1
A2 Independent Study Booklet for
Gender!
Name:
Class:
2
TASK 1: Due Monday 10th
March
Complete the glossary below:
Sex
Gender
Gender identity
Gender dysphoria
Sexual dimorphism...
3
4. Independent research: What is 2D:4DR? What do studies show concerning this?
4
KEY RESEARCH:
Young et al. (1964) showed that female monkeys, exposed to male hormones during pre-natal
development, ten...
5
TASK 2: Due Monday 17th
March
Complete the glossary below:
Schemas
Gender roles
Answer the questions below:
1. Outline K...
6
KEY RESEARCH:
Bauer (1993) set out to study the age of appearance of gender schemas. He tested girls and
boys aged 25 mo...
7
TASK 3: Due Monday 24th
March
Complete the glossary below:
Reproductive success
Parental investment
Answer the questions...
8
Identify eight criticisms related to evolutionary explanations of gender roles, including at
least one IDA topic. Each c...
9
TASK 4: Due Monday 31st
March
Complete the glossary below:
1. How did Eagly and Wood conduct their research?
2. What wer...
10
KEY RESEARCH:
Ember (1978) analysed 181 foraging societies finding in about 60% of the societies in Sub-
Saharan Africa...
11
TASK 5: Due 1st
week back after Easter
Answer the questions below:
1. The psychological and biological approaches to ge...
12
7. Outline biological explanations of gender dysphoria
8. What problems are there with biological explanations of gende...
13
TASK 6: Due 28th
April
Fagot And Leinbach (1989) looked at the relationship between children’s gender labelling ability...
14
2. If you had to design an experiment as a way of answering this question what would you do?
3. Is there anything that ...
15
TASK 7: Due 7th
or 8th
May
Answer the questions below:
1. What reasons are there for doing cross-cultural research?
2. ...
16
Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
17
TASK 8: Due 12th
May
Complete the research study grid for any three studies you have covered from the gender topic:
18
19
*end of booklet*
Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
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  1. 1. 1 A2 Independent Study Booklet for Gender! Name: Class:
  2. 2. 2 TASK 1: Due Monday 10th March Complete the glossary below: Sex Gender Gender identity Gender dysphoria Sexual dimorphism Answer the questions below: 1. Explain the relationship between sex and gender according to the biological perspective. 2. Outline two types of evidence which have been used to assess the links between sex hormones and gendered behaviour 3. What are the difficulties in drawing conclusions from these types of evidence?
  3. 3. 3 4. Independent research: What is 2D:4DR? What do studies show concerning this?
  4. 4. 4 KEY RESEARCH: Young et al. (1964) showed that female monkeys, exposed to male hormones during pre-natal development, tended to engage in rough and tumble play in their early years in comparison to their future counterparts who were not thus exposed. 1. How accurate do you think these findings are? 2. How valid are the contrived and naturally occurring experiments? Erhardt and Money (1967) found that mothers who took male sex hormones to cease uterine bleeding during pregnancy consequently had girls who behaved in a tomboyish manner. 1. How accurate do you think these findings are? 2. How valid are the contrived and naturally occurring experiments? Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  5. 5. 5 TASK 2: Due Monday 17th March Complete the glossary below: Schemas Gender roles Answer the questions below: 1. Outline Kohlberg’s three stages of gender understanding 2. Explain one criticism of the cognitive development theory 3. How do children develop gender schemas? 4. What are the main differences between cognitive development theory and gender schema theory? Which do you find more convincing and why?
  6. 6. 6 KEY RESEARCH: Bauer (1993) set out to study the age of appearance of gender schemas. He tested girls and boys aged 25 months of age. Children observed the experimenter carry out short sequences of stereotypically female, male or gender neutral activities e.g. changing a nappy, shaving a teddy bear or going on a reassure hunt. Bauer tested children by ‘elicited imitation’ both immediately and after a delay of 24 hours, to see if they would copy what they had seen. Girls showed equivalent quality of recall for all three types of sequence. Boys showed superior recall of male stereotyped activities at the expense of stereotypically female activities. Their recall for gender neutral activities was the same as male stereotyped activities. These results indicate that boys more than girls tend to make use of gender schemas by the age of 25 months. 1. Is this method a reliable way of ascertaining whether children have gender schema and apply them to what is perceived as traditionally male or female activity? 2. What other explanations of the results can we offer? Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  7. 7. 7 TASK 3: Due Monday 24th March Complete the glossary below: Reproductive success Parental investment Answer the questions below: 1. Discuss some criticisms which have been made of evolutionary explanations of gender differences. 2. Give two ways in which males and females differ in terms of cognition, personality and/or behavioural traits 3. Complete the sentence. Sexual selection is… 4. What drives sexual selection?
  8. 8. 8 Identify eight criticisms related to evolutionary explanations of gender roles, including at least one IDA topic. Each criticism should be about 50words. Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  9. 9. 9 TASK 4: Due Monday 31st March Complete the glossary below: 1. How did Eagly and Wood conduct their research? 2. What were Eagly and Wood’s key findings? 3. Contrast one biosocial theory with any other account of gender development (for example consider one similarity and one difference) 4. Discuss the claim that femininity and masculinity are socially constructed concepts 5. Explain one strength and one weakness of the biosocial theory. Ethnographic approach Biosocial theory Social constructionist theory
  10. 10. 10 KEY RESEARCH: Ember (1978) analysed 181 foraging societies finding in about 60% of the societies in Sub- Saharan Africa and 50% of the societies in the Insular Pacific, gathering food was the major form of foraging undertaken primarily by women. Hunting and fishing however, was more common in East Eurasia, North America and South and Central America where only 1% of women contributed to the foraging process. 1. Why do you think there were noticeable differences of women’s contribution towards subsistence? Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  11. 11. 11 TASK 5: Due 1st week back after Easter Answer the questions below: 1. The psychological and biological approaches to gender dysphoria appear at surface level to be different but can you make any connections between them? 2. How might you test for the psychological and biological approach using ethical methodology? 3. Explain the IDA point below: State Explaining gender dysphoria in terms of abnormal brain structure is reductionist. Explain It suggests that gender dysphoria is…. Justify But this can lead to… 4. What are the main features of gender dysphoria? 5. Outline some psychological explanations of gender dysphoria 6. What are the main criticisms of these explanations?
  12. 12. 12 7. Outline biological explanations of gender dysphoria 8. What problems are there with biological explanations of gender dysphoria (excluding reductionism)? Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  13. 13. 13 TASK 6: Due 28th April Fagot And Leinbach (1989) looked at the relationship between children’s gender labelling ability and sex-typed behaviour in relation to parental behaviour in a longitudinal study. 48 children aged 16-18 months and their parents were visited monthly over a year and again when the children were four. At 18 months none of the children were able to label a picture of a person as male or female. They did not differ in play activity. The mean age for successful gender-labelling was 28 months and at about this age, early gender-labellers showed greater gender type behaviour. Both mothers and fathers of children who began gender-labelling at an early age responded both more (positively and negatively) to gender-related play. Fathers had more traditional attitudes towards women. 1. What did they want to show by measuring traditional attitudes? 2. Was it good practice to use so many measures? Further questions: 1. What kind of play behaviour do you expect in boys and girls? 2. What toy choices would you expect boys and girls to make? Thought Experiment! A thought experiment is a way of thinking outside the box without any consideration of ethical issues and plausibility. Try to apply it to this example: It is difficult to separate nurture from nature as far as deciding how children acquire appropriate gender-behaviour. 1. What comes first: do parents socialize children to adopt their appropriate gender or are they merely reinforcing a natural event?
  14. 14. 14 2. If you had to design an experiment as a way of answering this question what would you do? 3. Is there anything that can be manipulated such that it doesn’t contravene any ethical issues? Complete the glossary below: Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed: Operant conditioning Positive reinforcement Meta-analysis Social learning theory Vicarious learning Egalitarian family Traditional family
  15. 15. 15 TASK 7: Due 7th or 8th May Answer the questions below: 1. What reasons are there for doing cross-cultural research? 2. Explain what is meant by the term ‘culture’ and outline two ways in which cultures have been classified. 3. Discuss the claim that there are differences in gender roles between different cultures 4. Identify eight criticisms of cross-cultural studies of gender role including at least one IDA
  16. 16. 16 Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:
  17. 17. 17 TASK 8: Due 12th May Complete the research study grid for any three studies you have covered from the gender topic:
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19 *end of booklet* Completed (Y/N): Date: Signed:

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