Education Revision TopicsEducation Revision Topics
• Class Differences in Achievement
• Ethnic Differences in Achievement
...
Class differences in achievementClass differences in achievement
External FactorsExternal Factors
MATERIAL FACTORSMATERIAL...
Class differences in achievementClass differences in achievement
Internal FactorsInternal Factors
LABELLING THEORYLABELLIN...
Ethnic differences in achievementEthnic differences in achievement
ExternalExternal
FactorsFactors
MATERIALMATERIAL
DEPRIV...
Ethnic differences in achievementEthnic differences in achievement
InternalInternal
FactorsFactors
LABELLING &LABELLING &
...
Gender differences in achievementGender differences in achievement
ExternalExternal
FactorsFactors
The ImpactThe Impact
of...
Gender differences in achievementGender differences in achievement
InternalInternal
FactorsFactors
WHY DO BOYS
UNDERACHIEV...
Subject Choice & Gender IdentitySubject Choice & Gender Identity
DifferencesDifferences
BetweenBetween
Girls & BoysGirls &...
Roles/Functions of EducationRoles/Functions of Education
FunctionalistsFunctionalists
Durkheim Parsons
SOCIAL
SOLIDARITY
M...
Roles/Functions of EducationRoles/Functions of Education
New RightNew Right
Chubb & Moe
CONSUMER
CHOICE
FRAMEWORK
OF COMPE...
Roles/Functions of EducationRoles/Functions of Education
MarxistsMarxists
AlthusserAlthusser
BowlesBowles
& Gintis& Gintis...
Perspectives on EducationPerspectives on Education
FeministsFeminists
LiberalLiberal RadicalRadical
Positive changes
so fa...
Perspectives on EducationPerspectives on Education
InteractionistsInteractionists
MICRO
Interactions
between
pupils & teac...
Education Policy and InequalityEducation Policy and Inequality
TheThe
MainMain
PhasesPhases
The Tripartite
System
The
Comp...
Education Policy and InequalityEducation Policy and Inequality
NewNew
LabourLabour
PoliciesPolicies
Reducing
Inequality
Pr...
Material Deprivation StudiesMaterial Deprivation Studies
• Howard (2001)
– People from poorer homes have lower
intake of v...
Evaluation of MaterialEvaluation of Material
DeprivationDeprivation
• Cultural Factors
– Intellectual Development
– Langua...
Cultural Deprivation StudiesCultural Deprivation Studies
• Douglas (1964)
– w/c parents less likely to stimulate intellect...
Evaluation of Cultural DeprivationEvaluation of Cultural Deprivation
• Keddie (1973)
– ‘Myth of Cultural Deprivation’ w/c ...
Cultural Capital StudiesCultural Capital Studies
• Bourdieu (1984)
– 3 types of Capital: Cultural, Educational,
Economic
•...
Evaluation of Cultural CapitalEvaluation of Cultural Capital
• Sullivan (2001)
– Pupils with greater cultural capital more...
Labelling StudiesLabelling Studies
• Becker (1971)
– Ideal pupil
• Cicourel and Kitsuse (1963)
– Educational Counsellors
•...
Evaluation of Labelling theoryEvaluation of Labelling theory
• Too deterministic
– Assumes pupils have no choice but to fu...
Self Fulfilling Prophecy StudiesSelf Fulfilling Prophecy Studies
• Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968)
– Teacher Expectations – th...
Evaluation of Labelling theoryEvaluation of Labelling theory
• Too deterministic
– Assumes pupils have no choice but to fu...
Pupil Subculture StudiesPupil Subculture Studies
• Lacey (1970)
– Differentiation and Polarisation – pro-
school and anti-...
Evaluation of PupilEvaluation of Pupil
SubculturesSubcultures
• Furlong (1984)
– Students respond differently with
differe...
Material Deprivation & ClassMaterial Deprivation & Class
StudiesStudies
• Flaherty (2004)
– Pakistani and Bangladeshi’s mo...
Cultural Deprivation StudiesCultural Deprivation Studies
• Bereiter & Engelmann
– Language of low-income black American fa...
Evaluation of Cultural DeprivationEvaluation of Cultural Deprivation
• Swann Report (1985)
– Language not a major factor i...
Labelling & Teacher Racism StudiesLabelling & Teacher Racism Studies
• Gillborn and Youdell (2000)
– Teacher’s racialised ...
Pupil responses & subculturesPupil responses & subcultures
• Fuller (1984)
– Rejection of negative labels
• Mac an Ghaill ...
Evaluation of labelling and pupil responsesEvaluation of labelling and pupil responses
• Mirza
– Strategies devised to avo...
The ethnocentric curriculum studiesThe ethnocentric curriculum studies
• Troyna and Williams (1986)
– British curriculum g...
Institutional Racism StudiesInstitutional Racism Studies
• Troyna and Williams
– Schools and colleges routinely discrimina...
Selection and Segregation StudiesSelection and Segregation Studies
• Gillborn (1997)
– Marketisation has given schools mor...
Impact of Feminism StudiesImpact of Feminism Studies
• McRobbie (1994)
– Comparison of girls magazines from 70’s
and 90’s
...
Changes in the FamilyChanges in the Family
• Increase divorce rate
• Increase in co-habitation
• Decrease in first marriag...
Changes in Women’s employmentChanges in Women’s employment
• 1970 Equal Pay Act
• More women in employment
• Pay gap has d...
Girls’ changing ambitions studiesGirls’ changing ambitions studies
• Sharpe (1994)
– Comparison of interviews on girls amb...
Early socialisation studiesEarly socialisation studies
• Norman (1988)
– Boys and girls treated differently according to s...
Gendered subject images studiesGendered subject images studies
• Kelly (1988)
– Science seen as boys subject
• Colley (199...
Peer Pressure studiesPeer Pressure studies
• Paetcher (1998)
– Girls who choose sport have to go against
stereotype
• Dewa...
Boys and Literacy studiesBoys and Literacy studies
• DCSF (2007)
– Gender gap is down to boys’ poorer literacy
& language ...
Feminisation of education studiesFeminisation of education studies
• Sewell
– Boys fall behind as education has become
fem...
Shortage of male primary schoolShortage of male primary school
teachers studiesteachers studies
• DfES (2007)
– Men make u...
‘‘Laddish’ subcultures studiesLaddish’ subcultures studies
• Epstein (1998)
– W/C boys likely to be bullied and subject to...
Equal opportunities policiesEqual opportunities policies
studiesstudies
• Boaler (1998)
– Impact of equal opp’s policies m...
Positive role models in schoolsPositive role models in schools
studiesstudies
• DfES (2007)
– Increase in numbers of femal...
GCSE and Coursework studiesGCSE and Coursework studies
• Gorard (2005)
– Gender gap was constant until introduction
of cou...
Teacher attention studiesTeacher attention studies
• Spender (1983)
– Teachers spend more time interacting with boys
• Fre...
Challenging stereotypes in theChallenging stereotypes in the
curriculum studiescurriculum studies
• Weiner (1995)
– Since ...
Selection and League TablesSelection and League Tables
studiesstudies
• Jackson (1998)
– Girls a better prospect for high ...
Recent Educational PoliciesRecent Educational Policies
• Rise in Tuition Fees
• Scrapping of E.M.A.
• English Baccalaureat...
Item AItem A
• Always read and highlight key parts
• Is there to trigger your memory and
give you a hook into your essays
...
Question 01Question 01
• 2 Marks available
• Define a key term:
– E.g. “What is meant by….”
• Should be one good sentence ...
Question 02Question 02
• 6 marks available
• Suggest or Identify 3 things
– No explanation needed
– Simple bullet points f...
Question 03Question 03
• 12 marks available
• Mini essay – intro and conclusion needed
• You need to show some evaluation
...
Question 04Question 04
• 20 marks available
• A good essay will have:
– Intro
– Main Body – including analysis & evaluatio...
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  1. 1. Education Revision TopicsEducation Revision Topics • Class Differences in Achievement • Ethnic Differences in Achievement • Gender Differences in Achievement • Roles/Functions of Education • Perspectives on Education • Education Policy and Inequality • Education Exam Questions EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS SUBJECT CHOICE FUNCTIONALISTS MARXISTSNEW RIGHT INTERACTIONISTSFEMINISTS MAIN PHASES NEW LABOUR Q - 01 Q - 02 Q - 03 Q - 04ITEM A Click on the links to access your chosen revisionClick on the links to access your chosen revision topictopic RECENT POLICIES
  2. 2. Class differences in achievementClass differences in achievement External FactorsExternal Factors MATERIAL FACTORSMATERIAL FACTORS CULTURAL FACTORSCULTURAL FACTORS CULTURAL CAPITALCULTURAL CAPITAL Housing Diet and Health Financial Support & Cost of Education Intellectual Development Language Attitudes and Values ToTo ContentsContents
  3. 3. Class differences in achievementClass differences in achievement Internal FactorsInternal Factors LABELLING THEORYLABELLING THEORY SELF-FULFILLINGSELF-FULFILLING PROPHECYPROPHECY PUPIL SUBCULTURESPUPIL SUBCULTURES MARKETISATION ANDMARKETISATION AND SELECTION POLICIESSELECTION POLICIES Primary Schools Secondary Schools High & Low Status Knowledge Teacher Expectations Streaming and S.F.P Differentiation & Polarisation Abolishing Streaming A-C Economy & Educational Triage Competition and Selection Other Pupil Responses ToTo ContentsContents
  4. 4. Ethnic differences in achievementEthnic differences in achievement ExternalExternal FactorsFactors MATERIALMATERIAL DEPRIVATIONDEPRIVATION & CLASS& CLASS CULTURALCULTURAL DEPRIVATIONDEPRIVATION Housing Diet and Health Financial Support & Cost of Education Intellectual and Linguistic Skills Family structure and Parental Suport Attitudes and Values RACISM INRACISM IN WIDER SOCIETYWIDER SOCIETY Causes Poverty ToTo ContentsContents
  5. 5. Ethnic differences in achievementEthnic differences in achievement InternalInternal FactorsFactors LABELLING &LABELLING & TEACHERTEACHER RACISMRACISM PUPILPUPIL RESPONSESRESPONSES & SUBCULTURES& SUBCULTURES SELECTIONSELECTION & SEGREGATION& SEGREGATION INSTITUTIONALINSTITUTIONAL RACISMRACISM THETHE ETHNOCENTRICETHNOCENTRIC CURRICULUMCURRICULUM ToTo ContentsContents
  6. 6. Gender differences in achievementGender differences in achievement ExternalExternal FactorsFactors The ImpactThe Impact of Feminismof Feminism Changes in theChanges in the FamilyFamily Girls’ ChangingGirls’ Changing AmbitionsAmbitions Changes inChanges in Women’sWomen’s EmploymentEmployment ToTo ContentsContents
  7. 7. Gender differences in achievementGender differences in achievement InternalInternal FactorsFactors WHY DO BOYS UNDERACHIEVE? WHY DO GIRLS DO BETTER? Equal Opportunities Policies Positive role models In schools Selection and League Tables GCSE & coursework Teacher attention & Classroom interaction Challenging Stereotypes in the Curriculum Boys & Literacy Globalisation & The Decline of traditional Men’s jobs Feminisation Of Education Shortage of Male Primary School Teachers ‘Laddish’ subcultures ToTo ContentsContents
  8. 8. Subject Choice & Gender IdentitySubject Choice & Gender Identity DifferencesDifferences BetweenBetween Girls & BoysGirls & Boys SubjectSubject ChoiceChoice GenderGender IdentityIdentity Early Socialisation Gendered Subject Images Peer Pressure Gendered Career Opportunities Verbal Abuse Male Peer Groups The Male Gaze Teachers & Discipline Double Standards ToTo ContentsContents
  9. 9. Roles/Functions of EducationRoles/Functions of Education FunctionalistsFunctionalists Durkheim Parsons SOCIAL SOLIDARITY MERITOCRACY Davis & Moore ROLE ALLOCATION SPECIALIST SKILLS ToTo ContentsContents
  10. 10. Roles/Functions of EducationRoles/Functions of Education New RightNew Right Chubb & Moe CONSUMER CHOICE FRAMEWORK OF COMPETITION TRANSMISSION OF SHARED CULTURE ToTo ContentsContents
  11. 11. Roles/Functions of EducationRoles/Functions of Education MarxistsMarxists AlthusserAlthusser BowlesBowles & Gintis& Gintis Ideological State Apparatus MYTH of MERITOCRACY WillisWillis ROLE ALLOCATION Reproduction of Inequality Legitimation of Inequality HIDDEN CURRICULUM CORRESPONDANCE PRINCIPLE ToTo ContentsContents
  12. 12. Perspectives on EducationPerspectives on Education FeministsFeminists LiberalLiberal RadicalRadical Positive changes so far – moving towards meritocracy Education system still Patriarchal ToTo ContentsContents
  13. 13. Perspectives on EducationPerspectives on Education InteractionistsInteractionists MICRO Interactions between pupils & teachers Teachers affect Self-esteem Teachers play Crucial role in Students’ success ToTo ContentsContents
  14. 14. Education Policy and InequalityEducation Policy and Inequality TheThe MainMain PhasesPhases The Tripartite System The Comprehensive System Marketisation & Parentocracy Reproduction of Inequality Exam League Tables Funding Formula Myth of Parentocracy ToTo ContentsContents
  15. 15. Education Policy and InequalityEducation Policy and Inequality NewNew LabourLabour PoliciesPolicies Reducing Inequality Promoting Diversity & Choice Postmodernism & New Labour Policies Policies Relating To Gender & Ethnicity •GIST •WISE •Assimilation •Multi-cultural Ed. •Social Inclusion •EAZ •Aim Higher •EMA •School til 18 •Specialist Schools •Academies ToTo ContentsContents To moreTo more recent policiesrecent policies To moreTo more recent policiesrecent policies
  16. 16. Material Deprivation StudiesMaterial Deprivation Studies • Howard (2001) – People from poorer homes have lower intake of vitamins & energy which affects concentration • Ridge (2002) – Children in poverty take on jobs which impacts on education
  17. 17. Evaluation of MaterialEvaluation of Material DeprivationDeprivation • Cultural Factors – Intellectual Development – Language – Attitudes & Values • Internal (In-school) Factors and Processes – Labelling & S.F.P – Pupil subcultures – Setting & Streaming – Marketisation & Selection Policies BACKBACK
  18. 18. Cultural Deprivation StudiesCultural Deprivation Studies • Douglas (1964) – w/c parents less likely to stimulate intellectual development by reading at home etc. • Bernstein (1975) – Speech codes • Hyman (1967) – W/c beliefs are ‘self-imposed barrier to success’ • Sugarman (1970) – Working class subculture: Fatalism/collectivism/immediate gratification/present-time orientation
  19. 19. Evaluation of Cultural DeprivationEvaluation of Cultural Deprivation • Keddie (1973) – ‘Myth of Cultural Deprivation’ w/c not culturally deprived – they have their own culture • Material Factors – Housing – Diet & Health – Financial Support & the Cost of Education • Internal (In-school) Factors and Processes – Labelling & S.F.P – Pupil subcultures – Setting & Streaming – Marketisation & Selection Policies BACKBACK
  20. 20. Cultural Capital StudiesCultural Capital Studies • Bourdieu (1984) – 3 types of Capital: Cultural, Educational, Economic • Gewirtz (1995) – Those with higher cultural capital more likely to benefit from marketisation and increased parental choice.
  21. 21. Evaluation of Cultural CapitalEvaluation of Cultural Capital • Sullivan (2001) – Pupils with greater cultural capital more likely to succeed at GCSE – BUT… w/c pupils with same level of cultural capital still did worse – SO… Cultural capital cannot be the only factor to blame for differences in educational achievement BACKBACK
  22. 22. Labelling StudiesLabelling Studies • Becker (1971) – Ideal pupil • Cicourel and Kitsuse (1963) – Educational Counsellors • Ray Rist (1970) – Tigers, Cardinals and Clowns • Gillborn and Youdell (2001) – W/C and black pupils more likely to be perceived as low ability and put in low sets • Keddie (1971) – High and Low Status Knowledge in different sets
  23. 23. Evaluation of Labelling theoryEvaluation of Labelling theory • Too deterministic – Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels • Fuller (1984) – Black girls who rejected negative labels and succeeded • Marxists – Labelling theory ignores wider structures of power – inequality of education system to blame for w/c underachievement, not teachers/labels themselves. BACKBACK
  24. 24. Self Fulfilling Prophecy StudiesSelf Fulfilling Prophecy Studies • Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968) – Teacher Expectations – the spurters • Douglas – Children in low streams IQ declines, but in high streams IQ improves
  25. 25. Evaluation of Labelling theoryEvaluation of Labelling theory • Too deterministic – Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels • Fuller (1984) – Black girls who rejected negative labels and succeeded • Marxists – Labelling theory ignores wider structures of power – inequality of education system to blame for w/c underachievement, not teachers/labels themselves. BACKBACK
  26. 26. Pupil Subculture StudiesPupil Subculture Studies • Lacey (1970) – Differentiation and Polarisation – pro- school and anti-school subcultures • Hargreaves (1967) – Delinquent subculture – helped guarantee failure • Woods (1979) – Ingratiation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion
  27. 27. Evaluation of PupilEvaluation of Pupil SubculturesSubcultures • Furlong (1984) – Students respond differently with different teachers BACKBACK
  28. 28. Material Deprivation & ClassMaterial Deprivation & Class StudiesStudies • Flaherty (2004) – Pakistani and Bangladeshi’s more likely to suffer from poverty and related material deprivation BACKBACK
  29. 29. Cultural Deprivation StudiesCultural Deprivation Studies • Bereiter & Engelmann – Language of low-income black American families inadequate for educational success • Moynihan (1965) – Black lone parent families – no father figure leads to lack of care as mother has to work • Driver and Ballard (1981) – Asian family structures bring educational benefits
  30. 30. Evaluation of Cultural DeprivationEvaluation of Cultural Deprivation • Swann Report (1985) – Language not a major factor in under-achievement. • Driver (1977) – Cultural deprivation theory ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement • Lawrence (1982) – Black pupils fail because of racism not weak culture • Keddie – Cultural deprivation is a victim-blaming theory. BACKBACK
  31. 31. Labelling & Teacher Racism StudiesLabelling & Teacher Racism Studies • Gillborn and Youdell (2000) – Teacher’s racialised expectations of black pupils • Wright (1992) – Ethnocentrism leads to teachers treating asian pupils differently BACKBACK
  32. 32. Pupil responses & subculturesPupil responses & subcultures • Fuller (1984) – Rejection of negative labels • Mac an Ghaill (1992) – Labelling does not always produce self-fulfilling prophecy • Mirza (1992) – 3 types of teacher racism: colour-blind, liberal chauvinists, overt-racists • Sewell (1988) – Rebels, conformists, retreatists, innovators
  33. 33. Evaluation of labelling and pupil responsesEvaluation of labelling and pupil responses • Mirza – Strategies devised to avoid teacher racism may limit opportunities • Danger of blaming teacher racism, and ignoring wider problems within wider society. BACKBACK
  34. 34. The ethnocentric curriculum studiesThe ethnocentric curriculum studies • Troyna and Williams (1986) – British curriculum gives priority to white culture • Ball (1994) – National curriculum promotes ‘little Englandism’ • Coard (2005) – British history lessons undermine self-esteem of ethnic minority pupils BACKBACK
  35. 35. Institutional Racism StudiesInstitutional Racism Studies • Troyna and Williams – Schools and colleges routinely discriminate against ethnic minorities • Hatcher (1996) – School governing bodies give race issues low priority and do not deal with racist behaviour BACKBACK
  36. 36. Selection and Segregation StudiesSelection and Segregation Studies • Gillborn (1997) – Marketisation has given schools more scope for selection putting minorities at a disadvantage • The Commission for Racial Equality (1993) – Racist school admission procedures mean ethnic minorities end up in poorer schools BACKBACK
  37. 37. Impact of Feminism StudiesImpact of Feminism Studies • McRobbie (1994) – Comparison of girls magazines from 70’s and 90’s BACKBACK
  38. 38. Changes in the FamilyChanges in the Family • Increase divorce rate • Increase in co-habitation • Decrease in first marriages • Increase in lone-parent families • Smaller families BACKBACK
  39. 39. Changes in Women’s employmentChanges in Women’s employment • 1970 Equal Pay Act • More women in employment • Pay gap has decreased • Women now breaking through ‘glass ceiling’ BACKBACK
  40. 40. Girls’ changing ambitions studiesGirls’ changing ambitions studies • Sharpe (1994) – Comparison of interviews on girls ambitions from 70’s and 90’s • Francis (2001) – Girls had high ambitions – few saw future in traditional ‘female’ jobs. BACKBACK
  41. 41. Early socialisation studiesEarly socialisation studies • Norman (1988) – Boys and girls treated differently according to sex • Byrne (1979) – Teachers encourage different behaviours • Murphy and Elwood (1998) – Different tastes in reading lead to different subject choices • Browne and Ross (1991) – Gender domains BACKBACK
  42. 42. Gendered subject images studiesGendered subject images studies • Kelly (1988) – Science seen as boys subject • Colley (1998) – Computer studies seen as masculine • DfES (2007) – Pupils as single sex schools hold less stereotyped subject images BACKBACK
  43. 43. Peer Pressure studiesPeer Pressure studies • Paetcher (1998) – Girls who choose sport have to go against stereotype • Dewar (1990) – Male students call sporty girls butch or lesbian BACKBACK
  44. 44. Boys and Literacy studiesBoys and Literacy studies • DCSF (2007) – Gender gap is down to boys’ poorer literacy & language skills BACKBACK
  45. 45. Feminisation of education studiesFeminisation of education studies • Sewell – Boys fall behind as education has become feminised BACKBACK
  46. 46. Shortage of male primary schoolShortage of male primary school teachers studiesteachers studies • DfES (2007) – Men make up only 16% of primary school teachers • Yougov (2007) – 42% of 8-11 boys say male teachers make them work harder • Francis (2006) – 2/3 of 7-8 year olds say teacher gender makes no difference BACKBACK
  47. 47. ‘‘Laddish’ subcultures studiesLaddish’ subcultures studies • Epstein (1998) – W/C boys likely to be bullied and subject to homophobic abuse if they are seen as ‘swots’ • Francis (2001) – Boys more worried about being swots than girls BACKBACK
  48. 48. Equal opportunities policiesEqual opportunities policies studiesstudies • Boaler (1998) – Impact of equal opp’s policies main reason for change in girls’ achievement BACKBACK
  49. 49. Positive role models in schoolsPositive role models in schools studiesstudies • DfES (2007) – Increase in numbers of female teachers and head teachers BACKBACK
  50. 50. GCSE and Coursework studiesGCSE and Coursework studies • Gorard (2005) – Gender gap was constant until introduction of coursework • Mitsos and Browne (1998) – Girls better at coursework than boys as more conscientious BACKBACK
  51. 51. Teacher attention studiesTeacher attention studies • Spender (1983) – Teachers spend more time interacting with boys • French & French (1993) – Boys only received more attention because of reprimands • Francis (2001) – Boys felt picked on and disciplined more harshly • Swann and Graddol (1994) – Way teachers interact with girls more positive as focussed on schoolwork not behaviour • Swann (1998) – Boys dominate whole class discussion – girls better at listening and co-operating BACKBACK
  52. 52. Challenging stereotypes in theChallenging stereotypes in the curriculum studiescurriculum studies • Weiner (1995) – Since 80’s teachers have challenged gender stereotypes in academic resources BACKBACK
  53. 53. Selection and League TablesSelection and League Tables studiesstudies • Jackson (1998) – Girls a better prospect for high achieving schools • Slee (1998) – Boys seen a ‘liability’ students and unattractive to schools because of behaviour problems BACKBACK
  54. 54. Recent Educational PoliciesRecent Educational Policies • Rise in Tuition Fees • Scrapping of E.M.A. • English Baccalaureate • Check the news for any current changes to the education system – this will be very useful for your exam BACKBACK
  55. 55. Item AItem A • Always read and highlight key parts • Is there to trigger your memory and give you a hook into your essays • You must refer to it • Develop it, but don’t copy it ToTo ContentsContents
  56. 56. Question 01Question 01 • 2 Marks available • Define a key term: – E.g. “What is meant by….” • Should be one good sentence – NO MORE!! ToTo ContentsContents
  57. 57. Question 02Question 02 • 6 marks available • Suggest or Identify 3 things – No explanation needed – Simple bullet points fine • Don’t waste time by writing loads here! ToTo ContentsContents
  58. 58. Question 03Question 03 • 12 marks available • Mini essay – intro and conclusion needed • You need to show some evaluation – i.e. an alternative view/argument ToTo ContentsContents
  59. 59. Question 04Question 04 • 20 marks available • A good essay will have: – Intro – Main Body – including analysis & evaluation – Conclusion • Stay focused by referring to question throughout • Use the item, but do not rely on it!!! ToTo ContentsContents

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