Differential
Achievement
Social Class
Miss Russell
 Turn

to page 93 in your textbooks.

 Look



at the graph.

Describe what this suggests about
achievement?
“Upper and middle class children perform better
because their parents send them to Private
schools.”

True or False?
Irrel...
The Big Question…

Why are there class differences
in achievement in state
education?
In your groups brainstorm all
the different reasons you can
think of for why working class
children underperform in
state ...
What do you think these are? What’s the
difference?

Internal = Factors within the education system, schools, teachers, in...
Understand: Look at your reasons. Highlight which ones would
be external factors. Can you add any more external factors no...
The Big Question…

Why are there class differences
in achievement in state
education?

Cultural Deprivation
Which of your factors
could be incorporated
into the term ‘culture’?
Watch the clip from Tough
Young Teachers.
What cultural differences
can you see between the
two classes? What impact is
th...
Cultural Differences?
 What

cultural differences could there be
between the working class and upper class?

 How

could...
One reason for class differences
in education is….

Working class children grow up with
inadequate socialisation and inade...
Skills Masters
How far can cultural deprivation explain the
underachievement of the working class?
In pair and threes you ...
Skills Masters: Speed Dating
How far can cultural deprivation explain the
underachievement of the working class?
Each pair...
Cultural Deprivation
 How

can we evaluate cultural deprivation factors
in explaining why upper classes perform better at...
The Big Question… Now over to you…

Why are there class differences
in achievement in state
education?

External Factors:
...
Material World…
What do we mean by
material factors?
Examples: Material World…
Think of as many examples of
‘material’ factors as you can…
Write each one on a separate sheet
o...
Examples: Material World…

How do each of these things impact on achievement
in education for each social class?
Each of y...
Examples: Material World…

Can you
reduce/condense/group or
categorise these examples
into distinct categories?
Research & Presentation Task
Each of you will take one of the main factors which is said to
cause class differences in ter...
Research & Presentation Task

You must consider the following skills and highlight them throughout your presentation..

Un...
How can we evaluate Material
Deprivation as an whole
explanation for class differences
in education?
How does it compare t...
What about links to methods?
Use of statistics?

How can we evaluate the
statistics on material deprivation?
Watch the following clip… You will be applying
your knowledge of Material Deprivation to this
example…

Tough Young Teache...
Your Task: How far can Bruno’s
underachievement be explained by
material deprivation?
You must write an extended answer to...
Peer Assess
Swap your answer with someone else for
peer assessment. Whilst reading someone
else’s answer highlight/label t...
Reflect

Reflect on your peer assessment. How could
you improve your answer?
Make the necessary improvements to ensure
you...
Which best explains class
differences so far in terms of
external factors?
Material Deprivation? Cultural
Deprivation?
Why...
The Big Question… Now over to you…

Why are there class differences
in achievement in state
education?

External Factors:
...
Analyse the Headline…

Bourgeoisie students achieve in
education due to Cultural Capital.

Ideas???
Which is true?


Cultural capital simply means the wealth of the
bourgeoisie



Cultural capital means that middle class...
Which is true?


Cultural capital simply means the wealth of the
bourgeoisie



Cultural capital means that middle class...
Bourdieu: 3 types of capital…
Cultural

What factors may each
of these types include,
and how might they
give Middle Class...
Apply: Examples
1)

In pairs, study the list below and discuss which are examples of cultural
capital, educational capital...
Apply: Examples
 Now

add the examples to your theory table.

Can cultural, economic
and educational capital
be converted...
Construction.
 Look

at the statements in front of you.
Decide what they mean in terms of
Bourdieu’s three types of capit...
Gerwirtz: Marketisation & Parental
Choice




1)
2)
3)

Study on 14 London schools based
on interviews with teachers &
p...
Apply: Examples
Match the type of parent to the example
of how their capital would influence their
choice in secondary sch...
Questions..
 What

are the main differences between
the three types of families?
 Which are at an advantage in terms of
...
Evaluate:
How might cultural capital theories be
evaluated?
From what you have learned so far what
do you think is the mos...
Homework: Exam Question
 Assess

the importance of cultural factors in
causing social class differences in
educational ac...
Leech & Campos (2003) conducted
a study in Coventry. They found that
middle class parents are more likely
to afford a hous...
Alice Sullivan (2001) used a questionnaire on
456 pupils across 4 schools. She asked them
about a range of activities such...
Sullivan (2001): Found that
cultural capital only accounted
for part of the difference in class
achievement. Where pupils ...
Professional middle class parents who are
usually graduates. They have cultural capital
and know how admission system work...
Working class parents whose choices are
limited by the lack of economic and cultural
capital. They find it hard to underst...
Working class parents who are
ambitious for their children. They lack
cultural capital and find it difficult to
understand...
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  1. 1. Differential Achievement Social Class Miss Russell
  2. 2.  Turn to page 93 in your textbooks.  Look  at the graph. Describe what this suggests about achievement?
  3. 3. “Upper and middle class children perform better because their parents send them to Private schools.” True or False? Irrelevant. Class differences still exist within state education. But why…?
  4. 4. The Big Question… Why are there class differences in achievement in state education?
  5. 5. In your groups brainstorm all the different reasons you can think of for why working class children underperform in state education compared to the upper classes … Now pass your sheet onto the next group. Try and add as many ideas as you can to the other groups’ sheet.
  6. 6. What do you think these are? What’s the difference? Internal = Factors within the education system, schools, teachers, interact actions and inequalities. External = Factors outside the education system such the influence of home and the family.
  7. 7. Understand: Look at your reasons. Highlight which ones would be external factors. Can you add any more external factors now? Apply: For each of the external factors you have identified, write an example of how they explain better attainment among the upper classes. Analyse: Can any of them link up? Are there any common themes? What connects them together? Evaluate: Which ones best explain class differences in education? Why? Can any of them be criticised?
  8. 8. The Big Question… Why are there class differences in achievement in state education? Cultural Deprivation
  9. 9. Which of your factors could be incorporated into the term ‘culture’?
  10. 10. Watch the clip from Tough Young Teachers. What cultural differences can you see between the two classes? What impact is this having on the student’s education?
  11. 11. Cultural Differences?  What cultural differences could there be between the working class and upper class?  How could this impact on how successful they are in education?
  12. 12. One reason for class differences in education is…. Working class children grow up with inadequate socialisation and inadequate cultural equipment to enable them to succeed at school. These include Intellectual development, language and attitudes & values.
  13. 13. Skills Masters How far can cultural deprivation explain the underachievement of the working class? In pair and threes you will each take one of the points of Cultural Deprivation. You should use the information in the book to think about the skills and fill out your table. Understand A01 (E) Intellectual Development. Working lass culture neglects the ability to solve problems and practice reasoning. Language Language used in Application A01 (examples) (C) Analyse A02 (Evidence) (B) Evaluation A02 Strengths & Weaknesses (A)
  14. 14. Skills Masters: Speed Dating How far can cultural deprivation explain the underachievement of the working class? Each pair will take it in turns for 5 minutes to date someone else in the room. They will help you to develop your table. The important thing to communicate is: How can you use the information you’ve put in the table to demonstrate the skills when writing an answer to the above question?
  15. 15. Cultural Deprivation  How can we evaluate cultural deprivation factors in explaining why upper classes perform better at school?  How accurate is this as an explanation?  What  As doesn’t it account for? an explanation of class differences what are it’s strengths and weaknesses?
  16. 16. The Big Question… Now over to you… Why are there class differences in achievement in state education? External Factors: Material Deprivation
  17. 17. Material World… What do we mean by material factors?
  18. 18. Examples: Material World… Think of as many examples of ‘material’ factors as you can… Write each one on a separate sheet of paper and stick is around the room….
  19. 19. Examples: Material World… How do each of these things impact on achievement in education for each social class? Each of you should now add your own individual ideas to each of the material factors.
  20. 20. Examples: Material World… Can you reduce/condense/group or categorise these examples into distinct categories?
  21. 21. Research & Presentation Task Each of you will take one of the main factors which is said to cause class differences in terms of material deprivation. You must research it and present it to the rest of the group. You may present it any way you like (e.g. by using activities, tasks, as a lesson)… however you must: 1) Touch upon each of the skills 2) Ensure that all students take away a set of notes 3) Test what the rest of the group have learned as a result of your presentation (by test, quiz or game).
  22. 22. Research & Presentation Task You must consider the following skills and highlight them throughout your presentation.. Understand What is the factor? How does it explain class differences in educational achievement? Apply Can you give any specific examples of how this factor explains why working class children underperform in school? Analyse Evaluate What evidence, statistics, studies are there to support this factor as an explanation for class differences in achievement? (visit the Office of National Statistics website: www.ons.gov.uk) How might you evaluate this factor as an explanation of class differences in education? Think advantages/disadvantages. Is there any contradicting evidence?
  23. 23. How can we evaluate Material Deprivation as an whole explanation for class differences in education? How does it compare to cultural deprivation?
  24. 24. What about links to methods? Use of statistics? How can we evaluate the statistics on material deprivation?
  25. 25. Watch the following clip… You will be applying your knowledge of Material Deprivation to this example… Tough Young Teachers 29:51
  26. 26. Your Task: How far can Bruno’s underachievement be explained by material deprivation? You must write an extended answer to this question using examples and evidence from what we have learned on material deprivation. Try and hit all of those skills! (Understand, Apply, Analyse & Evaluate). Hint: Also think about how this compares to cultural deprivation!
  27. 27. Peer Assess Swap your answer with someone else for peer assessment. Whilst reading someone else’s answer highlight/label the skills when they have achieved them. How much progress have they made towards their success criteria? Have they met it? If not, what would they have to include to meet it?
  28. 28. Reflect Reflect on your peer assessment. How could you improve your answer? Make the necessary improvements to ensure you have met your success criteria.
  29. 29. Which best explains class differences so far in terms of external factors? Material Deprivation? Cultural Deprivation? Why?
  30. 30. The Big Question… Now over to you… Why are there class differences in achievement in state education? External Factors: Cultural Capital
  31. 31. Analyse the Headline… Bourgeoisie students achieve in education due to Cultural Capital. Ideas???
  32. 32. Which is true?  Cultural capital simply means the wealth of the bourgeoisie  Cultural capital means that middle class culture serves an advantage.  Cultural capital isn’t the only type of capital. Educational and economic capital interact with culture.
  33. 33. Which is true?  Cultural capital simply means the wealth of the bourgeoisie  Cultural capital means that middle class culture serves an advantage.  Cultural capital isn’t the only type of capital. Educational and economic capital interact with culture.
  34. 34. Bourdieu: 3 types of capital… Cultural What factors may each of these types include, and how might they give Middle Class children an advantage in school? Brainstorm your ideas. Education Economic
  35. 35. Apply: Examples 1) In pairs, study the list below and discuss which are examples of cultural capital, educational capital or economic capital. 2) Add two more examples of your own to each type. 3) Finally, summarise what is the differences between each kind of capital.       Parents writing an effective appeal letter against a child’s school allocation Parents sending their child to a private school Parents buying a computer for their child to use at home for schoolwork Parents are confident when talking to teachers Parents taking children to the theatre Parents moving house to be near a successful school
  36. 36. Apply: Examples  Now add the examples to your theory table. Can cultural, economic and educational capital be converted into each other? Why?
  37. 37. Construction.  Look at the statements in front of you. Decide what they mean in terms of Bourdieu’s three types of capital theory.  Then decide where they would fit in your table. How could you use them to hit the skills?
  38. 38. Gerwirtz: Marketisation & Parental Choice   1) 2) 3) Study on 14 London schools based on interviews with teachers & parents and data from school documents. Differences in economic and cultural capital leads to class differences in how far parents can exercise choice of secondary school. Three main types of parents. Privileged – skilled choosers Disconnected – local choosers Semi Skilled – Choosers Think about what it might mean to be each of these types of parents. How might each use their capital to decide where their children attend secondary school?
  39. 39. Apply: Examples Match the type of parent to the example of how their capital would influence their choice in secondary school. Add the examples to your table.
  40. 40. Questions..  What are the main differences between the three types of families?  Which are at an advantage in terms of their child’s education? Why?  What evidence is there for this theory? Are there any problems with this evidence?  How does it compare to Bourdieu’s theory?
  41. 41. Evaluate: How might cultural capital theories be evaluated? From what you have learned so far what do you think is the most influential external factor on a child’s education? Which one explains class differences the most?
  42. 42. Homework: Exam Question  Assess the importance of cultural factors in causing social class differences in educational achievement. (20 marks)
  43. 43. Leech & Campos (2003) conducted a study in Coventry. They found that middle class parents are more likely to afford a house in the catchment area of a school that is highly placed in the exam lead tables. This was named ‘Selection by Mortgage’.
  44. 44. Alice Sullivan (2001) used a questionnaire on 456 pupils across 4 schools. She asked them about a range of activities such as reading and TV habits and whether they attended museums, galleries, the theatre etc. She also tested vocabulary and knowledge. Those that read complex fiction and watched documentaries developed a greater vocabulary and wider cultural knowledge. The students were also likely to be children of graduates and achieve successfully at GCSE.
  45. 45. Sullivan (2001): Found that cultural capital only accounted for part of the difference in class achievement. Where pupils of different classes had the same level of cultural capital, middle class pupils still did better.
  46. 46. Professional middle class parents who are usually graduates. They have cultural capital and know how admission system works. They understand the importance of picking a first choice, meeting deadlines and using appeals to get what they want. They are planning for their child’s future by taking time to visit and research their options. Their economic capital means they can afford to move and pay extra to get access to a ‘better’ school.
  47. 47. Working class parents whose choices are limited by the lack of economic and cultural capital. They find it hard to understand admission procedures and are less aware of their options. They are less able to manipulate schools to their advantage. They think that school facilities are more important than league table results. A place in a local comprehensive school is usually the most realistic option.
  48. 48. Working class parents who are ambitious for their children. They lack cultural capital and find it difficult to understand the education market. They rely on other people’s opinions, however become frustrated when they fail to get their children into the school they wanted.

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