m/c children an advantage as it is what the education system is based upon. Cultural Deprivation a lack or deficit of values or of norms, attitudes, skills or knowledge that would allow you to do well in education Culture Culture refers to the language, knowledge, skills, norms and values of a particular society. Curriculum These are the things that we are explicitly taught in schools. Cycle of Deprivation An explanation of how one aspect of poverty e.g. poor diet can lead to further poverty e.g. absence at school or work. This builds up into a cycle which individuals will find it hard to escape and may be transmitted from one generation to the next. Deferred Gratification This is where you can put off a small immediate reward and wait for a larger reward in future it is the opposite of immediate gratification. Dependency Culture This is the idea that people assume that the state will support them, rather than them having to be responsible and work themselves. Deschooling This is Illich’s liberal idea that all forms or compulsory education should be abolished. Differentiation This is creating differences between individuals or groups. This may be done in class by teacher splitting students into different groups, or by setting and streaming. Double Standard Males sexual conquest is approved off and gains status for males, but promiscuity in girls is labelled as negative Educational Action Zones (EAZ) Areas of deprivation were designated Educational Action Zones. These were given additional money for education to counter this deprivation
  3. 3. Educational Maintenance Award (EMA) 2004 the government introduced the Educational Maintenance Award nationwide to try and encourage students to stay on in post-16 education. This is a means tested system whereby students with fewer material advantages actually receives payment for staying on in education after the age of 16. Educational triage This is where students are classified into three different types. -Students who are certain to be successful regardless if help offered- Students who with help could be successful - Students who are the failures no matter what help is given. Elaborated Codes The dialect spoken by the middle class, this is where a wide vocabulary is used, full and complex sentences, and is context free Ethnic group This is where individuals share a similar cultural heritage, such as language or norms and values or religion. They may form an ethnic majority or minority in any given society. Ethnocentric Curriculum Subjects taught in school being biased towards one particular culture. External Rewards Rewards to motivate you to do well in education and work are not intrinsic they come from outside the task itself, such as promotion and pay rise at work and qualifications at school Faith School Schools that cater for a particular religion. E.g.(catholic, C of E, Muslim, Sikh, etc.) Have been encouraged and expanded in numbers and type, because they tend to achieve better exam results. Fatalism Believing you are destined to fail so don't bother trying as you believe your future is led by your fate. Feminisation of Education Sewell (2006) says this is the idea that education is dominated by women it no longer values masculinity traits such as competitiveness and leadership, but females ones such as methodical working and attentiveness in class. This is best embodied in coursework and he suggests to improve male achievement replace it with exams Feminism These are sociologists who believe society is patriarchal that men oppress, dominate and exploit women. Fragmentation of Tasks One function of education is to teach us that the working environment will be split into separate specific tasks, at school its split into different subjects. Gender This is the social constructed social and cultural differences between men and women that are socialised rather than purely biological. Gender Domain This means the tasks and activities that are seen as male or female territory. At schools boys and girls appear more confident in subjects they believe belong to their gender domain, this can influence their interpretation of tasks their enjoyment and their choice to do that subject.
  4. 4. Gender Identity This is how people perceive themselves and construct themselves in terms of their gender roles and biological sex Gender Regime This is the idea that certain institutions such as the family, education are biased in favour of men. Globalisation The spread of culture products and ideas across national and international boundaries. Halo Effect Where people stereotype about you and attach other characteristics based on one aspect of a label. Hegemonic Masculinity This is the expression of maleness that has the most status. This is a 'real man' it is made up of aggressiveness, being competitive, being a successful heterosexual and breadwinning. All other expressions of gender are considered to be beneath or subordinate to this expression. Hidden Curriculum These are the lessons we learn in school that are not explicitly taught. The secret socialisation that takes place such as the acceptance of hierarchy. Ideological State Apparatus According to Althusser these are institutions such as education which spread the ideology that capitalism is fair and inevitable. Ideology A set of norms, values, ideas and beliefs Individualism The belief that the wants and needs of the individual are more important than that of the community. Institutional Racism Where all areas of a work place or school are discriminating against a certain area Interactionism This is the sociological approach that focuses on small scale, micro level interactions between individuals and groups and the meanings that these groups and individuals give to these interactions. These are sometimes called social action theories. Job Role Allocation This is Parsons idea that school sorts us into particular careers by showing us what we are bad and good at through testing. Labelling This is the idea that teachers hypothesis about what students are like, they then attach a stereotype or label to this this effects peoples interactions with them and can bring about a self- fulfilling prophecy. Linguistic Deprivation This is where pupils do not have the dialect or language that would allow them to be successful in education for example, they may speak in restricted code or English may not be their first language.
  5. 5. Micro Level These are theories such as interactionism that focus on small scale, micro level interactions between individuals and groups and the meanings that these groups and individuals give to these interactions. Male Gaze Mac an Ghaill (1994) suggested that the 'male gaze' existed within the school setting in that both male pupils and teachers 'eye up' girls as sexual objects and make judgements about their appearance. Marginalisation This is where individuals feel pushed towards the edges of society or an institution. Marketization Schools are placed in competition with each other to drive up standards, market forces of supply and demand were introduced into education by the 1988 education act. Material Deprivation This means that children do not have the money and resources that would give them the advantage in education they may be in poverty Means of Production These are factories and raw materials required to manufacture goods. Meritocracy A system of equal opportunity in which rewards are based on achievement/ability. Macro Level Structural theories such as Marxism or functionalism that focus upon the large scale social structures that they believe exist in society. Moral Panic This is where society becomes anxious about an exaggerated or imaginary threat to society. For example, male underachievement. Parentocracy Rule by parents. This is the idea that parents have more say over education as they can chose where to send their children to school. Particularistic Standards Parsons term for all norms and value that apply to your own particular family. They give a priority to personal relationships. Patriarchy This is where society is controlled and dominated men and women are oppressed and exploited. Polarisation The creation of two opposite extremes. For example, in schools labelling can create a school culture or an anti-school culture. Positional Theory This is Boudon’s theory that w/c children do worse that middle class children as to progress they have further to go up the social ladder. Postmodernism This literally means after modern society, it is characterised by choice, individualism, fluidity, diversity and constant change.
  6. 6. Present Time Orientation Seeing the present as more important than planning for the future Primary Socialisation This is the first stage of passing down a society’s culture to its young. It normally refers to the family teaching children norms, values, language and skills. Proletariat These are the working classes. Public Schools Schools that are selective, fee-paying such as private schools Reproduction of Class System This is the idea that institutions like education keep the ruling class in power and the working class exploited. Keeping the rich, rich and the poor, poor. Restricted Codes This is a dialect spoken by the working class it may contain slang, shorthand speech, rely on gesture, have a narrow vocabulary and often cannot be understood outside of its context. Secondary Socialisation This is learning norms, values and culture from outside the family, e.g. from teachers, TV. Secularisation This is the decline of religious thinking and influence in a society. Selection In education this is the process of allocating children to schools. For example, via the 11 plus Self-Fulfilling Prophecy When a pupil comes to live up to the label given him/her, something comes true because it has been predicted. Setting This is where students are split into ability groups on a subject by subject basis. Silt Shift Schools get rid of the pupils that are destined to fail in education and keep the more capable pupils who will improve the schools exam results. Social Mobility The extent to which individuals can move up or down the social class hierarchy. Social Norms Social norms are the unwritten and sometimes written guidelines and expectations about how it is acceptable to behave within a particular culture. Social Polices These are the laws and legislations put into place by the government or educational institutions to deal with particular social issues. Social Solidarity This is a sense of belonging people have to society which holds society together.
  7. 7. Specialist Schools 85% of secondary schools are now of this type, they were introduced to drive up standards, choice and increase diversity. They had to raise £50,000 from sponsors that would then be matched by the government. This type of school specialises in the provision of a certain subject, once they had achieved this status they are allowed to select 10% of their students on the grounds of aptitude and are additionally funded. Evidence suggests this type of school also do achieve better results compared to non-specialist schools. State Schools A school that is funded and controlled by the government and for which no fees are charged Streaming This is where students are split into ability bands or streams for all of their subjects. Tripartite System The secondary school system introduced by the Butler Act: Students were allocated to one of three types of schools dependent upon their performance on the 11 plus. Grammar Schools – Academic, Secondary Modern – Vocational, Technical Schools. Underclass These are long term welfare dependents; they are right at the bottom of the social class hierarchy and are socially excluded. e.g. single mothers. Universalistic Norms These are the written and unwritten guidelines about how to behave that are shared by all members of a society Universalistic Standards Parsons term for the norms and values that apply to all members of a society. Value Consensus These are social norms and values that all members of a society share agreement upon. Values These are the most important beliefs or principles that a society holds. For example, most societies value the preservation of human life. Vocationalism Education or qualifications that relate to a particular career or specific work roles.

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