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Transcript

  • 1. Welcome to Sociology
  • 2. Objectives     By the end of the lesson you will begin to understand what Sociology is Be able to apply the terms culture, norms, values, status, customs, Individualistic, collectivist, socialisation Be aware that there are a number of major sociological theories to explain society Know what the AS course in Sociology entails
  • 3.  And most of this done through playing musical chairs!  Round 1 – the normal rules
  • 4. The Concepts Culture Culture is a particular way of life of a society or social group. It is made up of values, norms and customs, and may include a common language and history. Norms Norms are values put into practice. They are specific rules of behavior which apply in specific social situations. Role A role is the behaviour that society or a social group expects of a particular status. Values Values are widely accepted beliefs about what is good and worthwhile in a society or social group. Status Status is the social position given to you by your society or social group. It relates to the amount of respect given to you by others. Customs Customs are traditional forms of behavior associated with particular social occasions. Socialisation The process in which an individual learns and internalizes the culture of the society or social group they belong to.
  • 5. Culture Culture is a particular way of life of a society or social group. It is made up of values, norms and customs, and may include a common language and history. What is the culture of our game ……
  • 6. Values Values are widely accepted beliefs about what is good and worthwhile in a society or social group. What were the values in our game?
  • 7. Norms Norms are values put into practice. They are specific rules of behavior which apply in specific social situations. What were the norms in our game? What if someone went against the norms?
  • 8. Role A role is the behaviour that society or a social group expects of a particular status. What roles did we all play? What roles do we take on day to day?
  • 9. Socialisation The process in which an individual learns and internalizes the culture of the society or social group they belong to. How did our game include socialisation?
  • 10. Culture Culture is a particular way of life of a society or social group. It is made up of values, norms and customs, and may include a common language and history. We can change the culture if we change the rules a little……
  • 11. Individualism  Western society is very individualistic :  It values uniquness over harmony  The right to express our own view before seeking agreement  There is an emphasis on I rather than we  Of winning and beating the competition
  • 12. Collectivism  Values social harmony over individuality  prefer activities that produce group cohesion and interdependence rather than independence
  • 13. This time…  We will continue to remove chairs each time –  No one is out!  If you don’t have a chair – sit on a lap.
  • 14.  What was the difference?  Norms  Values  Roles  Customs
  • 15. Sociological theories Marxism Marxism is an influential structuralist theory that sees society as being based on class inequality, exploitation and conflict. Marxists focus on the way the economy shapes all the other institutions in society. They argue that institutions that create wealth in society are all owned by a small but powerful social class (the ruling class) who exploit a much larger social class who do all the actual work (the working class). Marxists argue that the institutions of society socialize people into the ideas of the ruling class to make people think that inequality is natural. This is called legitimizing inequality. Feminism Feminism is a group of sociological theories that aim to describe and explain the position of women in society. Although there are a range of different types of feminism, they all agree that women face a range of disadvantages compared to men, who have a more privileged position in society. This is because they see society as being patriarchal, which means society is dominated by men. Feminists argue that patriarchy is maintained and transmitted by the major institutions of society such as the family, schools, the media etc.
  • 16. Functionalism    A sociological theory that sees social stability and agreement over norms and values as the main characteristics of society. Functionalists argue that the function of institutions such as the family, schools, the media etc, is to reproduce culture by socializing individuals into the key values and roles necessary for society to run efficiently. Functionalism believe the way society is organized has an effect on how society operates. It is also a positivist theory because it beliefs that human behavior is shaped by factors external to the individual, such as gender, family education etc.
  • 17. Marxism    Marxism sees society as being based on class inequality, exploitation and conflict. Marxists argue that institutions that create wealth in society are all owned by a small but powerful social class (the ruling class) who exploit a much larger social class who do all the actual work (the working class). Marxists argue that the institutions of society socialize people into the ideas of the ruling class to make people think that inequality is natural. This is called legitimizing inequality.
  • 18. Feminism    Feminism claims that women face a range of disadvantages compared to men, who have a more privileged position in society. This is because they see society as being patriarchal, which means society is dominated by men. Feminists argue that patriarchy is maintained and transmitted by the major institutions of society such as the family, schools, the media etc.
  • 19. Postmodernism Postmodernists argue that all the other theories are no longer able to explain how society works because it has become too fragmented and diverse. A big part of what postmodernists are saying is that we no longer have our identity imposed upon us by our social class, gender, ethnicity etc. Instead we can pick and mix aspects of different identities to make our own unique identity.
  • 20. What is sociology?  Sociology is the study of people in society  This means that we look at how people behave as part of a large cultural group  In order to do this we must understand features of the social group itself
  • 21. Video...  http://www.sociologyexchange.co.uk/vid eos/view/20311/
  • 22. Who is likely to enjoy sociology? You are most likely to enjoy sociology if you have ever thought any of the following things:o Its not fair that some people are rich and some are poor o Its not fair that some jobs seem easy but pay well while other really hard jobs are poorly paid o Perhaps the world would be much happier if there was only one religion o Will anything ever really change Regardless of the answers you came up with regard to these issues you will probably enjoy sociology if you have ever even considered them
  • 23. Good and bad points of studying Sociology • • • You will greatly enhance your communication skills, (both • written and verbal) You will gain a far wider understanding of the world and the country in which you live ,This should enable you to appreciate far more about information that you read or • see on TV. You will gain a political awareness that you have probably not yet covered in your education to date you are expected to learn much new terminology alongside new theories and key research studies You are expected to consider things with a great deal of sensitivity and maturity