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  • 1. Name:........................................ Group:........................................
  • 2. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory  Models of Memory Multi-Store Model Capacity Duration Encoding Working-Memory Model  Memory in Everyday Life EWT: Misleading Information EWT: Anxiety EWT: Age of Witness Cogntive Interview Strategies for Improvement Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 2
  • 3. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Key Term Semantic Memory Procedural Memory Episodic Memory Multi-Store Model Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Capacity Duration Encoding Chunking Free Recall Page 3 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Definition
  • 4. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Key Term Definition Digit Span Technique Serial Recall Working-Memory Model Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Episodic Buffer Word Length Effect Dual Task Method Articulatory Suppression Eyewitness Testimony Leading (misleading) Questions Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 4
  • 5. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Key Term Anxiety Weapon Focus Own Age Bias Cognitive Interview Report Everything Mental Reinstatement of Original Context Changing The Order Changing The Perspective Verbal Mnemonics Visual Mnemonics Organisation Dual-Coding Hypothesis Page 5 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Definition
  • 6. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Batman Studies/Information Robin Studies/Information Capacity Duartion Encoding Multi-Store Model Working-Memory Model Misleading Information Anxiety Age Of Witness Cognitive Interview Strategies For Improvement Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 6
  • 7. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Page 7 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 8. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Aims: (what did they want to find out): To investigate how much information can be held in short-term memory. To do this Jacobs needed an accurate measure of STM capacity and so he devised a technique called the “serial digit span”. His research was the first systematic study of STM capacity. Procedure/Method: (how did they test it):       A laboratory experiment using the serial digit span technique was conducted. Participants were presented with a sequence of letters or digits followed by a serial recall test (repeating the letters or digits to the experimenter in the same order in which they were presented). The pace of the item presentation was controlled to half second intervals through a metronome The initial sequence was three items, which increased by a single item until the participant consistently failed to reproduce the sequence correctly. This was repeated over a number of trials to establish the participants’ digit (or letter) span. The longest sequence length that was recalled correctly on at least 50 of the trials was taken to be the participants STM span. Findings: (what were their results):   The average digit span was 9.3 The average letter span was 7.3 Conclusions: (what does this suggest/show): The findings show that short term memory has a limited storage capacity of between 5 and 9 items. The capacity, while affected by nature of material is more determined by the span size, which is fairly constant across individuals of a given age. Aims: (what did they want to find out): To study how long information remains in Short-Term Memory. They aimed to test the hypothesis that information which is not rehearsed is lost quickly from Short-Term Memory. Procedure/Method: (how did they test it):      24 Participants were presented with nonsense trigrams consisting of three consonants (e.g. hwr, jrq, klp). Recall of these trigrams was required after a delay (retention interval) of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds. Between presentation and recall participant were asked to count backwards in threes for a random three digit number, this was called the distracter task, this prevented rehearsal. Recall had to be 100% accurate and in the correct order to count. Participants were tested repeatedly with the various timed delays. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 8
  • 9. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Findings: (what were their results): There was rapid increase in forgetting as the time delay increased. After 3 seconds 80% of the trigrams were recalled correctly. After 6 this fell to 50%. After 18 seconds it was less than 10%. Peterson and Peterson found that very little information remains in short term memory for more than 18 seconds. Conclusions: (what does this suggest/show): Information held in short term memory is lost very quickly when there is little or no opportunity to rehearse it. Aims: (what did they want to find out): To investigate the duration of very long-term memory. They wanted to show that memories could last over several decades in order to support the assumption that the duration of memory can be a lifetime. Procedure/Method: (how did they test it):     High schools in the USA normally produce a yearbook with photos of their classmates in their final year. An opportunity sample of 392 participants aged 17-74, who still had yearbooks took part. They were asked to recall the names and photos o their classmates in four conditions: o CONDITION ONE: Free Recall the names of former classmates o CONDITION TWO: Participants were shown 50 yearbook photos and asked to identify which were their classmates o CONDITION THREE: Recognise their classmates’ names from a list of 50 names. o CONDITION FOUR: Matching classmates names to their photos. They looked at the relative success of recall after variable time periods; some participants had left 48 years ago. Findings: (what were their results):     CONDITION ONE: Free Recall: 60% after 15 years, 30% after 48 years. CONDITION TWO: Face Recall: 40% after 48 years. CONDITION THREE: Name Recognition: 80% after 48 years. CONDITION FOUR: Face/Name Matching: 90% after 34 years. Conclusions: (what does this suggest/show): The findings show that people do have very long term memories. Recall of classmates is the type of memory which endures over time. The findings also show that recognition is better than recall, and semantic information is better recalled than visual. As free recall was the lowest accuracy it suggests that memory can be very good when cues are used to aid us. Page 9 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 10. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Aims: (what did they want to find out): To test whether acoustic encoding (based on the sound of the word) is used in short-term memory, whereas semantic encoding is used in long-term memory. This research was based in part on earlier research by Conrad (1964). Conrad argued that STM encodes acoustically. Baddeley aimed to confirm Conrad’s findings and provided the same level of evidence for LTM. Procedure/Method: (how did they test it):      A laboratory experiment with four types of word lists (2 experimental, 2 control) o CONDITION ONE: Acoustically similar (meet, feet, sweet) o CONDITION TWO: Semantically similar (neat/clean/tidy) o CONDITION THREE: Acoustically dissimilar (hot, far, jam) o CONDITION FOUR: Semantically dissimilar (pen/jump/day) The variables changed were the acoustically similar/dissimilar and semantically similar/dissimilar words The variable measured was the number of substitution errors (confusing one item for another) The words in the lists were of similar frequency in the English language Participants were asked to serial recall either immediately (STM) or delayed (LTM) Findings: (what were their results):  With immediate recall (STM) there were more substitution errors on the acoustically similar lists than the acoustically dissimilar ones. There was no difference between semantically similar and dissimilar words.  With delayed recall (LTM) there were more substitution errors on the semantically similar lists than the semantically dissimilar ones. There was no difference between acoustically similar and dissimilar words. Conclusions: (what does this suggest/show): The findings suggest that the nature of encoding is different for LTM and STM. STM appears to be acoustically encoded, suggesting semantics is not important. Whereas is LTM it appears to be semantically encoded, with acoustics not playing an important role. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 10
  • 11. Page 11 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Encoding Duration Capacity Short Term Memory Long Term Memory PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014
  • 12. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Sensory Memory ~ Short-Term Memory ~ Long-Term Memory ~ Retrieval ~ Elaborative Rehearsal ~ Maintenance Rehearsal ~ Environmental Stimuli ~ Information Retrieval ~ Attention Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 12
  • 13. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Point: Because: So What: However: Page 13 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 14. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory nd Source: Folens Psychology AS: The Complete Companion (AQA A) 2 Edition  Task 1 Explain what is meant by the phrase ‘duration of short term memory’ Outline what psychologists have found out about the duration of short-term memory (STM) Outline what psychologists have found out about the duration of long-term memory (LTM) Suggest two reasons why research into duration of STM lacks validity. Explain the terms duration, capacity and encoding in relation to memory. Explain the difference between acoustic and semantic similarity. Outline what psychologists have found out about (a) the capacity of short-term memory (STM) and (b) how information is encoded in STM and LTM. Provide evidence to support your answers. 2 3 4 5 6 7 Happy  Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Ok  Help  Page 14
  • 15. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Atkinson and Shiffrin designed the multi-store model of memory. They said that sensory stimuli entered the sensory memory first and was held for a very brief period, about 0.3 of a second. After that it is coded and enters short-term memory and is stored for a short time. It may be lost due to displacement here. Later on it is transferred to long-term memory where it can be lost due to decay. Its strength is that it has research support, for instance studies of brain damaged patients show that some people lose short-term memory, whilst others lose their longterm memory. A limitation is that the Multi-store model doesn’t show the difference between visual and audio memory. It’s also challenged by the levels of processing model. AO1 AO2 Atkinson and Shiffrin’s multi-store model suggests that long-term memory and shortterm memory are like hypothetical stores of information. They believe that memory has three stages; sensory memory, short-term and long-term memory. Information first enters sensory memory where it undergoes encoding and then transfers to short-term memory. Once there its rehearsed or verbally repeated in order to undergo further encoding before being transferred to long-term memory, otherwise it will decay. A big aspect of the model was rehearsal; information can’t reach long-term memory unless it’s rehearsed. The more it’s rehearsed, the longer the memory will be as the trace becomes stronger. The model has been criticised as lacking ecological validity because the evidence for the model comes mainly from laboratory based experiments using meaningless verbal data. It’s also criticised as being simplistic; the model assumes that both short and long term memory consist of individual stores made up of one component each, but research into the working memory model has demonstrated that short-term memory possibly consists of different components. Peterson and Peterson’s research supports the role of rehearsal. They found that when groups of participants were asked to recall words from a list, but were prevented from rehearsing them by having to count backwards in threes, recall dropped from 80% after a three second interval, to 20% after an eighteen second interval, suggesting that rehearsal is necessary to embed information in the LTM. This therefore shows a strength of the model in its views on rehearsal. AO1 Page 15 AO2 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 16. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory AO1 Knowledge & Understanding AO2 Application and Evaluation 6 marks Accurate and reasonably detailed Accurate and reasonably detailed description that demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding. There is appropriate selection of material to address the question. Presentation of information is clear and coherent. 6 marks Effective evaluation Effective use of material to address the question and provide informed commentary. Effective evaluation of research. Broad range of issues and/or evidence in reasonable depth, or a narrower range in greater depth. Clear expression of ideas, good range of specialist terms, few errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling. 5-4 marks 5-4 marks Less detailed but generally accurate Reasonable evaluation Less detailed but generally accurate Material is not always used effectively but description that demonstrates relevant produces a reasonable commentary. knowledge and understanding. Reasonable evaluation of research. There is some evidence of selection of A range of issues and/or evidence in material to address the question. limited depth, or a narrower range in Information is presented in an greater depth. appropriate form. Reasonable expression of ideas, a range of specialist terms, some errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling. 3-2 marks 3-2 marks Basic evaluation Basic The use of material provides only a basic Basic description that demonstrates commentary. some relevant knowledge and Basic evaluation or research. understanding but lacks detail and may Superficial consideration of a restricted be muddled. range of issues and/or evidence. There is little evidence of selection of Expression of ideas lacks clarity, some material to address the question. specialist terms used, errors of grammar, Information is not presented in an punctuation and spelling detract from appropriate form. clarity. 1 mark Very brief/flawed 1 mark Rudimentary evaluation Very brief or flawed description that The use of material provides only a demonstrates very little knowledge or rudimentary commentary. understanding of research. Selection Evaluation of research is just discernible and presentation of information is or absent. largely or wholly inappropriate. Expression of ideas poor, few specialist terms used, errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling often obscure the meaning. 0 marks 0 marks No creditworthy material presented. No creditworthy material presented. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 16
  • 17. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Examiner’s comments: The outline is accurate and relevant, but lacks detail. Perhaps they could have discussed the processes involved in transfer of material and/or some of the details of the separate stores, such as how information is coded. This makes a few evaluative points based on strengths and weaknesses, but none of them are very clearly elaborated or form an effective commentary. For instance, they could have gone on and explained in what way the level of processing approach challenges the model and maybe provided some evidence in support of this point Examiner’s comments The first paragraph gives an outline of the model, which lacks some detail, but is generally accurate. A description of STM and LTM would have been a good idea, as would have the role of attention. Some of the material is repeated, such as the role of rehearsal. They begin their evaluation with a point about ecological validity and although this term is not fully explained, they do relate why it could be an issue for the model. The second critical point about the simplicity of the model is well explained and their knowledge of the working memory model is used effectively as evaluation here. The final point about rehearsal is clearly explained and has a decent degree of elaboration. Overall, both strengths and weaknesses have been considered, a reasonable commentary is evident and a narrow range of issues has been considered in greater depth. Source: Nelson Thornes / Psychology A (AS) 1) Describe what is meant by the terms sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. 2) Explain how evidence from brain damaged patients has helped to support the multi-store model. 3) Explain some of the ways in which psychologists have tried to measure the capacity of STM and explain some of the strengths and weaknesses of these methods. 4) ‘Peter was trying to remember the name of his first teacher at primary school without success. Then his mother managed to find a photo, which she showed Peter. The named of his teacher then popped into his mind.’ Explain why Peter was suddenly able to remember. 5) ‘The multi-store model was very influential at one time but it has outlived its usefulness.’ What is the evidence for this claim? Page 17 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 18. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Source: Folens Psychology AS: The Complete Companion (AQA A) 2 nd Edition  1 2 3 Task Happy  Ok  Help  Identify six key pieces of information about the multistore model. Explain what is meant by maintenance rehearsal. 4 Outline two pieces of research evidence that support the distinction between STM and LTM Give a brief account of the sensory store. 5 Outline one case study related to the study of memory. 6 Suggest two reasons why this case study is a good way to study memory and two reasons why this case study is not a good way to study memory. 7 Describe two ethical issues that are important when conducting memory experiments and explain how they can be dealt with. 8 Explain why research related to the multi-store can be criticised for lacking validity but could also be said to have high validity. 10 Identify and explain two strengths and two weaknesses of the multi-store memory model. For each, make sure you provide some elaboration to explain your criticism. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 18
  • 19. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Central Executive ~ Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad ~ Phonological Loop ~ Episodic Buffer ~ Long Term Memory ~ Rehearsal ~ Inner Ear ~ Inner Eye Page 19 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 20. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 20
  • 21. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Source: Nelson Thornes / Psychology A (AS) 1) Explain why the case study of KF poses problems for the working memory model. 2) Explain why researchers now think that there are separate spatial and visual systems within the sketchpad. 3) ‘The central executive is both the most important part of the working memory and, in some ways, its weakest link.’ Explain what is meant by this statement. 4) Students often claim that they can take in programmes on TV and do homework at the same time. Using the working memory model, explain why this in not really possible. Source: Folens Psychology AS: The Complete Companion (AQA A) 2 nd Edition  Task 1 Identify six key pieces of information about the working-memory model. Describe an everyday example of each of the four components of the working memory model. Outline two pieces of evidence that supports the working memory model. Give one criticism of each of the studies described above. Identify and explain two strengths and two weaknesses of the working memory model. For each, make sure that you provide some elaboration to explain your criticism. Describe two differences between the multi-store model and the working-memory model. 2 3 4 5 6 Page 21 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Happy  Ok  Help 
  • 22. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 22
  • 23. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Page 23 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 24. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Loftus et al (1979) wanted to investigate whether particular aspects of a situation make it more susceptible to errors of recall. In particular to look at the effect of weapon focus. Method: Participants were exposed to one of two conditions: (a) They overheard a low key discussion in a lab about an experiment failing. A person then emerged from the lab holding a pen with grease on his hands. (b) They overheard a heated and hostile exchange between people in the lab. After the sound of breaking glass and crashing chairs, a man emerged from the lab holding a paper knife covered in blood. Participants were then given 50 photos and asked to identify the man who had come out of the lab. Findings:   Those who had witnessed the man holding the pen accurately identified the person 49% of the time. Those who had witnessed the man holding the blood stained paper knife accurately identified the person 33% of the time. Christianson & Hubinette (1993) questioned 110 people who had, between them, witnessed a total of 22 genuine bank robberies. Some were bank onlookers and others were bank employees and had therefore been directly threatened. Victims (employees) were more accurate in their recall and remembered more details about what the robbers wore, their behaviour and the weapons used compared to onlookers even after 15 months. Therefore the highly stressful nature of the real life experience can improve recall compared to artificial laboratory research. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 24
  • 25. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 The Yerkes Dodson: Child witnesses Page 25 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 26. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Child witnesses The Own Age Bias Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 26
  • 27. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Good things about researching EWT in these ways? Page 27 Bad things about researching EWT in these ways? Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 28. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Source: Nelson Thornes / Psychology A (AS) 1) 2) 3) 4) Explain why it is important for psychologists to research EWT. What are the problems with investigating EWT in the laboratory? Explain how anxiety might affect EWT accuracy. How do children differ from adults in their witness statements? Source: Folens Psychology AS: The Complete Companion (AQA A) 2 nd Edition  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Task Happy  Ok  Help  Outline what psychologists have found out about the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Identify two factors which might affect accuracy. Describe two individual differences in eyewitness testimony. Explain whether misleading information alters the way information is stored or the way it is retrieved Suggest two reasons why the studies used lack validity. Identify and explain three ways that eyewitness testimony may not be accurate. For each of these, provide one piece of research evidence to support the influence on EWT. Select a study about anxiety and talk about its validity. 9 Select a different study about anxiety and consider the ethical issues that might have arisen in the study. 10 Select a study about age and talk about its validity. 11 Select a different study about age and consider the ethical issues that might have arisen in the study. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 28
  • 29. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 An important application of psychological research into memory has taken place within the legal system, in particular, with regard to improving the recall of victims and witnesses of crime. The importance of gathering accurate information from people present when a crime is committed is obvious when you consider that such information is used in searching for and prosecuting suspects. If information gathered is inaccurate then the whole process could be slowed down or become subject to error (e.g. inaccurate descriptions or arrests). The Standard Police Interview A standard police interview generally requires the witness / victim to give a narrative description of the events, that is, they are asked to simply recall, in sequence, what happened. Next, the interviewer will ask specific questions to enhance the information, or example, how tall was the perpetrator? The Cognitive Interview Geiselman & Fisher (1989) Bekerian & Dennett (1993) The cognitive interview was developed throughout the 1980’s both under laboratory conditions and in the field. The revised version consists of 4 general memory enhancement techniques (mnemonics), plus more specific questioning to help increase the ‘completeness’ of recall. The Mnemonics: 1) Report Everything Witnesses sometimes hold back information that they are not 100% confident about or which they think is unimportant Research Basis: Noon & Hollin (1987) Research suggests that the relationship between witness confidence and accuracy is unreliable. Therefore reporting everything should be encouraged. Research Basis: Lindsay & Wells (1985) Page 29 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 30. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2) Reinstating The Context This can be achieved by mentally re-constructing i.e imagining being back at the scene of the crime, or by actually returning to the scene itself. This idea being that all aspects o the original experience are reproduced including lighting, temperature, smell, emotion, reactions etc. Research Basis: Context and State dependant forgetting by Godden and Baddeley (1975) 3) Changing Perspective Here the witness is encouraged to try to recall the event from a different perspective, for example, a different position in the room. This may provide different retrieval cues and produce more complete recall. This is because, when we have to imagine viewing something from a different perspective we tend to employ information from different sources e.g. acoustic, olfactory Research Basis: Cue based retrieval Tulving (1974) 4) Recall In A Different Order Particularly in reverse order! This can prevent the influence of expectation and general knowledge (schema based) which may distort memory when it is accessed in sequence. Research Basis: Memory distortions and schemas Loftus (1979) Does It Work??? Problems??? In general, the research which has been carried out comparing the effectiveness of the cognitive interview technique to standard interviewing shows that the former is significantly better at producing more information without effecting accuracy. It could be argued that asking witnesses to recreate a distressing or traumatic event raises ethical questions. e.g. Geiselamn et al (1985) – found 35% more correct recall Some of the mnemonic techniques might be difficult for particular witnesses, e.g. children may not understand the request to recall from a different perspective. Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 30
  • 31. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Effectiveness Page 31 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Issues
  • 32. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Source: Nelson Thornes / Psychology A (AS) 1) Imagine that you are trying to get information from a friend who has been mugged and had her bag stolen. What sort of questions would you ask her to encourage accurate recall? Why would these encourage accurate recall? nd Source: Folens Psychology AS: The Complete Companion (AQA A) 2 Edition  1 2 3 4 5 Task Happy  Ok  Help  Explain what is meant by the term ‘cognitive interview’. Explain how the cognitive interview works. Outline research into the effectiveness of the cognitive interview. Give two criticisms of the cognitive interview Comment on the value of the cognitive interview (what does it give us that a standard interview does not) Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 32
  • 33. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Page 33 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper
  • 34. 2013/2014 PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Page 34
  • 35. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology: Human Memory 2013/2014 Source: Nelson Thornes / Psychology A (AS) 1) What is meant by the term mnemonics? 2) What is visual imagery? 3) Why is it important for us to understand the material we are trying to learn? Source: Folens Psychology AS: The Complete Companion (AQA A) 2 nd Edition  Task 1 Outline three memory improvement techniques. 2 Use psychological insights and research to explain why each of these techniques is successful. Explain why organisation is important in learning and recall. Refer to psychological evidence in your answer. 3 Page 35 Lutterworth College: Psychology Department Resource Developed By: Mrs A Pepper Happy  Ok  Help 