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Unit 1 PSYA1

AQA (A)

REVISION QUESTION PACK

Memory
1. Explain what is meant by encoding in memory. (2 marks)
2. Long te...
14. Research has found that people are slower when performing two visual tasks than when performing one
visual and one ver...
b) Identify one potential ethical issue created by this investigation technique and explain how the
psychologists might de...
11. Sophia has two children. The older one, Thomas was always easy to look after and never minded if she left
him with her...
23. Explain what is meant by the terms ‘day care’ and ‘social development’. (2 marks + 2 marks)
24. Outline the possible e...
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  1. 1. Unit 1 PSYA1 AQA (A) REVISION QUESTION PACK Memory 1. Explain what is meant by encoding in memory. (2 marks) 2. Long term memory is said to have an infinite capacity. Explain what capacity means in this context. (2 marks) 3. Explain what is meant by duration of short term memory. (2 marks) 4. Explain the difference between short memory and long term memory. (4 marks) 5. Describe how one research study has investigated encoding in memory. (4 marks) 6. One way to study the duration of short-term memory is to show participants a consonant syllable such as TXR or GJP and then ask them to count backwards until a buzzer sounds. At this time the participants are then asked to recall the consonant syllable. In one study the buzzer sounded either after 6 seconds or 15 seconds. Each participant was tested twice, once after 6 seconds and once after 15 seconds. a) Describe the operationalised independent and dependent variables in this experiment. (4 marks) b) What type of experimental design is this? (1 mark) c) Give one strength and one limitation of using this experimental design. (4 marks) d) Why was it necessary to make the participants count backwards? (3 marks) 7. Outline the key features of the Multi-store model of Memory. (6 marks) 8. Identify and explain one strength of the Multi-Store Model of Memory. (3 marks) 9. Outline one limitation of the Multi-Store Model of Memory. (3 marks) 10. Describe how psychologists have investigated the Multi-Store Model of Memory. (6 marks) 11. Outline the key features of the working memory model. (6 marks) 12. a) Identify one key feature of the Working Memory Model. (1 mark) b) Describe how one research study has investigated this key feature of the Working Memory Model. (4 marks) 13. Explain one strength and one limitation of the Working memory Model. (6 marks)
  2. 2. 14. Research has found that people are slower when performing two visual tasks than when performing one visual and one verbal task. Explain how the Working Memory Model can explain this finding. Refer to specific parts of the model in your answer. (4 marks) 15. Describe one study which supports the Working Memory Model. (4 marks) 16. Describe one study that challenges the Working Memory Model. (4 marks) 17. Some psychology students decided to investigate the topic of memory by interviewing people of different ages about their memories. They wanted to find out early childhood memories and what kinds of things people typically remembered. a) Give an example of a question that would produce quantitative data. (2 marks) b) Give one strength of conducting an interview rather than a questionnaire. (3 marks) c) Describe how the students might have conducted a pilot study. (3 marks) d) The students were concerned that some of them might have asked the questions differently when they were interviewing participants. How could the students assess the reliability of their interviews? (3 marks) 18. Explain what is meant by Eyewitness Testimony. (2 marks) 19. Describe one study of the effects of misleading information on Eyewitness Testimony. (6 marks) 20. A group of Psychology students were keen to repeat one of the laboratory experiments on misleading information that was in their textbook. a) Identify one lab experiment on misleading information. (1 mark) b) Identify the independent and dependent variables in this experiment. (2 marks + 2 marks) c) Identify one extraneous variable in this study and say how you might control it. (3 marks) 21. Outline one research study that has investigated the effect of anxiety on Eyewitness Testimony. (4 marks) 22. Describe what research has shown about the effect of age on Eyewitness Testimony. (6 marks) 23. Identify and explain two techniques used in the cognitive interview. (3 marks + 3 marks) 24. Describe what research has shown about the usefulness of the cognitive interview. (6 marks) 25. A police department decided to introduce the use of the cognitive interview to its detectives. The detectives went on a training course and subsequently were asked to use cognitive interview techniques when interviewing suspects. A pair of psychologists were asked to observe the police detectives to see how effectively they were using the cognitive interview. The psychologists decided it would be best to conduct their observations using a one-way mirror so the detectives did not know they were being observed. a) Explain why using a one-way mirror might improve the validity of their findings. (2 marks)
  3. 3. b) Identify one potential ethical issue created by this investigation technique and explain how the psychologists might deal with the ethical issue. (3 marks) 26. Outline two strategies to improve memory. (4 marks) 27. Student doctors have to remember a very large amount of information when they are studying for exams, such as the names of all the muscles and bones in the body and their associated functions. a) Describe one strategy that they might use to improve their memories. (4 marks) b) Explain why this might be a good method to use when memorising such lists of body parts. (3 marks) 28. Outline how psychologists have investigated the benefits of memory improvement strategies. (6 marks) Attachment with research methods 1. Briefly outline the learning theory of attachment. (3 marks) 2. Evaluate the learning theory explanation of attachment. (6 marks) 3. Maria and her husband both work. They recently had a baby and Maria’s mother Eva has provided a lot of help to look after the baby. Eva arrives early in the morning in time to feed the baby and bath him. In fact, Eva is probably the person who feeds and washes the child most often. a) Use the learning theory of attachment to explain why the baby might form a close attachment to Maria’s mother, Eva rather than to Maria. (4 marks) 4. Outline Bowlby’s theory of attachment. (6 marks) 5. Outline what research has shown about Bowlby’s theory of attachment. (4 marks) (hint: Tronick) 6. Explain one criticism of Bowlby’s theory of attachment. (3 marks) 7. Explain what is meant by insecure-avoidant attachment. (2 marks) 8. Explain what is meant by insecure-resistant attachment. (2 marks) 9. Explain the difference between a child who is securely attached and a child who is insecurely attached. (4 marks) 10. Outline how psychologists investigate attachment using the Strange Situation. (6 marks)
  4. 4. 11. Sophia has two children. The older one, Thomas was always easy to look after and never minded if she left him with her husband or her own mother. However, Sophia’s younger son Edgar gets very agitated when left with anyone else and ignores his mother when she comes back. a) What types of attachment are shown by Sophia’s two sons? (2 marks) b) Using your knowledge of psychology, explain what may have caused the difference between the two boys. (4 marks) 12. Ainsworth developed a technique called the Strange Situation to observe types of attachment. This technique consists of a number of different episodes involving a mother, an infant and a stranger. a) Identify the research method used in this study and explain the reason for your answer. (4 marks) b) Identify one ethical issue in this study and explain how a researcher might deal with it. (1 mark + 3 marks) c) The infant’s behaviour was recorded using behavioural categories. Suggest two behavioural categories that could be used in this study. (2 marks) d) A team of 3 observers recorded the behaviour of each infant. Explain why this would increase the reliability of the observations. (2 marks) 13. What is meant by cultural variation in attachment? (3 marks) 14. Outline one way that attachment varies from one culture to another. (4 marks) 15. Outline how psychologists have investigated cultural variations in attachment. (6 marks) 16. Psychologists have investigated the attachments that form between a mother and her child. In some cases children may experience ‘disruption of attachment’. a) Explain what is meant by disruption of attachment. (2 marks) b) Outline how one research study investigated disruption of attachment. (4 marks) 17. Tracey and Darren are planning to go on holiday for two weeks and leave their baby with Tracey’s parents. Tracey studied psychology at school and is worried about the negative effects this may have on her baby. a) Outline the possible effects. (4 marks) b) What advice might Tracey give to her Mother, based on her knowledge of psychology, in order to avoid the negative effects? (4 marks) 18. Explain what is meant by the term ‘privation’. (2 marks) 19. A team of American psychologists studied the effects of institutional care by following a group of children who had spent their early lives in an orphanage. The children were all adopted when they were more than 2 years old. a) What is meant by institutional care? (2 marks) b) Outline what previous research has shown about the effects of institutional care. (6 marks) 20. Explain the difference between disruption of attachment and failure to form attachment. (4 marks) 21. Outline one study related to the failure to form attachment (privation). (6 marks) 22. Outline what research has shown about the effects of failure to form attachment (privation). (4 marks)
  5. 5. 23. Explain what is meant by the terms ‘day care’ and ‘social development’. (2 marks + 2 marks) 24. Outline the possible effects of day care on children’s peer relations. (4 marks) 25. Outline what research has shown about the effects of day care on children’s aggressive behaviour. (4 marks) 26. Fatima has been attending a day care centre since she was 9 months old. When she started she was a very happy, outgoing child but gradually she changed to being passive and unsettled. Use your knowledge of psychology to explain why her behaviour may have changed since she started day care. (4 marks) 27. Brian and Tina plan to place their baby son in day care when Tina goes back to work. They obviously wish to find the best possible place for their son. What advice would you give them? Refer to psychological research in your answer. (6 marks)

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