Total Fertility Rate (TFR):
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):
What has happened to the Birth Rate since 1900?
Describe what the following graph is showing:
Identify the “Baby Booms”
Identify when the number of births
begins to fall.
Consider what may have caused these
peaks and falls.
Reasons for the Decline in Birth Rates
There are four reasons that Sociologists suggest may have caused the decline in birth rates.
Give an explanation of why this has had an effect:
1) Changes in the position of women
2) Decline in the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
3) Children have become an economic liability
4) Child centredness
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
What has happened to the TFR since 1900?
What do the changes in birth rates and TFR show about women’s lifestyle choices today?
Looking at graph 2.3 again, explain about future trends in birth rates and explain what
may cause this future trend (HINT: Think about immigration and babies born to mothers
from outside of the UK):
Effects of Changes in Fertility
Consider how the changes in the number of babies born might affect different aspects of
society. Focus your attention on the family, the dependency ratio and public services and
policies. Explain how a falling birth rate might affect these areas:
The Dependency Ratio
Public Services and Policies
Describe what has happened to the OVERALL number of deaths since 1900. Make note of
Describe what has happened to the death RATE since 1900
Reasons for the Decline in Death Rates
Who argued that over ¾ of the decline in death rate from 1850-1970 was due to a fall in
the number of deaths from infectious disease? Which group of people were more at risk
from dying from infectious diseases?
What are “diseases of affluence” (1950’s)? Which group of people are more at risk from
Consider how the following factors may have contributed to a decrease in the death rate:
1) Improved Nutrition
2) Medical Improvements
3) Public Health Measures and Environmental Improvements
4) Other Social Changes
(Such as dangerous manual occupations and family size etc)
What does the term “life expectancy” refer to?
Males born in England in 1900 could expect to live to how old?
Females born in England in 1900 could expect to live to how old?
Males born in England in 2003-5 could expect to live to how old?
Females born in England in 2003-5 could expect to live to how old?
Name 1 reason for the lower average life expectancy in 1900. (HINT:Think about which
group of people were more vulnerable to disease etc)
What percentage of babies died in their first year in 1900?
Class, Gender and Region
Which gender generally lives longer?
How does region affect life expectancy?
How does an individual’s job affect their life expectancy? (HINT: Think about unskilled
work VS. managerial/professional jobs). Suggest three reasons why this might be the case.
The Ageing Population
The average age of the UK population in 1971 was….
By 2007 it was…..
By 2031 it is expected to be…
Describe what the following graph is showing
How else can we illustrate the changing age profile in the UK? Please draw an example of
List three factors that have resulted in the ageing population
Effects of an ageing population
One-Person Pensioner Households
The Dependency Ratio
“Ageing as a Problem” – The Social Construction
Just like childhood, age statuses are a social construction. Much of the discourse (ways of
speaking and thinking) about old age is negative and has constructed it as a “problem”.
The Griffiths Report
“Pensions Time Bomb”
What is ageism?
How does it portray old people?
How does this contrast the views of the elderly found in traditional societies?
Peter Townsend (1981) stated that… (HINT: Think about periods of dependency)
Donald Hirsch (2005) argued that… (HINT: Think about Policy Implications)
For most of the 20th
Century, the population in the UK was mainly a product of what type
Briefly outline the timeline of immigration into the UK from 1900-2001
What are the consequences does immigration have for the society?
From the mod-16th
Century until the 1980’s, the UK has almost always been a net exporter of
people: More people have emigrated to live elsewhere than have come to live in the UK.
Since 1900, where have the majority of emigrants moved to?
Why have people emigrated?
What are “assisted passage” schemes?
Please make notes on recent and future migration patterns
How does net migration have an impact on the UK’s population size, considering the UK’s
low fertility rate?
What effect does migration have on the dependency ratio?
Most media attention focuses on international migration. However, what is the
importance of internal migration? (HINT: Think about the Industrial Revolution)
The following are examples of exam questions. If you can answer these and get most (if not
all) of the marks, you are off to a great start!
The main factors determining the overall size of a population are natural increase (or
decrease) and net migration. Between 1900 and the present day, there were major changes
in the size of the United Kingdom’s population. During this period, the total population
increased from about 38 million to about 61 million.
The structure of a population refers to features such as sex balance and the age structure of
its members. The age structure is affected by the birth rate and the total fertility rate, and by
average life expectancy. In the UK, life expectancy increased enormously during the 20th
century, in part due to a huge fall in the infant mortality rate and, to a lesser extent, the
reduction of the death rate among adults. For example, a baby born in 1900 had an 85%
chance of surviving until their first birthday, whereas a baby born today has the same chance
of living until their 65th
(a) Explain the difference between birth rate and total fertility rate (ITEM A, Line 5)
(b) Explain the difference between natural change and net migration (ITEM A, Line 1)
(c) Explain the difference between the infant mortality rate and the death rate (ITEM A,
Line 6) (4 Marks)
(d) Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the UK since 1900 (24 Marks)