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  • 1. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes Physiological Psychology
  • 2. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Context O Selye’s GAS model. O Hawkins et al. (1957) linked admission of patients for TB with ‘disturbing occurrences’ in the 2 years prior. O Schedule of Recent Experiences (SRE) developed using life change units (LCU). O Most studies at the time were retrospective.
  • 3. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Aims O To conduct a prospective study using a normal population to investigate if there is a relationship between life events and illness.
  • 4. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Procedures O Participants O 2,644 male naval personnel on 3 US ships with an average age of 22.3 years from a range of backgrounds. O They did not know the reason for the study (passive deception) O Measuring life changes O Completed a military version of the SRE every 6 months for 2 years prior to a tour of duty. O Measuring illness O On return a research physician reviewed the well- kept medical files of each person.
  • 5. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Findings O Positive correlation of .118 between the 6 months prior to the cruise and the cruise period illness (this was significant at a probability of less than 1%).
  • 6. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes Decile group No of sailors Mean illness rate 1 258 1.434 2 268 1.377 3 268 1.583 4 258 1.543 5 273 1.489 6 260 1.685 7 269 1.651 8 274 1.693 9 277 2.083 10 261 2.049 Mean illness rates during the cruise period for each decile group
  • 7. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Conclusions O Supports a linear relationship between stress and illness (Selye?) and agrees with other research O The correlation is small but it is still there. These participants didn’t get particularly ill and their life changes were small. Noticing any correlation was suprising. O Cruiser 2 – had the most stressful tour and the link between TLCU and illness was weakest. Environmental factors had a bigger impact. O TLCU a better predictor for older and married men.
  • 8. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Evaluating the methodology O Method O Questionnaires O Intervening variables – anxiety
  • 9. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Reliability O How reliable is the SRE? O How easy is it to categorise life events? Do all people interpret their lives in the same way? O Can you remember everything that’s happened to you in the last 2 years? BUT – they did test-retest it!
  • 10. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Validity (does it measure what is sets out to measure?) O People all interpret and deal with stress differently. The SRE measures someone’s subjective perception of their own stress rather than an objective view.
  • 11. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Sampling (opportunity sample) O 2,664 males from US Navy with an average age of 22.3 years – problems?
  • 12. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Ethics O Informed consent? O Confidentiality? O Passive deception? O Right to withdraw? O Debriefing?
  • 13. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Alternative evidence O Findings back up by Rubin et al. (1972) who looked at naval aviators. O Cohen et al (1991,1993) gave participants cold virus. Those with high stress levels more likely to become ill. O DeLongis et al. (1998) link between daily hassles (weather, physical appearance etc) and next-day health problems (headaches, sore throats O Moos and Swindle (1990) Social resources available mediates stress O Kielcolt-Glaser et al (1984) immune system weakened in students taking exams O Evans et al (1994) more infection protection in reaction to short term stress but this depletes if stress extends long-term.