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Resourcd File

  1. 1. PSYA2 Extra Exam Questions STRESS 1. What is meant by stress? (2 marks) 2. Outline the main features of the pituitary adrenal system. (3 marks) 3. Outline the main features of the sympathomedullary pathway. (3 marks) 4. Ailsa is at school studying for her GCSEs. She has spent the last four weeks revising and has been feeling quite stressed. Describe the likely response of her body to this stressful period in her life. (3 marks) 5. I dislike watching scary films, my heart pounds, my hands feel clammy and I am generally uncomfortable. a) Explain how bodily processes are producing these symptoms. (2 marks) b) Once the film is finished I feel much better. Explain what is likely to be going on in my body after the film is over. (2 marks) 6. Outline what research has shown about the body’s response to stress. (6 marks) 7. Describe and evaluate the body’s response to stress. (12 marks) 8. Explain what is meant by the immune system. (2 marks) 9. Explain how psychologists have investigated the relationship between the immune system and stress related illness. (6 marks) 10. Describe what research has shown about the relationship between the immune system and stress related illness. (6 marks) 11. Ivana has had 3 bad colds this year. She has noticed that each time she gets ill she has also been feeling quite stressed at work. Use your knowledge of psychology to explain why Ivana has been having frequent colds. (4 marks) 12. Explain the link between stress, immune system activity and illness. (3 marks) 13. Outline and evaluate research into stress-related illness. (12 marks) 14. Give one example of a life change and explain why this might cause stress. (3 marks) 15. a) Outline one study that has investigated the relationship between life changes and stress. b) Give one criticism of the study you have outlined above. 16. Outline what research has shown about the relationship between life changes and stress. (4 marks) 17. This year has been a very happy year for Sanjay. He got married at the beginning of the year and now his wife has just given birth to twin boys. However, it has also been a sad year because his father died soon after the wedding. a) What term is used by psychologists to describe these stress related events. (1 mark) b) Explain why Sanjay has found he has been ill more frequently this year. Make reference to psychological research in your answer. (4 marks)
  2. 2. 18. Sarah has a twin sister Jane who has been quite ill over the past 2 years. Sarah wonders whether this is related to all the upheavals in their lives – her parents divorced, they both changed schools and their grandmother died. However, Sarah hasn’t been ill. Sarah wonders why Jane has been ill but she hasn’t. Use your knowledge of psychology to explain why Sarah and Jane might have responded differently. (4 marks) 19. Explain what is meant by a daily hassle. (2 marks) 20. Explain the possible link between daily hassles and illness. (3 marks) 21. Outline one study that has investigated the relationship between daily hassles and stress. (6 marks) 22. Give one criticism of the study you outlined above. (3 marks) 23. Outline what research has shown about the relationship between daily hassles and stress. (6 marks) 24. Sue Ellen had had nothing but problems all day – her car wouldn’t start, she had a difficult meeting at work and then she found she’d left her purse at home and had no money for lunch. When she got home she snapped at her husband. a) Explain why Sue Ellen was so short tempered with her husband. (3 marks) b) Give one limitation of the explanation you provided in the answer above. (3 marks) 25. What is meant by workplace stress. (3 marks) 26. Outline what psychological research has shown about workplace stress. (6 marks) 27. A psychologist looked at a range of studies on workplace stress. Some studies found that high levels of responsibility led to increased stress, whereas other studies found the opposite was true – that people who had high levels of responsibility had lower levels of stress. Explain why research has produced such contradictory results. (3 marks) 28. Explain what is meant by type A behaviour. (2 marks) 29. Outline what psychologists have found about the relationship between personality factors and stress (6 marks) 30. Explain why people who display type A behaviour are more likely to suffer negative effects from stress. (3 marks) 31. Psychologists have found that people who display type A behaviour experience higher levels of stress than other personality types. Give one criticism of this explanation. 32. Explain the difference between psychological and biological methods of stress management. (4 marks) 33. Give one example of a psychological method of stress management and one example of a biological method of stress management. (2 marks) 34. Outline one study that has demonstrated the effectiveness of stress inoculation therapy. (6 marks) 35. Outline and evaluate biological methods of stress management. (12 marks) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 1. Explain what is meant by internalisation and compliance in the context of conformity. (2+2 marks) 2. Explain what is meant by conformity. (3 marks)
  3. 3. 3. Outline how psychologists have investigated conformity. (6 marks) 4. Outline what research has shown about conformity. (6 marks) 5. Explain the terms informational social influence and normative social influence. (3 marks + 3 marks) 6. Outline one study that demonstrated normative social influence. (4 marks) 7. Outline one study that demonstrated informational social influence. (4 marks) 8. Explain what is meant by obedience. (3 marks) 9. Explain the difference between conformity and obedience. (4 marks) 10. Outline what research has shown about obedience. (6 marks) 11. Outline how Milgram investigated obedience. (4 marks) 12. Explain why some psychologists have criticised Milgram for conducting unethical research. (3 marks) 13. Give one way that Milgram may have justified his research, claiming it was not unethical. (3 marks) 14. Outline and evaluate research studies relating to obedience. (12 marks) 15. Outline two reasons why people obey. (3 + 3 marks) 16. Milgram investigated obedience finding quite high levels of obedience in some situations and not others. Describe two factors that explain high levels of obedience. (4 marks) 17. Explain how Milgram’s study could be criticised for lacking validity. (3 marks) 18. Outline two factors that increase the likelihood that people will resist social influence. (2 + 2 marks) 19. Outline what research has shown about how people resist pressures to conform. (6 marks) 20. Outline what research has shown about how people resist pressures to obey authority. (6 marks) 21. Outline what research has shown about the effects of locus of control on independent behaviour. (6 marks) 22. Discuss explanations of how people resist pressure to conform. (12 marks) 23. Explain what is meant by social change, (2 marks) 24. Describe how social influence research has helped us to understand social change. (6 marks) 25. Explain how minorities might cause a social change. (4 marks)
  4. 4. ABNORMALITY (INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: PSYCHOPATHOLOGY) 1. Explain what is meant by deviation from social norms. (3 marks) 2. Outline one limitation of this definition of abnormality. (3 marks) 3. Explain what is meant by deviation from ideal mental health. (3 marks) 4. Outline one limitation of this definition of abnormality. (3 marks) 5. Explain what is meant by failure to function adequately. (3 marks) 6. Outline one limitation of this definition of abnormality. (3 marks) 7. Outline and evaluate one or more definitions of abnormality. (12 marks) 8. Outline the biological approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 9. Explain one limitation of the biological approach to psychopathology. (3 marks) 10. Outline how psychologists have investigated the biological approach to psychopathology. (3 marks) 11. Outline and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology. (12 marks) 12. Outline two psychological approaches to psychopathology. (3 + 3 marks) 13. Explain the difference between the psychological and biological approaches to psychopathology. (4 marks) 14. Outline the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 15. Explain one limitation of this approach. (3 marks) 16. Evaluate the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 17. Outline the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 18. Explain one limitation of this approach. (3 marks) 19. Evaluate the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 20. Outline the cognitive approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 21. Explain one limitation of this approach. (3 marks) 22. Evaluate the cognitive approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) 23. Identify one drug used to treat abnormal behaviour. (1 mark) 24. Explain how this drug works in treating abnormal behaviour. (4 marks)
  5. 5. 25. Describe one limitation of using drug therapy to treat abnormal behaviour. (3 marks) 26. Evaluate the use of drugs in treating abnormality. (6 marks) 27. Outline what is involved when ECT is used. (4 marks) 28. Evaluate the use of ECT to treat abnormality. (6 marks) 29. Outline two techniques used in psychoanalysis. (6 marks) 30. Outline what is involved in systematic desensitisation. (6 marks) 31. Explain what is involved in Cognitive Behavioural therapy. (6 marks) 32. Outline and evaluate the use of psychoanalysis to treat abnormality. (12 marks) 33. Outline and evaluate the use of systematic desensitisation to treat abnormality. (12 marks) 34. Outline and evaluate the use of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat abnormality. (12 marks)

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