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  • 1. PUB QUIZ ROUND 1: Studies Identify which topic the following studies refer to. The more specific you are the more points you get. Maximum of 3 points per study. Study name and findings: Topic link Peterson & Peterson (1959) Participants remembered 90% when there was only a 3 second interval and about 2% when there was a 18 second interval. Memory, STM, duration Loftus & Palmer (1974) The group given the word smashed estimated a higher speed than the other groups. The group given the word contacted estimated the lowest speed. Memory, misleading information, eyewitness testimony Deffenbacher et al (2004) Found support for the hypothesis that high levels of stress negatively impacted on the accuracy of eyewitness memory. Memory, eyewitness testimony, anxiety Miller (1956) Found that the span of immediate memory is 7 +/- 2 Memory, STM, capacity Parker and Carranza (1989) Child witnesses had a higher rate of choosing than adult witnesses, although they were also more likely to make errors of identification than college students. Memory, EWT, age Bahrick et al (1975) 48 years on, people were 70% accurate Memory, LTM, duration Baddely (1966) Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM and semantically similar words in LTM. Memory, STM/LTM, encoding Anastasi & Rhodes (2006) Young and middle-aged participants were significantly more accurate that the older participants. All age groups were more accurate in identifying from their own age group. Memory, EWT, age Milne & Bull (2002) When participants were interviewed using a combination of components from the CI their recall was significantly higher. Memory, EWT, CI Pavio (1971) Words and images are processed Memory, WMM, memory improvement
  • 2. separately Atkinson (1975) Participants trained in the use of keywords learned significantly more Russian vocabulary than a control group Memory, memory improvement techniques, keywords Harlow (1959) The monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother than the wire mother that provided food Attachment, learning theory, evolutionary theory Schaffer and Emerson (1964) Found that infants were not the most attached to the person who fed them, they were most attached to the person who was most responsive. Attachment, learning theory, evolutionary theory Ainsworth (1978) Found three main types of children: securely attached, insecure-avoidant and insecure resistant. Attachment, types of attachment, strange situation Hodges & Tizard (1989) Both groups of ex-institutional children had problems with peers Attachment, privation, long term effects NICHD (2003) The more time a child spent in day care of any kind or quality, the more adults rated them as assertive, disobedient and aggressive Attachment, day care, aggression Grossmann & Grossmann Found that German infants tended to be classified as insecurely rather than securely attached. Attachment, cultural variations, attachment types Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988) Global pattern across cultures appears to be similar to that found in the US Attachment, cultural variations, attachment types Prior & Glaser (2006) Expressions of maternal sensitivity and manifestations of secure base behaviour may vary across cultures Attachment, cultural variations, attachment types EPPE (2003) Children who spent more time in day care were rated by their teachers as showing more evidence of anti-social behaviours. Attachment, day care, aggression/antisocial behaviour Clarke-Stewart (1994) Found that those in day care were consistently more advanced in their social development that children that stayed at home. Attachment, day care, peer relations Hazen & Shaver (1987) Found that there were characteristic patterns of alter romantic behaviour associated with each early attachment type. Attachment, attachment types, adult romantic behaviour/long term effects
  • 3. ROUND 2: Theories Outline the following theories/models - 6 marks for each theory. 1. Learning theory all behaviour is learnt operant conditioning  food is a reward for discomfort of hunger  mother associated with this reward = attachment classical conditioning  food associated with pleasure = CS/CR  mother provides food, becomes associated with food/pleasure = attachment 2. MSM Sensory memory - attention acts as a filter STM - limited capacity and duration - maintenance rehearsal LTM - info transferred through elaborative rehearsal - potentially unlimited duration/capacity 3. Bowlby's Evolutionary theory Innate, adaptive, critical/sensitive period, universality, monotropy, sensitivity, continuity hypothesis, internal working model 4. WMM
  • 4. CE, VSSP, PL, EB 5. Disruption of attachment attachment formed and then disrupted. negative effects including low IQ, emotional disturbances, rejecting behaviour of parents Emotional effects can be reversed if adequate emotional care is provided 6. Failure to form attachment Attachment never formed emotional disturbances, long term effects Genie inability to interact with/relate to others attention seeking more aggressive problems with peers
  • 5. Round 3: Picture round Name the famous people 1 Gordon Brown ………………………………………... 2 David Tennant ……………………………………………… 3 Trevor Macdonald …………………………………………. 4 Elvis Presley ……………………………………….. 5 Einstein …………………………………………….. 6 Leonardo Di Caprio ………………………………………… 7 Jeremy Kyle ………………………………………… 8 Teri Hatcher ……………………………………………… 9 …………Lewis Hamilton 10 Amy Winehouse …………………………………… 11 Billie Piper ……………………………………………… 12 Chris Fountain ………………………………………… 13 Geri Halliwel 14 Tiger Woods 15 Kate Moss
  • 6. ROUND 4: Cognitive Psych Answer the following questions about cognitive psychology 1. What is the capacity of STM? 7+/- 2 2 What is the duration of LTM potentially unlimited 3. How is information encoded in LTM and STM? semantic/acoustic 4. What is the structure of the MSM? Sensory memory, STM, LTM 5. What processes are involved in the MSM Maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal 6. What is the structure of the WMM CE, VSSP, PL and EB 7. What are the strengths of the WMM (need at least 3) fMRI shows CE active during 2 or more tasks, explains word length effect, VSSP shown in visual tracking tasks, explains memory deficit of KF, maintenance rehearsal is only an optional process, emphasises process over structure 8. What is misleading information?
  • 7. A question that, either by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads him to the desired answer 9. What is eyewitness testimony? The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identify the perpetrator of the crime. 10. What factors influence the accuracy of EWT? Age, anxiety, weapon focus 11. What are the 4 components of the cognitive interview? report everything, alternative perspective, reinstat context, change the order 12. Give 3 strategies for memory improvement Verbal mnemonics: acronym, acrostic, rhymes, chunking visual imagery: loci, keyword, mind maps 13. How do memory improvement tactics work? (3 possible explanations, only need 1) Organisation, elaborative rehearsal, dual coding hypothesis 14. What is Yerkes-Dodson law? performance improves with increase in arousal up to some optimal point and then declines with further increases 15. What is weapon focus?
  • 8. arousal may focus the witness on the weapon rather than peripheral details. ROUND 5: Developmental Psych Answer the following questions about developmental psychology 1. How does learning theory explain attachment? operant/classical conditioning 2. How does Bowlby explain attachment? ACSIMS 3. What is the strange situation? A technique of 8 episodes used to measure attachment 4. What factors influence attachment type? sensitivity, maternal reflective functioning, temperament 5. What are the three types of attachment? Secure, insecure resistant, insecure avoidant 6. Why could attachment theory be considered to suffer from culture bias. rooted in American culture 7. What is deprivation? disruption of attachment bond 8. What is privation?
  • 9. failure to form attachment 9. What negative effects can day care have? increased aggressive behaviour 10. What positive effects can day care have? improved peer relations 11. What did Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg find? secure attachment dominates across cultures 12. What is monotropy? relationship with primary caregiver is of special significance in emotional development 13. When is the critical period? 6months - 2 and half 14. What did Grossman and Grossman find? German infants come across as insecurely attached 15. Which case studies can be used to illustrate the effects of privation? Genie, Czech twins
  • 10. ROUND 6: Music Song Artist 1 Rolling in the Deep Adele 2 Price Tag Jessie J 3 Moves Like Jagger Maroon 5 4 Princess of China Coldplay feat Rihanna 5 Titanium David Guetta feat Sia 6 RIP Rita Ora 7 Hot N Cold Katy Perry 8 I Wanna Go Britney Spears 9 Born This Way Lady GaGa 10 30 Days The Saturdays 11 Glad you Came The Wanted 12 Call My Name Cheryl (Cole) 13 Young Tulisa 14 Single Ladies Beyonce 15 Party Rock Anthem LMFAO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUCZb7xL68Y
  • 11. ROUND 7: Research methods Answer the following questions about research methods 1. What is a directional hypothesis? states the direction of the predicted difference between two conditions or two groups of participants 2. What is a dependent variable? The variable you are measuring 3. What is a repeated measures design? Each participant takes part in every condition 4. What is counterbalancing? An experimental technique used to overcome order effects. Ensures that each condition is tested first or second in equal amounts 5. Give an example of an extraneous variable? age, intelligence, motivation, experience, gender, time of day, temperature, investigator effects, demand characteristics, order effects 6. What is an independent variable? The variable manipulated by the experimenter 7. What is the null hypothesis? Predicts no difference between two variables 8. What is mundane realism? how a study mirrors the real world
  • 12. 9. Give an example of a measure of central tendency? mean, median, mode 10. A correlation coefficient of +0.65 indicates what? positive correlation 11. What is internal validity concerned with? whether the study has tested what it set out to test 12. Variables in an experiment are operationalised, what does this mean? Writing a hypothesis so that it can be tested 13. What is stratified sampling? participants selected according to their frequency in the population 14. What is ecological validity? the degree to which findings can be generalised to other settings 15. What is the key feature of a naturalistic observation? A method carried out in a naturalistic setting in which the investigator does not interfere in any way but observes the behaviours
  • 13. ROUND 8: Evaluation Come up with one strength and one limitation of the following: 1. MSM dealing with hippocampal damage details of structure and process stimulated lots of research evdidence for 3 stores oversimplified STM and LTM are not unified stores Processing more important than maintenance rehearsal STM not independent of LTM 2. WMM fMRI shows CE more active when 2 tasks are done expplains word length effect VSSP shown in visual tracking Explains memory deficits of KF emphasises process rather than structure maintenance rehearsal only an optional process 3. Loftus and Palmer's experiment lots of supporting research well controlled experiment lab experiment - lacks ecological validity
  • 14. experiments in real life EWT show contrary findings 4. Strategies for Memory improvement research evidence to support applications to overcome STM deficits most research done in a lab 5. Cognitive Interview Supporting evidence hard to evaluate time consuming greater demands on interviewers 6. Learning theory we do learn through conditioning food not the only factor research evidence supports that it is not learning theory 7. Bowlby's theory imprinting in animals, universality of attachment supported, monotropy supported, continuity hypothesis supported. Multiple attachments, temperament hypothesis 8.Research into disruption of attachment Skeels and Dye - intellectual deficits can be recovered Long term effects Bifulco et al
  • 15. 9. Research into cultural variations in attachment culture bias, support for cultural similarities and support for cultural differences, imposed etic 10. The strange situation easy to measure, replicable, lacks ecological validity, culture biased 11. Lab experiments controlled environment, lacks mundane realism 12. Observational studies behaviour not manipulated, external validity, ethical issues, reliability issues 13. Case studies rich data, problems with generalisation 14. Quantitative data easy to analyse, neat conclusions, oversimplifies reality 15. Qualitative data represents complexity of human behaviour, rich data, more difficult to detect patterns/draw conclusions
  • 16. ROUND 9: Applications How does research into the following areas apply in the real world? 1. Memory improvement techniques Mnemonics used to overcome STM deficits in Down Syndrome children Revision skills 2. Research into EWT Mistaken EWT largest single factor in wrongful convictions - improve accuracy 3. The Cognitive Interview used by police force to get more accurate witness statements 4. Research into privation improved orphanages/adoption procedures etc 5. Research into attachment improve day care, visiting arrangements in hospitals, adoptions, parenting 6. Research into deprivation changes to hospital visiting hours 7. Research into day care improved quality of day care
  • 17. ROUND 10: Logos 1 natwest 2 vodaphone 3 E4 4 Olympics National lottery 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

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