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  1. 1. • Feminism & Religion Miss Russell Bilton School
  2. 2. Something to think about… "Wasn't religion invented by man for a kind of solace? It's as though he said, 'I'll make me a nice comfortable garment to shut out the heat and the cold'; and then it ends by becoming a straitjacket." Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  3. 3. To Start: What is Feminism? What is Patriarchy? How might this relate to Religion? Answer these questions on a sheet of paper and put it underneath your chair. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  4. 4. Now… Draw a picture of God! Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  5. 5. Thinking Ladder… To & key terms and ideas of the Feminist Approach To knowledge and understanding of Feminism to explaining religion. To & how religion is could be dominated by men.
  6. 6. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define key terms in Feminism. C Will be able to describe Feminism perspectives on religion. A Will be able to use evidence to explain how Religion could be male dominated.
  7. 7. Task Take one article each. Read it and pick out any arguments on Feminism and Religion. Get ready to: 1) Summarise the argument to class. 2) Explain what it suggests about Feminism & Religion. Extension: Why is it important to learn about Feminism and Religion? Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  8. 8. Adam & Eve: What does this suggest? Q: Why was Adam created first? A: To give him a chance to say something. Q: What did Adam say on the day before Christmas? A: It’s Christmas, Eve! Q: Why was Adam a famous runner? A: Because he was first in the human race. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  9. 9. Task How might each of these religious practices be patriarchal? (i.e. dominated by men). 1)Religious Organisations 2)Places of Worship 3)Sacred Texts 4)Religious Laws and Customs Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  10. 10. Patriarchy 1) Religious Organisations – mainly male dominated. Orthodox Judaism & Catholicism forbid women to become priests. 2) Places of Worship – Segregate sexes and marginalise women, e.g. sitting them behind screens. Taboos that regard menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth as polluting. Islam = menstruating women are not allowed to touch the Qur’an. 3) Sacred Texts – Feature male Gods, prophets and are usually written and interpreted. Stories reflect anti female stereotypes such as Eve. 4) Religious Laws & Customs – Give women fewer rights than men (e.g. access to divorce, how many spouses they may marry, dress code). Catholic church bans abortion and artificial contraception. Exclusion from women from Catholic Priesthood. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  11. 11. The Three Big But‟s 3 Feminists argue that religion hasn’t always been Patriarchal. Use your textbooks to reduce the views of the following down to just 50 words each. 1) Karen Armstrong 2) Nawal El Saadawi 3) Linda Woodhead Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  12. 12. Some Evidence Who are these? How might they relate to Feminist theories of religion? Read the article. How might this provide evidence for Feminist theories of religion? Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  13. 13. To Finish… Pick up your work from under your seat. What have you learned about Feminism and religion? Add something to your answers which you have learned this lesson… Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  14. 14. Learning Journal 1) Heading: Today‟s Date, Unit & Topic 2) Write a summary of your learning today in less than 100 words. What have you learned ? 3) Considering what you have written in stage 2, which of the success criteria have you met? Write down them down along with the grade! Define Feminist key terms, Describe feminist perspectives on religion, Bilton School Use evidence to explain how religion is male dominated Charlotte Russell
  15. 15. Thinking Ladder… To knowledge and understanding of Feminism to explaining religion. To evidence for and against Feminist perspectives of Religion. To Feminist perspectives of religion using strengths and weaknesses and comparisons with other theories.
  16. 16. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to explain feminist perspectives on religion using key terms. C Will be able to analyse evidence for and against feminist perspectives of religion. A Will be able to use evaluate feminist perspectives using strengths and weaknesses.
  17. 17. Task: Connections In today’s double lesson you must use the concept cards provided to produce 2 concept maps or collages of feminism and religion. The first should represent ‘For Feminist Perspectives of Religion.’ The second should represent ‘Against Feminist Perspectives of Religion’. I have given you a set of concept cards to help you. Some of the terms you will know and understand already, the others you will need to research. You can use as many or as little of the concept cards as you like. But the more you can include, the higher the grade you are aiming for! 1st hour: Research. Collect evidence, arguments and pictures to put onto your map. 2nd hour: Collate your concepts, evidence, pictures and arguments into two concept maps. Make sure you show links and connections. You will be sticking these onto big sheets of paper! Think also Charlotte Russell about strengths and weaknesses of the Feminist View of Religion. Bilton School
  18. 18. Feedback 1)What arguments and evidence is there FOR patriarchy in religion? 2)What arguments and evidence is there AGAINST patriarchy in religion? Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  19. 19. Evaluation of feminist views: Strengths & Weaknesses  Highlight patriarchal nature of religion The situation of women in some religious organisations has improved. For example, since 1992, women have been able to become ordained Anglican ministers. The first female ordination was in Bristol in March 1994. Some Muslim women claim that wearing the hijab is actually liberating for them. It frees them from being objectified by men. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  20. 20. Is religion patriarchal? • Patriarchal • Simone de Beauvoir – religion oppresses women who believe they will be rewarded in heaven Charlotte Russell • NOT Patriarchal • 1972 Judaism have allowed female Rabbi‟s • Sikh gurus aided the emancipation of Indian women in the Western world • Islam – some aspects positive (keeping maiden name) Bilton School
  21. 21. Consolidation & Comparison Complete the comparison table of the three main perspectives on religion. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  22. 22. Essay Evaluate feminist views on the role and functions of religion in society today. (33 marks) Charlotte Russell To completed for homework and handed in one week today! Bilton School
  23. 23. Learning Journal 1) Heading: Today‟s Date, Unit & Topic 2) Write a summary of your learning today in less than 100 words. What have you learned ? 3) Considering what you have written in stage 2, which of the success criteria have you met? Write down them down along with the grade! Explain feminist perspective using key terms, Analyse Evidence for and Bilton against, Evaluate using strengths and weaknesses and comparisons. School Charlotte Russell
  24. 24. Female participation in religion • Task one – use the „ons‟ (Office of National Statistics) website to find some statistics on female participation in the major religions. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  25. 25. The decline of the goddess In the days when people used to worship „gods of nature’ female effigies were popular. People relied upon the forces of nature to survive. Females represented life and fertility and were consider to be closer to nature than males Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  26. 26. Monotheism – the worship of one god Invasions of the Northern Hemisphere and Middle East required a „patriarchal rationale‟. It became more popular to worship one god Male gods introduced more aggressive spirituality and all major religions followed suit. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  27. 27. Images of god in different religions Male view of God • Powerful • In control Charlotte Russell Female view of God Loving Comforting Bilton School
  28. 28. JUDAISM “Blessed art thou O Lord our God that I was not born a slave” Charlotte Russell “Blessed art thou O Lord our God that I was not born a woman” Bilton School
  29. 29. Charlotte Russell Christianity “ Wives be subject to your husband, as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the Church (Ephesians 5:22 -24)”. Bilton School
  30. 30. TASK • Think of as many characters from the bible as you can. You have five minutes.... Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  31. 31. CHARACTERS IN THE BIBLE MALE Charlotte Russell FEMALE Bilton School
  32. 32. Adam & Eve: Women & Sexuality? Q: Why was Adam created first? A: To give him a chance to say something. Q: What did Adam say on the day before Christmas? A: It‟s Christmas, Eve! Q: Why was Adam a famous runner? A: Because he was first in the human race. Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  33. 33. TASK • Answer the questions in the handout Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  34. 34. Women in religious organisations • Women cannot be priests in many of the worlds religions • Islamic groups, Orthodox Jews and Roman Catholic churches continue to Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  35. 35. However... Since 1992 The Church of England have accepted females Judaism accepts women as Rabbi‟s in it‟s non-orthodox denominations “Love, honour and obey” has been removed in Christian religions (gender neutral language) Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  36. 36. Is religion patriarchal? • Patriarchal • NOT Patriarchal • Simone de Beauvoir – religion oppresses women who believe they will be rewarded in heaven 1972 Judaism have allowed female Rabbi‟s Sikh gurus aided the emancipation of Indian women Post-patriarchal Buddhism in the Western world Islam – some aspects positive (keeping maiden name) Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  37. 37. Why are women more religious than men? The caring role • Women assume ultimate responsibility for caring for their families wellbeing Differential Socialisation • women socialised as passive and submissive Different Roles • Part-time work • Full- time child rearing Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  38. 38. handout • See handout for patriarchal aspects of religion Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  39. 39. Questions 1. What evidence for patriarchy is there in the world‟s major religions? a) Scriptures b) Women‟s role in religious organisations 2. What caused men to dominate religions and religious practices? 3. What evidence is there to suggest that women were not always subordinate to men in terms of religion? Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  40. 40. Women and new religious movements: what‟s the attraction? Women more likely to experience poverty Women likely to perceive the world as being in moral decline Women more likely to experience physical or mental problems Charlotte Russell The appeal of Cults & sects Less likely to have social standing in community Women have a lack of power Bilton School
  41. 41. Women & fundamentalism • Christian fundamentalist have been opposed to women having control over reproduction – terrorist tactics often used • Hindu fundamentalism – made it difficult for the government in India to intervene in family situations leaving women stranded in violent relationships Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  42. 42. Questions 1. What evidence is there for women‟s greater religiosity? (4 marks) 2. What explanations have been given for this? 3. How has the resurgence of fundamentalism affected the role of women? (12 marks) 4. Examine the extent to which religion acts as an agent of control over women (12 marks) Charlotte Russell Bilton School
  43. 43. • Task – design a questionnaire which explores female participation in religion – Think about attendance, practices, belief/non-belief and alternative new age beliefs (homeopathy etc) – For homework collect data about women and religion and compare it to the Charlotte statistics we already have. Russell Bilton School

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