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Resourcd File Resourcd File Presentation Transcript

  • A2 Psychology: IDA Superheroes DEBATES Nature-Man Super-Nurture-al. Free Will-i-am Doctor Determinism The Reductionist-er! Fighting for all things natural. I believe that all behaviour is pre- determined by biological factors: hormones, genes & evolution. Doctor Determinism knows that all behaviour is determined by forces beyond human control. Determined to prove that behaviour is learned and influenced by social forces. I hunt down Nature-Man for the ultimate of battles: The Nature-Nurture Face Off. Fighting against the evil threat of Determinism, Free Will-i-am believes that we have the power to control our own behaviour. It’s all about the choice Flying through the skies on a mission to show that psychologists reduce complex behaviour down to over- simplified factors. He believes that behaviour should be looked at holistically.
  • Debates • Free will vs determinism • Reductionist vs Holistic • Psychology As a Science • Nature vs Nurture
  • A2 Psychology: IDA Superheroes ISSUES The Animal Ace Master Ethnocentric Gender Bias Beauty The Ethics Kid Questioning the usefulness of animal research. Can animal behaviour be applied to humans? Kitty says no! Passionate that theories are prone to culture bias, The Master of Ethnocentrism would die to prove that theories which are Ethnocentric cannot be applied to all cultures. Ironically, the Gender Bias Beauty wants equal application of theories to both Genders. Her pet hate is when theories or studies can only be generalised to one gender or only explain behaviour in just men or just women. Can a theory or study be criticised on the grounds of ethics? Is it unethical? The Ethics Kid is here to find out!
  • A2 Psychology: IDA Superheroes APPROACHES Pavlov’s Power Puppy In the name of Behaviourism, Pavlov’s Power Puppy is here to show that all behaviour can be learned. Just ring that bell and I’ll be there ready to help! The Freud-ster In the name of the Psychodynamic approach… Motivated by his unconscious sexual desire, The Freud-ster wants to prove that our behaviour really is only the tip of the iceberg! Darwin’s Double In the name of Evolution, this Double Act are here to show that humans really did evolve from Apes! It’s all about the genes! In the name of Biology, Tommy Testosterone fights to prove that behaviour is underpinned by biological factors: brain structure, neurochemicals and genetics. Tommy Testosterone The Memory Marvel In the name of Cognitive Psychology, the Memory Marvel just goes to show that behaviour can be underpinned by cognitive processes. It’s all in the thinking!
  • Approaches • Evolutionary • Biological • Behavioural • Cognitive • Psychodynamic
  • What IDA do we know?
  • Mark bands for AO2 Rudimentary 1-4 Rudimentary, with very limited understanding. The answer is weak, muddled and incomplete. Material is not used effectively and may be mainly irrelevant. Absent or muddled IDA. QWC has errors. Basic 5-8 Basic, superficial understanding. The answer is sometimes focused and shows some evidence of elaboration. Superficial reference to IDA. QWC lacks clarity, limited use of terms. Reasonable 9-12 Reasonable analysis and understanding. The answer is generally focused and shows reasonable elaboration and/or a line of argument is evident. Reasonably effective IDA. QWC is clear and appropriate. Effective 13-16 Sound analysis, understanding and interpretation. The answer is well focused and shows coherent elaboration and/or a clear line of argument. IDA used effectively. QWC has fluent effective use of terms. Perfection
  • So…A02 Mark bands and IDA • Rudimentary 0-4: Muddled and inaccurate IDA • Basic 5-8: Superficial reference to IDA • Reasonable 9-12: Reasonably effective use of IDA • Effective 13-16: Effective use of IDA Perfection
  • Effective use of issues and debates To access higher marks : 1. Reference to issues and debates should be thoughtful and relevant. 1. It does not have to be substantial. One or two well chosen I&D will be fine (less is more). 1. Candidates should be able to elaborate and explain why the issue or debate is important. 1. It is fine to link one debate to another (e.g. determinism to socially sensitive research).
  • Look at the difference Reasonable: Biological explanations of eating disorders are on the nature side of the nature nurture debate as they argue that obesity is built into the genes of a person. Twin studies show a higher concordance rate for obesity in identical twins than in non identical twins. However, twin studies also show that upbringing and nurture play an important role in the development of obesity – if obesity were purely genetic, the concordance rate between MZ twins should be 100% Top notch: Biological explanations are on the nature side of the nature nurture debate as they argue that obesity is built into the genes of a person. There is some support for this from genetically modified mice who have been bred to lack a leptin gene and developed obesity (Zhang et al ) Similarly twin studies show high concordance rates between identical twins. However, the biological approach can be seen as highly deterministic as it implies that people have little control over their eating habits when social factors such as exercise and larger portion sizes also play an important role in the current obesity epidemic. Basic: Biological explanations of obesity are on the nature side of the nature nurture debate as they argue that obesity is built into the genes of a person. Twin studies support the biological approach. Rudimentary: The biological explanation of obesity is deterministic, reductionist and socially sensitive.
  • How are the bands different?
  • PEEL your way through the IDA • One way of ensuring effective use of issues and debates is to “PEEL” them. 1. Point (make sure it is relevant to question) 2. Elaboration (explain, analyse, review implication) 3. Evidence (to support the point) or further explanation/elaboration 4. Link back to the point or to the question itself
  • Some examples • Let’s look at an example of weak evaluation from a student’s response to the exam question ‘Discuss explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting’. • The student said “Biological explanations for dieting are reductionist and determinist “. This comment is weak because it has not been elaborated. It does not indicate whether being reductionist is good or bad or what the implications might be. • How can each be PEELed open to reveal a more effective evaluation? Peel Point 1 P biological explanations propose that eating behaviour is governed by genes, hormones and neural mechanisms E the implication being the dieting also be would be governed by ‘ biology E as is suggested in part by the set point theory and the boundary model L that offer explanations for success and failure of dieting. Peel point 2 P Biological explanations are determinist E that is our behaviour is not freely chosen E a point supported by Herman and Mack’s research but challenged by Rodin and Ogden P whose research showed that internal locus of control and responsibility for one’s own body size underlies successful dieting– a complete contrast to the more determinist set point theory Peel point 3 P Biological explanations are reductionist E they explain behaviour by reducing it to its constituent parts E so they explain dieting success and failure in terms of genetics, hormones such a leptin and ghrelin and neural mechanisms L However only looking at this level can lead to incomplete explanations. More effective explanations for the success and failure of dieting entail consideration of a variety of levels of explanation, biological, social and cultural Note one of the most common errors students make is to claim that a theory is reductionist because it ignores and alternative explanation.
  • examples
  • examples Discuss Genetic factors involved in aggressive behaviour. (4 +16 marks) Basic IDA:
  • examples Discuss Genetic factors involved in aggressive behaviour. (4 +16 marks) Reasonable IDA:
  • examples Outline and evaluate one theory of the maintenance of romantic relationships (4+8 marks) Reasonable IDA: