Cognitive Approach – Unit 1
Defining the approach
Cognition
Information processing model
Input
Processing
Output
Memory
En...
Content –Levels of Processing (LOP) Model of Memory (Craik and Lockhart,
1972)
Types of rehearsal
Elaborative rehearsal
Ma...
Studies in detail – Context-Dependent Memory Experiment (Godden and
Baddeley, 1975) (APRC, S&W)
Levels of Processing Exper...
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  1. 1. Cognitive Approach – Unit 1 Defining the approach Cognition Information processing model Input Processing Output Memory Encoding Sensory storage Short-term storage Long-term storage Methodology - Advantages and disadvantages of each type Laboratory experiment Field experiment Natural experiment Key terminology information processing memory forgetting storage retrieval laboratory experiments field experiment natural experiment independent variable dependent variable experimental hypothesis null hypothesis directional or one- tailed hypothesis non-directional or two-tailed hypothesis independent variable dependent variable independent measures repeated measures matched pairs objectivity extraneous variables Hypotheses Experimental hypothesis Directional or one-tailed hypothesis Non-directional or two-tailed hypothesis Null hypothesis Ecological validity Experimenter effects Demand characteristics Objectivity Reliability Validity Construct validity Ecological validity Variables and participant design Independent variable (IV) Dependent variable (DV) Operationalisation Participant design Repeated measures Independent measures Matched pairs Order effects Counterbalancing Randomisation Extraneous variables Situational variables Participant variables
  2. 2. Content –Levels of Processing (LOP) Model of Memory (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) Types of rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal Maintenance rehearsal Structural processing Phonetic processing Semantic processing Evaluation Another model of memory from Multi-store Model of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968, 1971), Working Memory (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974), Spreading Activation Model of Semantic Memory (Collins and Loftus, 1975) or Reconstructive Memory (Bartlett, 1932) situational variables participant variables ecological validity demand characteristics Key Issue: Is eyewitness testimony reliable? What is eyewitness testimony? Forensic evidence The case for unreliability Theories of forgetting Cue-dependent theory of forgetting (Craik and Tulving, 1974) Encoding specificity principle Tip of the tongue phenomenon Context-dependent forgetting State-dependent forgetting Placebo Evaluation Another theory of forgetting from Trace decay, Interference or Displacement Evaluation
  3. 3. Studies in detail – Context-Dependent Memory Experiment (Godden and Baddeley, 1975) (APRC, S&W) Levels of Processing Experiment (Craik and Tulving, 1975) (APRC, S&W) The case for reliability Summary Practical – planning the experiment Variables Hypotheses Experimental hypothesis Null hypothesis Planning Controls Sampling Experimental design Ethical considerations Practical – evaluating the experiment Data – how will it be presented? Analysing the results Measures of central tendency Mean Median Mode Conclusions Validity Reliability Generalisability

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