Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Resourcd File
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Resourcd File

30

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
30
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. 1 Demography Revision Guide
  2. 2 Terminology Birth Rate: Total Fertility Rate (TFR): Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Death Rate: Migration: Immigration: Emigration: Net Migration: Net Increase: Net Decrease:
  3. 3 Birth Rates What has happened to the Birth Rate since 1900? Describe what the following graph is showing: Identify the “Baby Booms” Identify when the number of births begins to fall. Consider what may have caused these peaks and falls. Reasons for the Decline in Birth Rates There are four reasons that Sociologists suggest may have caused the decline in birth rates. Give an explanation of why this has had an effect: 1) Changes in the position of women 2) Decline in the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
  4. 4 3) Children have become an economic liability 4) Child centredness Total Fertility Rate (TFR) What has happened to the TFR since 1900? What do the changes in birth rates and TFR show about women’s lifestyle choices today?
  5. 5 Looking at graph 2.3 again, explain about future trends in birth rates and explain what may cause this future trend (HINT: Think about immigration and babies born to mothers from outside of the UK): Effects of Changes in Fertility Consider how the changes in the number of babies born might affect different aspects of society. Focus your attention on the family, the dependency ratio and public services and policies. Explain how a falling birth rate might affect these areas: The Family The Dependency Ratio
  6. 6 Public Services and Policies Death Rates Describe what has happened to the OVERALL number of deaths since 1900. Make note of any fluctuations Describe what has happened to the death RATE since 1900 Reasons for the Decline in Death Rates Who argued that over ¾ of the decline in death rate from 1850-1970 was due to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious disease? Which group of people were more at risk from dying from infectious diseases?
  7. 7 What are “diseases of affluence” (1950’s)? Which group of people are more at risk from these diseases? Consider how the following factors may have contributed to a decrease in the death rate: 1) Improved Nutrition 2) Medical Improvements 3) Public Health Measures and Environmental Improvements 4) Other Social Changes (Such as dangerous manual occupations and family size etc)
  8. 8 Life Expectancy What does the term “life expectancy” refer to? Males born in England in 1900 could expect to live to how old? Females born in England in 1900 could expect to live to how old? Males born in England in 2003-5 could expect to live to how old? Females born in England in 2003-5 could expect to live to how old? Name 1 reason for the lower average life expectancy in 1900. (HINT:Think about which group of people were more vulnerable to disease etc) What percentage of babies died in their first year in 1900?
  9. 9 Class, Gender and Region Which gender generally lives longer? How does region affect life expectancy? How does an individual’s job affect their life expectancy? (HINT: Think about unskilled work VS. managerial/professional jobs). Suggest three reasons why this might be the case. The Ageing Population The average age of the UK population in 1971 was…. By 2007 it was….. By 2031 it is expected to be…
  10. 10 Describe what the following graph is showing How else can we illustrate the changing age profile in the UK? Please draw an example of this.
  11. 11 List three factors that have resulted in the ageing population 1) 2) 3) Effects of an ageing population Public Services One-Person Pensioner Households The Dependency Ratio
  12. 12 “Ageing as a Problem” – The Social Construction Just like childhood, age statuses are a social construction. Much of the discourse (ways of speaking and thinking) about old age is negative and has constructed it as a “problem”. For example: The Griffiths Report “Pensions Time Bomb” “Ageism” What is ageism? How does it portray old people? How does this contrast the views of the elderly found in traditional societies?
  13. 13 Peter Townsend (1981) stated that… (HINT: Think about periods of dependency) Donald Hirsch (2005) argued that… (HINT: Think about Policy Implications) Migration For most of the 20th Century, the population in the UK was mainly a product of what type of growth?
  14. 14 Briefly outline the timeline of immigration into the UK from 1900-2001 What are the consequences does immigration have for the society? Emigration From the mod-16th Century until the 1980’s, the UK has almost always been a net exporter of people: More people have emigrated to live elsewhere than have come to live in the UK. Since 1900, where have the majority of emigrants moved to? Why have people emigrated?
  15. 15 What are “assisted passage” schemes? Please make notes on recent and future migration patterns How does net migration have an impact on the UK’s population size, considering the UK’s low fertility rate? What effect does migration have on the dependency ratio?
  16. 16 Most media attention focuses on international migration. However, what is the importance of internal migration? (HINT: Think about the Industrial Revolution) EXAM QUESTIONS The following are examples of exam questions. If you can answer these and get most (if not all) of the marks, you are off to a great start! ITEM A The main factors determining the overall size of a population are natural increase (or decrease) and net migration. Between 1900 and the present day, there were major changes in the size of the United Kingdom’s population. During this period, the total population increased from about 38 million to about 61 million. The structure of a population refers to features such as sex balance and the age structure of its members. The age structure is affected by the birth rate and the total fertility rate, and by average life expectancy. In the UK, life expectancy increased enormously during the 20th century, in part due to a huge fall in the infant mortality rate and, to a lesser extent, the reduction of the death rate among adults. For example, a baby born in 1900 had an 85% chance of surviving until their first birthday, whereas a baby born today has the same chance of living until their 65th birthday. (a) Explain the difference between birth rate and total fertility rate (ITEM A, Line 5) (4 Marks) (b) Explain the difference between natural change and net migration (ITEM A, Line 1) (4 Marks) (c) Explain the difference between the infant mortality rate and the death rate (ITEM A, Line 6) (4 Marks) (d) Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the UK since 1900 (24 Marks)

×