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  • 1. AS Level Psychology PSYA1 Memory Name: _______________________________ Form: _______________________________ Teacher: _______________________________ 1
  • 2. PSYA1 Memory Specification In the exam you will have 1 hour 30 minutes to answer three sections. Each section will be worth 24 marks. For 12 mark questions, 6 marks will be awarded for A01, and 6 marks will be awarded for A02. See Mark Scheme overleaf. 2
  • 3. PSYA1 Memory Sample Mark Scheme (12 Marks) 3
  • 4. PSYA1 Memory What is A01 and A02? Let’s apply this to a Donut… A02 A01 Application & Evaluation Knowledge & Understanding What is your opinion of the Donut? What are it’s strengths? What are it’s weaknesses? How does it compare to other cakes? What evidence is there for and against this Donut? Describe the Donut…. What is a Donut? What shape is it? What is it covered in? What ingredients does it contain? These questions are designed for you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of what a Donut is. You can do this in an exam by describing or outlining studies or theories. By doing this you are showing you know and understand! These questions are designed to develop your evaluation and critical thinking skills. You can do this in the exam by evaluating theories using strengths and weaknesses. You can also present research evidence to support or refute. 4
  • 5. Glossary PSYA1 Memory Key Term Definition Semantic Memory Duration Procedural Memory Encoding Episodic Memory Chunking Multi-Store Model Free Recall Sensory Memory Digit Span Technique Short-Term Memory Serial Recall Long-Term Memory Working-Memory Model Capacity Central Executive 5
  • 6. PSYA1 Memory Glossary Phonological Loop Anxiety Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Weapon Focus Episodic Buffer Own Age Bias Word Length Effect Cognitive Interview Dual Task Method Report Everything Articulatory Suppression Mnemonics Eyewitness Testimony Dual Coding Hypothesis Leading (misleading) Questions 6
  • 7. PSYA1 Memory Memory is… Cognitive Psychology is…
  • 8. Football Experiment PSYA1 Memory Name Score on Quiz Score on memory test This correlation analysis shows…
  • 9. Duration PSYA1: Memory Duration: Peterson & Peterson (1959) Aim Method/Procedure Duration of STM… Results/Findings Duration of LTM… Conclusion What does this show about the duration of STM?
  • 10. PSYA1: Memory Duration Peterson & Peterson (1959) Additional Research into the Duration of LTM A02  + A02  -
  • 11. PSYA1: Memory Capacity… Capacity of STM Aim: Method/Procedure: Results/Findings: Capacity of STM… Conclusion: Capacity of LTM… Digit Span… Jacobs (1887)
  • 12. PSYA1: Memory Capacity of STM Miller’s Magic Number… What are his arguments? What is Chunking and how do we test it? Create your own piece of chunking… Miller
  • 13. Capacity of STM Research Evaluation PSYA1: Memory A02  A02 
  • 14. PSYA1: Memory Encoding Baddeley (1966) Aims: (what did they want to find out): To test whether acoustic encoding (based on the sound of the word) is used in short-term memory, whereas semantic encoding is used in long-term memory. This research was based in part on earlier research by Conrad (1964). Conrad argued that STM encodes acoustically. Baddeley aimed to confirm Conrad’s findings and provided the same level of evidence for LTM. Procedure/Method: (how did they test it): A laboratory experiment with four types of word lists (2 experimental, 2 control) o CONDITION ONE: Acoustically similar (meet, feet, sweet) o CONDITION TWO: Semantically similar (neat/clean/tidy) o CONDITION THREE: Acoustically dissimilar (hot, far, jam) o CONDITION FOUR: Semantically dissimilar (pen/jump/day) The variables changed were the acoustically similar/dissimilar and semantically similar/dissimilar words The variable measured was the number of substitution errors (confusing one item for another) The words in the lists were of similar frequency in the English language Participants were asked to serial recall either immediately (STM) or delayed (LTM) Findings: (what were their results): •With immediate recall (STM) there were more substitution errors on the acoustically similar lists than the acoustically dissimilar ones. There was no difference between semantically similar and dissimilar words. •With delayed recall (LTM) there were more substitution errors on the semantically similar lists than the semantically dissimilar ones. There was no difference between acoustically similar and dissimilar words. Conclusions: (what does this suggest/show): The findings suggest that the nature of encoding is different for LTM and STM. STM appears to be acoustically encoded, suggesting semantics is not important. Whereas is LTM it appears to be semantically encoded, with acoustics not playing an important role.
  • 15. PSYA1: Memory Encoding Baddeley (1966) Encoding is… Baddeley found that… Strengths of Baddeley  Weaknesses of Baddeley 
  • 16. PSYA1: Memory Exam Q 12 Marks In the exam a 12 mark question will be split into A01 and A02 marks. 6 marks = A01 6 marks = A02 So you need to make 6 relevant and accurate A01 points and 6 accurate A02 points for full marks. However you can also gain extra marks through effective elaboration! So you can write less points if you elaborate fully! We would expect you to spend approximately 15 mins on a 12 marker in the exam!
  • 17. PSYA1: Memory A01 (6 Marks) Exam Q 12 Marks A02 (6 Marks)
  • 18. Theories of Memory: Multi-store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Annotate the model. What do each of the memory stores do? How does memory flow through the model? Maintenance Rehearsal Environmental Stimuli Retrieval Sensory Memory (SM) Attention Short-Term Memory (STM) Long-Term Memory (LTM) Elaborative Rehearsal Information retrieval
  • 19. Theories of Memory: Multi-store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) E.g. ‘Outline & Evaluate the Multi-store Model of Memory’ (12 Marks) How does this model explain memory? Practical Applications: Methodology: Comparison with Working Memory Model Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  • 20. Theories of Memory: Multi-store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Supporting  and Challenging  Studies Study What does it show in relation to the theory…? GRAVE
  • 21. Theories of Memory: Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) Annotate the model. What do each of the components do? How does memory flow through the model?
  • 22. Theories of Memory: Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) The Central Executive Slave System: Phonological Loop Slave System: Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Slave System: Episodic Buffer
  • 23. Theories of Memory: Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) E.g. ‘Outline & Evaluate the Working Memory Model’ (12 Marks) How does this model explain memory? Practical Applications: Methodology: Comparison with Multistore Model Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  • 24. Theories of Memory: Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) Supporting  and Challenging  Studies Study What does it show in relation to the theory…? GRAVE
  • 25. EWT: Leading Questions (Loftus, 1974) Aim: Verb Mean speed estimated (MPH) Question 1: “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” 34.0 Question 2: “How fast were the cars going when they bumped each other?” 38.1 Question 3: “How fast were the cars going when they collided with each other?” 39.3 Question 4: “How fast were cars going when they contacted each other?” 31.8 Question 5: “How fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?” 40.8 Procedure: Results: Conclusion
  • 26. EWT: Leading Questions (Loftus. 1974) Leading Questions – Loftus Practical Applications: Methodology: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  • 27. EWT: Leading Questions: Additional Research Leading Questions Studies Study What does it show? GRAVE
  • 28. EWT: Weapon Focus Weapon Focus
  • 29. EWT: Weapon Focus Weapon Focus Studies Study What does it show? GRAVE
  • 30. EWT: Anxiety Anxiety
  • 31. PSYA1: Memory EWT Exam Q 2010 An American space shuttle exploded soon after it was launched. All of the astronauts on board were killed. Crowds of people were watching, including friends and relatives of the astronauts. Six months after the explosion, a student decided to investigate the accuracy of some of the eyewitnesses’ memory of this event. Explain how anxiety might have affected eyewitness testimony of this event. Refer to psychological research in your answer. (6 marks)
  • 32. EWT: Age
  • 33. EWT: Age: Anastasi & Rhodes (2006) Aim: Procedure: Results: Conclusion Own Age Bias…
  • 34. EWT: Age: Additional Research Yarney (1984) – when asked q’s about a staged event, 80% of elderly people, compared to 20% of younger adults failed to mention that attacker had a knife in his hand Parker & Carranza (1989) compared primary school children and college students in their ability to correctly identify a target individual following a mock crime. Child witnesses had a higher rate of choosing (they would choose someone from the line up even though they didn’t have to as the suspect may not have been present). However children were more likely to make errors in identification than the college students. Cohen & Faulkner (1989) – showed film of kidnapping to middle-aged and elderly pp, then read a narrative account of the scene they’d just witnessed. For half pp, the narrative account consistent with film and for the other half it included misleading info. In subsequent recall test, elderly pp found to have been much more susceptible to effects of misleading info. Davies (1994) believes that some of the differences between child and adult witnesses have been overstated and that children can provide very valuable testimony provided care is taken in the interviewing process Flin et al (1992) questioned children and adults one day after an incident and then again five months later. There were no differences in the amount and accuracy of recall after a single day but there was significant forgetting in the children after five months. Gordon et al (2001) concluded that young children can provide detailed and accurate and witness statements, but they are particularly susceptible to suggestion and their accounts should be viewed with caution Memon et al. (2003) studied young (16-33) and old (60-82) eye witnesses. When the delay between the incident and identification was short there was no difference between the two age groups. However when there was a 1 week delay, older witnesses were significantly less accurate. Young or Old? Which of the studies show that young people are better eye witnesses? Which show that older people are more accurate eye witnesses?
  • 35. EWT: Cognitive Interview 1) REPORT EVERYTHING 2) REINSTATEMENT OF CONTEXT 3) CHANGE ORDER 4) CHANGE PERSPECTIVE Create a storyboard to illustrate the process of the cognitive interview…
  • 36. EWT: Cognitive Interview Strengths  Weaknesses 
  • 37. Strategies for Memory Improvement For each strategy: Describe the strategy, explain an example and evaluate it’s usefulness… Understand: Describe Strategy Apply: Give an Example Evaluate in terms of effectiveness
  • 38. PSYA1: Memory : Tracking Your Progress After each assessment complete the tables to track your targets, feedback and progress. Predicted Grade Target Grade Assessment 1: Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: 38
  • 39. PSYA1: Memory: Tracking Your Progress Assessment 2: Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: Assessment 3: Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: 39
  • 40. PSYA1: Memory: Tracking Your Progress Assessment 4: Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: Assessment 5: Date of feedback: Mark: Grade: Targets for improvement: Follow up tasks: Date to be completed by: Date completed: 40

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