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  • 1. Education Revision Topics • Class Differences in Achievement • Ethnic Differences in Achievement • Gender Differences in Achievement • Roles/Functions of Education • Perspectives on Education • Education Policy and Inequality • Education Exam Questions EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS SUBJECT CHOICE FUNCTIONALISTS MARXISTSNEW RIGHT INTERACTIONISTSFEMINISTS MAIN PHASES NEW LABOUR Q - 01 Q - 02 Q - 03 Q - 04ITEM A Click on the links to access your chosen revision topic RECENT POLICIES
  • 2. Class differences in achievement External Factors MATERIAL FACTORS CULTURAL FACTORS CULTURAL CAPITAL Housing Diet and Health Financial Support & Cost of Education Intellectual Development Language Attitudes and Values To Contents
  • 3. Class differences in achievement Internal Factors LABELLING THEORY SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY PUPIL SUBCULTURES MARKETISATION AND SELECTION POLICIES Primary Schools Secondary Schools High & Low Status Knowledge Teacher Expectations Streaming and S.F.P Differentiation & Polarisation Abolishing Streaming A-C Economy & Educational Triage Competition and Selection Other Pupil Responses To Contents
  • 4. Ethnic differences in achievement External Factors MATERIAL DEPRIVATION & CLASS CULTURAL DEPRIVATION Housing Diet and Health Financial Support & Cost of Education Intellectual and Linguistic Skills Family structure and Parental Suport Attitudes and Values RACISM IN WIDER SOCIETY Causes Poverty To Contents
  • 5. Ethnic differences in achievement Internal Factors LABELLING & TEACHER RACISM PUPIL RESPONSES & SUBCULTURES SELECTION & SEGREGATION INSTITUTIONAL RACISM THE ETHNOCENTRIC CURRICULUM To Contents
  • 6. Gender differences in achievement External Factors The Impact of Feminism Changes in the Family Girls’ Changing Ambitions Changes in Women’s Employment To Contents
  • 7. Gender differences in achievement Internal Factors WHY DO BOYS UNDERACHIEVE? WHY DO GIRLS DO BETTER? Equal Opportunities Policies Positive role models In schools Selection and League Tables GCSE & coursework Teacher attention & Classroom interaction Challenging Stereotypes in the Curriculum Boys & Literacy Globalisation & The Decline of traditional Men’s jobs Feminisation Of Education Shortage of Male Primary School Teachers ‘Laddish’ subcultures To Contents
  • 8. Subject Choice & Gender Identity Differences Between Girls & Boys Subject Choice Gender Identity Early Socialisation Gendered Subject Images Peer Pressure Gendered Career Opportunities Verbal Abuse Male Peer Groups The Male Gaze Teachers & Discipline Double Standards To Contents
  • 9. Roles/Functions of Education Functionalists Durkheim Parsons SOCIAL SOLIDARITY MERITOCRACY Davis & Moore ROLE ALLOCATION SPECIALIST SKILLS To Contents
  • 10. Roles/Functions of Education New Right Chubb & Moe CONSUMER CHOICE FRAMEWORK OF COMPETITION TRANSMISSION OF SHARED CULTURE To Contents
  • 11. Roles/Functions of Education Marxists Althusser Bowles & Gintis Ideological State Apparatus MYTH of MERITOCRACY Willis ROLE ALLOCATION Reproduction of Inequality Legitimation of Inequality HIDDEN CURRICULUM CORRESPONDANCE PRINCIPLE To Contents
  • 12. Perspectives on Education Feminists Liberal Radical Positive changes so far – moving towards meritocracy Education system still Patriarchal To Contents
  • 13. Perspectives on Education Interactionists MICRO Interactions between pupils & teachers Teachers affect Self-esteem Teachers play Crucial role in Students’ success To Contents
  • 14. Education Policy and Inequality The Main Phases The Tripartite System The Comprehensive System Marketisation & Parentocracy Reproduction of Inequality Exam League Tables Funding Formula Myth of Parentocracy To Contents
  • 15. Education Policy and Inequality New Labour Policies Reducing Inequality Promoting Diversity & Choice Postmodernism & New Labour Policies Policies Relating To Gender & Ethnicity •GIST •WISE •Assimilation •Multi-cultural Ed. •Social Inclusion •EAZ •Aim Higher •EMA •School til 18 •Specialist Schools •Academies To Contents To more recent policies
  • 16. Material Deprivation Studies • Howard (2001) – People from poorer homes have lower intake of vitamins & energy which affects concentration • Ridge (2002) – Children in poverty take on jobs which impacts on education
  • 17. Evaluation of Material Deprivation • Cultural Factors – Intellectual Development – Language – Attitudes & Values • Internal (In-school) Factors and Processes – Labelling & S.F.P – Pupil subcultures – Setting & Streaming – Marketisation & Selection Policies BACK
  • 18. Cultural Deprivation Studies • Douglas (1964) – w/c parents less likely to stimulate intellectual development by reading at home etc. • Bernstein (1975) – Speech codes • Hyman (1967) – W/c beliefs are „self-imposed barrier to success‟ • Sugarman (1970) – Working class subculture: Fatalism/collectivism/immediate gratification/present-time orientation
  • 19. Evaluation of Cultural Deprivation • Keddie (1973) – „Myth of Cultural Deprivation‟ w/c not culturally deprived – they have their own culture • Material Factors – Housing – Diet & Health – Financial Support & the Cost of Education • Internal (In-school) Factors and Processes – Labelling & S.F.P – Pupil subcultures – Setting & Streaming – Marketisation & Selection Policies BACK
  • 20. Cultural Capital Studies • Bourdieu (1984) – 3 types of Capital: Cultural, Educational, Economic • Gewirtz (1995) – Those with higher cultural capital more likely to benefit from marketisation and increased parental choice.
  • 21. Evaluation of Cultural Capital • Sullivan (2001) – Pupils with greater cultural capital more likely to succeed at GCSE – BUT… w/c pupils with same level of cultural capital still did worse – SO… Cultural capital cannot be the only factor to blame for differences in educational achievement BACK
  • 22. Labelling Studies • Becker (1971) – Ideal pupil • Cicourel and Kitsuse (1963) – Educational Counsellors • Ray Rist (1970) – Tigers, Cardinals and Clowns • Gillborn and Youdell (2001) – W/C and black pupils more likely to be perceived as low ability and put in low sets • Keddie (1971) – High and Low Status Knowledge in different sets
  • 23. Evaluation of Labelling theory • Too deterministic – Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels • Fuller (1984) – Black girls who rejected negative labels and succeeded • Marxists – Labelling theory ignores wider structures of power – inequality of education system to blame for w/c underachievement, not teachers/labels themselves. BACK
  • 24. Self Fulfilling Prophecy Studies • Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968) – Teacher Expectations – the spurters • Douglas – Children in low streams IQ declines, but in high streams IQ improves
  • 25. Evaluation of Labelling theory • Too deterministic – Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels • Fuller (1984) – Black girls who rejected negative labels and succeeded • Marxists – Labelling theory ignores wider structures of power – inequality of education system to blame for w/c underachievement, not teachers/labels themselves. BACK
  • 26. Pupil Subculture Studies • Lacey (1970) – Differentiation and Polarisation – pro- school and anti-school subcultures • Hargreaves (1967) – Delinquent subculture – helped guarantee failure • Woods (1979) – Ingratiation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellio n
  • 27. Evaluation of Pupil Subcultures • Furlong (1984) – Students respond differently with different teachers BACK
  • 28. Material Deprivation & Class Studies • Flaherty (2004) – Pakistani and Bangladeshi‟s more likely to suffer from poverty and related material deprivation BACK
  • 29. Cultural Deprivation Studies • Bereiter & Engelmann – Language of low-income black American families inadequate for educational success • Moynihan (1965) – Black lone parent families – no father figure leads to lack of care as mother has to work • Driver and Ballard (1981) – Asian family structures bring educational benefits
  • 30. Evaluation of Cultural Deprivation • Swann Report (1985) – Language not a major factor in under-achievement. • Driver (1977) – Cultural deprivation theory ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement • Lawrence (1982) – Black pupils fail because of racism not weak culture • Keddie – Cultural deprivation is a victim-blaming theory. BACK
  • 31. Labelling & Teacher Racism Studies • Gillborn and Youdell (2000) – Teacher‟s racialised expectations of black pupils • Wright (1992) – Ethnocentrism leads to teachers treating asian pupils differently BACK
  • 32. Pupil responses & subcultures • Fuller (1984) – Rejection of negative labels • Mac an Ghaill (1992) – Labelling does not always produce self-fulfilling prophecy • Mirza (1992) – 3 types of teacher racism: colour-blind, liberal chauvinists, overt-racists • Sewell (1988) – Rebels, conformists, retreatists, innovators
  • 33. Evaluation of labelling and pupil responses • Mirza – Strategies devised to avoid teacher racism may limit opportunities • Danger of blaming teacher racism, and ignoring wider problems within wider society. BACK
  • 34. The ethnocentric curriculum studies • Troyna and Williams (1986) – British curriculum gives priority to white culture • Ball (1994) – National curriculum promotes „little Englandism‟ • Coard (2005) – British history lessons undermine self-esteem of ethnic minority pupils BACK
  • 35. Institutional Racism Studies • Troyna and Williams – Schools and colleges routinely discriminate against ethnic minorities • Hatcher (1996) – School governing bodies give race issues low priority and do not deal with racist behaviour BACK
  • 36. Selection and Segregation Studies • Gillborn (1997) – Marketisation has given schools more scope for selection putting minorities at a disadvantage • The Commission for Racial Equality (1993) – Racist school admission procedures mean ethnic minorities end up in poorer schools BACK
  • 37. Impact of Feminism Studies • McRobbie (1994) – Comparison of girls magazines from 70‟s and 90‟s BACK
  • 38. Changes in the Family • Increase divorce rate • Increase in co-habitation • Decrease in first marriages • Increase in lone-parent families • Smaller families BACK
  • 39. Changes in Women‟s employment • 1970 Equal Pay Act • More women in employment • Pay gap has decreased • Women now breaking through „glass ceiling‟ BACK
  • 40. Girls‟ changing ambitions studies • Sharpe (1994) – Comparison of interviews on girls ambitions from 70‟s and 90‟s • Francis (2001) – Girls had high ambitions – few saw future in traditional „female‟ jobs. BACK
  • 41. Early socialisation studies • Norman (1988) – Boys and girls treated differently according to sex • Byrne (1979) – Teachers encourage different behaviours • Murphy and Elwood (1998) – Different tastes in reading lead to different subject choices • Browne and Ross (1991) – Gender domains BACK
  • 42. Gendered subject images studies • Kelly (1988) – Science seen as boys subject • Colley (1998) – Computer studies seen as masculine • DfES (2007) – Pupils as single sex schools hold less stereotyped subject images BACK
  • 43. Peer Pressure studies • Paetcher (1998) – Girls who choose sport have to go against stereotype • Dewar (1990) – Male students call sporty girls butch or lesbian BACK
  • 44. Boys and Literacy studies • DCSF (2007) – Gender gap is down to boys‟ poorer literacy & language skills BACK
  • 45. Feminisation of education studies • Sewell – Boys fall behind as education has become feminised BACK
  • 46. Shortage of male primary school teachers studies • DfES (2007) – Men make up only 16% of primary school teachers • Yougov (2007) – 42% of 8-11 boys say male teachers make them work harder • Francis (2006) – 2/3 of 7-8 year olds say teacher gender makes no difference BACK
  • 47. „Laddish‟ subcultures studies • Epstein (1998) – W/C boys likely to be bullied and subject to homophobic abuse if they are seen as „swots‟ • Francis (2001) – Boys more worried about being swots than girls BACK
  • 48. Equal opportunities policies studies • Boaler (1998) – Impact of equal opp‟s policies main reason for change in girls‟ achievement BACK
  • 49. Positive role models in schools studies • DfES (2007) – Increase in numbers of female teachers and head teachers BACK
  • 50. GCSE and Coursework studies • Gorard (2005) – Gender gap was constant until introduction of coursework • Mitsos and Browne (1998) – Girls better at coursework than boys as more conscientious BACK
  • 51. Teacher attention studies • Spender (1983) – Teachers spend more time interacting with boys • French & French (1993) – Boys only received more attention because of reprimands • Francis (2001) – Boys felt picked on and disciplined more harshly • Swann and Graddol (1994) – Way teachers interact with girls more positive as focussed on schoolwork not behaviour • Swann (1998) – Boys dominate whole class discussion – girls better at listening and co-operating BACK
  • 52. Challenging stereotypes in the curriculum studies • Weiner (1995) – Since 80‟s teachers have challenged gender stereotypes in academic resources BACK
  • 53. Selection and League Tables studies • Jackson (1998) – Girls a better prospect for high achieving schools • Slee (1998) – Boys seen a „liability‟ students and unattractive to schools because of behaviour problems BACK
  • 54. Recent Educational Policies • Rise in Tuition Fees • Scrapping of E.M.A. • English Baccalaureate • Check the news for any current changes to the education system – this will be very useful for your exam BACK
  • 55. Item A • Always read and highlight key parts • Is there to trigger your memory and give you a hook into your essays • You must refer to it • Develop it, but don‟t copy it To Contents
  • 56. Question 01 • 2 Marks available • Define a key term: – E.g. “What is meant by….” • Should be one good sentence – NO MORE!! To Contents
  • 57. Question 02 • 6 marks available • Suggest or Identify 3 things – No explanation needed – Simple bullet points fine • Don‟t waste time by writing loads here! To Contents
  • 58. Question 03 • 12 marks available • Mini essay – intro and conclusion needed • You need to show some evaluation – i.e. an alternative view/argument To Contents
  • 59. Question 04 • 20 marks available • A good essay will have: – Intro – Main Body – including analysis & evaluation – Conclusion • Stay focused by referring to question throughout • Use the item, but do not rely on it!!! To Contents

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