Social Distribution of Crime
Unit 4: Crime &
Deviance
Miss Russell
Starting Point
Who are Criminals? What characteristics to they have and why?
Draw a picture of a criminal on a
sheet of pa...
In this picture who is most likely to commit
crime?
Pick one person and keep it to yourself at first…
The Big Question…
What is the relationship between
gender and crime and why is this
the case?

Success Criteria:
1) To des...
True or False..?
Four out of five convicted
offenders in England and Wales
are Male
True or False..?
By the age of 40, 9% of women
have had a criminal conviction,
against 32% of men.
True or False..?
Females are more likely to be
convicted for property offences,
where as males are more likely
to be convi...
True or False..?
Males are more likely to be
repeat offenders, have longer
criminal careers and commit
more serious crimes...
The Trend:

So, what can we conclude about
the relationship between gender
and crime?
However:
1)Do women really commit fewer crimes?

2)Why is it that men seem to commit more
crimes than females?
It’s all in the reporting…
Some sociologists and criminologists argue
that female offending is underestimated. For
2 reaso...
The Chivalry Thesis
Use pages 101-102 to answer the following
questions…
1) How does the Chivalry Thesis explain lower lev...
The Chivalry Thesis
Now complete a table on the Chivalry Thesis
(Think about those skills!)
Review:
Time for the reveal!
Open your envelope and reveal your original
ideas to the group.
What can we say about this no...
Homework:
Find some additional evidence for the green
Analysis column of your table.
It can be FOR or AGAINST the Chivalry...
Gender & Crime: The Chivalry Thesis
Starting Point

05 Minutes

Homework Discussion

What evidence have you found for or against the
Chivalry Thesis?
How coul...
However…
Even if the Criminal
Justice System is
lenient on females…
How can we explain
the behaviour of those
women who do...
The Big Questions…
How can we explain gender
differences in crime?
Why do some women commit
crime?

Objectives
1) Understa...
Why do some women commit crime?
Try to link the
following concepts
with:
1) Gender Differences
in Crime
2) Women who do co...
Task: Understanding
1) How can we explain why women engage in
less crime?
2) Why do some women commit crime?
Read the card...
Task: Analysis and Evaluation
1)Use the cards to match up examples,
evidence and evaluation to each of the
theories. Summa...
Can you think of any famous
female criminals who these
theories could apply to?
Famous Female Criminals
Lindsay Lohan

2007: Driving under the
influence and possession
of cocaine.
2007: Driving on a
sus...
Famous Female Criminals
Mairead Philpott
2013: Charged
with Murder of
her 5 children
after they died
in a house fire
in De...
Famous Female Criminals
Melissa Reid
2013: One of two
young women
arrested for
smuggling £1.5
million worth of
cocaine in ...
Famous Female Criminals
Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and
Maria Alyokhina
„Pussy Riot‟

2012: Two members
of the band Pussy
Riot ...
Famous Female Criminals
Cheryl Cole
2003: Arrested and
charged for a Racist
assault in a night
club.
Famous Female Criminals
Rosdeep Kular
2014: Arrested and
charged with the
murder of her 3 year
old son after she
reported ...
Famous Female Criminals
Tulisa Constavalvos
2013: Arrested on
suspicion of
supplying class A
drugs.
Task: Famous Female Criminals
“Why did X commit crime?”
Choose one of the examples of famous female criminals.
Research th...
To Start: Famous Female Criminals
Get out your criminal
profiles.
Swap with a peer.

Read your peer‟s work and
label where...
To Start: Famous Female Criminals

Which theory do you think
best explains your chosen
famous female criminal?

Why?
Today…
So far explanations of crime have
focused on male criminality. However
until recently they have neglected to
ask…
‘...
The Big Question…
Why do men commit
crime?

Objectives
1) Understand.
2) Apply.
3) Analyse & Evaluate.

What would
success...
Why do men commit crime?
As a group you must come up with as
many reasons as you can for why men
commit crime.
You need to...
Why do men commit crime?
As a group you must come
up with as many reasons as
you can for why men commit
crime.
You need to...
Why do men commit crime?
As a group you must come
up with as many reasons as
you can for why men commit
crime.
You need to...
Why do men commit crime?
As a group you must come
up with as many reasons as
you can for why men commit
crime.
You need to...
Why do men commit crime?
How might we evaluate
these ideas?

Can we evaluate using
previous theories we
have looked at?
Why do men commit crime?
Now use the book and mind-map
to achieve the skills in your
table.
Why do men commit crime?
• Out of all the theories
looked at on gender and
which do you think best
the gender gap in crime...
21 Mark Question
• Look at the mark scheme for
a 21 mark question.

• Pick out the key words.
What do you need to do to
su...
Gender & Crime
.

Using material from Item B and
elsewhere, assess sociological
explanations of gender differences in
the ...
Gender & Crime

5 minutes

You have four large pieces of paper in front
of you.
Under the word, on each piece write down w...
Gender & Crime
Using material from Item B and
elsewhere, assess sociological
explanations of gender differences in
the pat...
Skills Carousel
Using material from Item B and elsewhere,
assess sociological explanations of gender
differences in the pa...
Understand
Apply
Analyse
Evaluate
Now put together your
ideas..
Using material from Item B and elsewhere,
assess sociological explanations of gender
differe...
Item B
• Item B
According to crime statistics, men are more likely than women to
commit crime. However, this statistical d...
• Hegemonic Masculinity: ‘work in
paid labour market, the
subordination of women,
heterosexism (i.e. difference from
and d...
• ‘Today we have moved to a deindustrialised society. Manual
jobs are no more. Instead
more jobs are available in
night ti...
• Messerschmidt: Masculinity & Crime
Gender identity is a vital part of the individual‟s
sense of self - it is something t...
• Winlow: Postmodernity, Masculine &
Crime
Globalisation has led to a shift from a
modern industrial society to a postmode...
Male A

Aged 16, from a white middle class background. In school he has to
appreciate that his teachers have a greater aut...
Male B

Aged 15, white and working class. He attends a state school in
inner city London. He feels he has to oppose teache...
Male C

Aged 15, black and lower working class. Male C has no career
aspiration and no motivation to succeed. Instead his ...
Male D

Aged 18 from a white working class background. Male D has resulted
to working as a bouncer in a night club in the ...
Paul Willis (1997) ‘Lads’
Paul Willis is a British sociologist. Willis was born in Wolverhampton and studied at Birmingham...
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  1. 1. Social Distribution of Crime Unit 4: Crime & Deviance Miss Russell
  2. 2. Starting Point Who are Criminals? What characteristics to they have and why? Draw a picture of a criminal on a sheet of paper. Annotate it with your ideas on what makes a criminal. Do this on your own and keep it secret. Fold it up and place it the envelope until later… 05 Minutes
  3. 3. In this picture who is most likely to commit crime? Pick one person and keep it to yourself at first…
  4. 4. The Big Question… What is the relationship between gender and crime and why is this the case? Success Criteria: 1) To describe the relationship between gender and crime. 2) To explain reasons for this relationship. 3) To evaluate using evidence and alternative arguments.
  5. 5. True or False..? Four out of five convicted offenders in England and Wales are Male
  6. 6. True or False..? By the age of 40, 9% of women have had a criminal conviction, against 32% of men.
  7. 7. True or False..? Females are more likely to be convicted for property offences, where as males are more likely to be convicted for violent or sexual crime.
  8. 8. True or False..? Males are more likely to be repeat offenders, have longer criminal careers and commit more serious crimes.
  9. 9. The Trend: So, what can we conclude about the relationship between gender and crime?
  10. 10. However: 1)Do women really commit fewer crimes? 2)Why is it that men seem to commit more crimes than females?
  11. 11. It’s all in the reporting… Some sociologists and criminologists argue that female offending is underestimated. For 2 reasons: 1) Typically female crimes such as shoplifting are less likely to be reported. It will go un-noticed compared to sexual or violent crime. 2) Women are more likely to get let off lightly.
  12. 12. The Chivalry Thesis Use pages 101-102 to answer the following questions… 1) How does the Chivalry Thesis explain lower levels of female crime? 2) What evidence is there for and against this? 3) How does Patriarchy also explain a bias against women?
  13. 13. The Chivalry Thesis Now complete a table on the Chivalry Thesis (Think about those skills!)
  14. 14. Review: Time for the reveal! Open your envelope and reveal your original ideas to the group. What can we say about this now? How can we evaluate our initial thoughts? Have they been confirmed and rejected? What have you learned?
  15. 15. Homework: Find some additional evidence for the green Analysis column of your table. It can be FOR or AGAINST the Chivalry Thesis. Bring it with you to the lesson next week! Examples: - Statistics - Articles - Specific crime cases - Real life stories
  16. 16. Gender & Crime: The Chivalry Thesis
  17. 17. Starting Point 05 Minutes Homework Discussion What evidence have you found for or against the Chivalry Thesis? How could you use this as an analysis or evaluation? What would it look like on paper?
  18. 18. However… Even if the Criminal Justice System is lenient on females… How can we explain the behaviour of those women who do commit crime? 05 Minutes
  19. 19. The Big Questions… How can we explain gender differences in crime? Why do some women commit crime? Objectives 1) Understand. 2) Apply. 3) Analyse & Evaluate. What would success look like??
  20. 20. Why do some women commit crime? Try to link the following concepts with: 1) Gender Differences in Crime 2) Women who do commit crime
  21. 21. Task: Understanding 1) How can we explain why women engage in less crime? 2) Why do some women commit crime? Read the cards in front of you. For each theory explain which of the questions it answers and why… Do this in your A01 column. Your explanation should finish with a line of commentary E.g. ‘This shows why females commit less crime than men.’
  22. 22. Task: Analysis and Evaluation 1)Use the cards to match up examples, evidence and evaluation to each of the theories. Summarise them in your table. 2)Can you add anything else to evaluation? What about comparing and contrasting theories? Can you make any links/connections? Can you evaluate methods used? If so link them up by adding them to your table and drawing arrows.
  23. 23. Can you think of any famous female criminals who these theories could apply to?
  24. 24. Famous Female Criminals Lindsay Lohan 2007: Driving under the influence and possession of cocaine. 2007: Driving on a suspended licence. 2010: Accused of assaulting a lady in Rehab.
  25. 25. Famous Female Criminals Mairead Philpott 2013: Charged with Murder of her 5 children after they died in a house fire in Derby.
  26. 26. Famous Female Criminals Melissa Reid 2013: One of two young women arrested for smuggling £1.5 million worth of cocaine in their suitcases in Peru.
  27. 27. Famous Female Criminals Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina „Pussy Riot‟ 2012: Two members of the band Pussy Riot were charged with Hooliganism after staging a protest in Moscow‟s Cathedral.
  28. 28. Famous Female Criminals Cheryl Cole 2003: Arrested and charged for a Racist assault in a night club.
  29. 29. Famous Female Criminals Rosdeep Kular 2014: Arrested and charged with the murder of her 3 year old son after she reported him missing.
  30. 30. Famous Female Criminals Tulisa Constavalvos 2013: Arrested on suspicion of supplying class A drugs.
  31. 31. Task: Famous Female Criminals “Why did X commit crime?” Choose one of the examples of famous female criminals. Research their story. Create a criminal profile which explains what crimes they have committed and why they have committed them using the theories we have looked at. Try to hit on the skills…. Knowledge Which theories can apply to this case? Apply Analysis Evaluation How could this What evidence is How could you theory explain there to suggest evaluate the this case? Can this theory to be theories that you give an true? apply? Compare example of how it and contrast… are applies to them? there any other theories that would best explain this case?
  32. 32. To Start: Famous Female Criminals Get out your criminal profiles. Swap with a peer. Read your peer‟s work and label where they have hit each of the skills…
  33. 33. To Start: Famous Female Criminals Which theory do you think best explains your chosen famous female criminal? Why?
  34. 34. Today… So far explanations of crime have focused on male criminality. However until recently they have neglected to ask… ‘What is it about being male that leads men to offend..?’
  35. 35. The Big Question… Why do men commit crime? Objectives 1) Understand. 2) Apply. 3) Analyse & Evaluate. What would success look like??
  36. 36. Why do men commit crime? As a group you must come up with as many reasons as you can for why men commit crime. You need to build up a mind map/brain storm of as many explanations you can think of. Think of previous lessons and new ideas. Try to use your previous sociological knowledge…
  37. 37. Why do men commit crime? As a group you must come up with as many reasons as you can for why men commit crime. You need to build up a mind map/brain storm of as many explanations you can think of. Try to use your previous sociological knowledge… Now use the quotes and key terms to try and expand on your points/ideas
  38. 38. Why do men commit crime? As a group you must come up with as many reasons as you can for why men commit crime. You need to build up a mind map/brain storm of as many explanations you can think of. Try to use your previous sociological knowledge… Now look at the two theories. Where do they fit into your ideas so far?
  39. 39. Why do men commit crime? As a group you must come up with as many reasons as you can for why men commit crime. You need to build up a mind map/brain storm of as many explanations you can think of. Try to use your previous sociological knowledge… Cases Look at the example cases, where would they fit in?
  40. 40. Why do men commit crime? How might we evaluate these ideas? Can we evaluate using previous theories we have looked at?
  41. 41. Why do men commit crime? Now use the book and mind-map to achieve the skills in your table.
  42. 42. Why do men commit crime? • Out of all the theories looked at on gender and which do you think best the gender gap in crime we have crime, explains today? • You must use evidence and examples to justify your answer.
  43. 43. 21 Mark Question • Look at the mark scheme for a 21 mark question. • Pick out the key words. What do you need to do to succeed?
  44. 44. Gender & Crime . Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of gender differences in the patterns of crime. (21 marks) What will success look like?
  45. 45. Gender & Crime 5 minutes You have four large pieces of paper in front of you. Under the word, on each piece write down what the words mean/how they can be effectively demonstrated in a 21 mark essay. (Think: AO‟s!) Understand Apply Analyse Evaluate
  46. 46. Gender & Crime Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of gender differences in the patterns of crime. (21 marks) Individually draft out a quick plan of what you could include in this question. What content will you include? How will you meet those skills?
  47. 47. Skills Carousel Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of gender differences in the patterns of crime. (21 marks) • You will each have 2 minutes at each of the skills. • You must write an idea that you can use in the appropriate skill to answer this question. Really think about what you are writing. Does what you are writing show that you are hitting that skill? • Add new ideas and add to ideas that have already been written.
  48. 48. Understand
  49. 49. Apply
  50. 50. Analyse
  51. 51. Evaluate
  52. 52. Now put together your ideas.. Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of gender differences in the patterns of crime. (21 marks) Now as a group put together your ideas and write a series of paragraphs that you could use in an answer. Think about literacy & structure!
  53. 53. Item B • Item B According to crime statistics, men are more likely than women to commit crime. However, this statistical difference may be due to the way in which the criminal justice system deals with men and women. In some cases, the nature of female crimes means that they are less likely to be recorded. Men and women seem to commit different types of crime. Those committed by women are seen as more serious if they go against expected gender norms. For men, crime can be seen as an expression of masculinity and a way of gaining social status
  54. 54. • Hegemonic Masculinity: ‘work in paid labour market, the subordination of women, heterosexism (i.e. difference from and desire for women) and the driven and uncontrollable sexuality of men.’
  55. 55. • ‘Today we have moved to a deindustrialised society. Manual jobs are no more. Instead more jobs are available in night time leisure – clubs, pubs and bars.’
  56. 56. • Messerschmidt: Masculinity & Crime Gender identity is a vital part of the individual‟s sense of self - it is something that people accomplish. People are continuously trying to express and present their masculinity or femininity. And in relation to crime, you can say men commit crime as a means of constructing this masculinity to express to others and themselves. There are a number of different masculinities which are shaped by social class, ethnicity, age and sexual orientation. Men‟s position in society provides them with different access to power and resources which leads to different constructions and expressions of masculinity – and this leads to different types of crime. The most dominant form of masculinity is known as hegemonic masculinity. It‟s the most ideal form, which is defined through work in paid labour, the subordination of women, heterosexism and the uncontrollable sexuality of men. Most men wish to accomplish this.
  57. 57. • Winlow: Postmodernity, Masculine & Crime Globalisation has led to a shift from a modern industrial society to a postmodern de-industrialised society. Men have lost opportunities to express their masculinity through traditional manual jobs and therefore provide for their families. The expansion of the night time sector has provided working class men with legal employment, opportunities for crime and a channel through which to express their masculinity.
  58. 58. Male A Aged 16, from a white middle class background. In school he has to appreciate that his teachers have a greater authority to him. These means in school he adopts an accommodating masculinity. However, outside he participates in binge drinking, vandalism and pranks on members of the local community. (Oppositional Masculinity).
  59. 59. Male B Aged 15, white and working class. He attends a state school in inner city London. He feels he has to oppose teachers, and members of the local community in order to maintain his masculinity. He has not academic and is not on course to achieve good GCSE‟s. Oppositional masculinity is displayed in all aspects of his life.
  60. 60. Male C Aged 15, black and lower working class. Male C has no career aspiration and no motivation to succeed. Instead his vision of success is being part of a gang and participating in violent act or stealing from the local community.
  61. 61. Male D Aged 18 from a white working class background. Male D has resulted to working as a bouncer in a night club in the evenings. This means that he can at least provide for his future. He prides himself in going to the gym and enhancing his muscles. This gives him a greater sense of masculinity and the ability to succeed in violent acts of crime.
  62. 62. Paul Willis (1997) ‘Lads’ Paul Willis is a British sociologist. Willis was born in Wolverhampton and studied at Birmingham and Cambridge universities. Paul Willis is a leading British cultural theorist. He was a Professor of Social/Cultural Ethnography at Keele University. His most famous book entitled “Learning to labour” was a series of observations and interviews in a school, which was created to discover why working class children get working class jobs. Paul Willis studied a group of 12 working-class boys during their last year and a half in school and their first few months at work. He conducted a series of interviews and observations within a school, with the aim of discovering why 'working class kids get working class jobs'. He identified two groups of pupils as the „lads‟ and the „ear „oles‟. The „lads‟ were working class boys who expressed a negative attitude to academic work and also showed strongly racist and sexist attitudes. They tried to drink and smoke to become part of a more adult world and thought that manual work, such as building, was far more important to mental work. Seeing as society is run by capitalism, the lads recognised that there was no such thing as an equal opportunity for them, as no matter how hard they tried, they would still remain far less successful than middle class students. This links to the Marxist idea that there is no meritocracy in a capitalist society. One of the main motivations for the lad‟s rejecting their education would be the ear‟oles. The ear‟oles were seen as school conformists by the lads and were the complete opposite to them when it came to academic progress. Ear „oles were looked down on by the lads as they were the children who followed the school rules, respected their teachers, and commited to their education. Lads did not just dislike ear‟oles, they felt they had superiority over them. This was because the lads believed that the ear‟oles were wasting their time at school by not being able to have fun or be independent. Willis found a number of similarities between the attitudes and behaviour developed by the lads in school and those on a shop floor at work. Having a laugh was important in both situations as a means of dealing with boredom, authority and repetitiveness. The lads rejected school and mentally prepared themselves for a place in the workforce invariably at manual level. They learned

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