you ever experienced ‘tip of the
Or come down the stairs to get something
only to completely forget what it was
once you get down...
Annoying isn’t it?
Dependent Theory of
for and against Cue
as a theory of
How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
Will be able to describe what is Cue
C Will be able to explain evidence for and against
the Cue Dependent theory of Forgetting.
A Will be able to evaluate Cue Dependent
You will see a number of things on
the screen. In each case, write
down the first thing you think
Why might these
objects help us to
This is when we cannot access the memory until the correct cue
When we encode a new memory we also store information that
occurred around it, such as the way we felt or the place we
were in. If we cannot remember or recall it, it could be because
we are not in a similar situation to when the memory was
„Encoding Specificity Principle‟ (Tulving) = “the greater the
similarity between the encoding event and the retrieval event,
the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory.”
Tulving defines FORGETTING as ‘the inability to recall
something now that could be recalled on an earlier
Cue dependent forgetting applies to long-term memory,
not to the short-term store. The theory states that forgetting
arises as the cues are not available for memory retrieval.
The main ideas of Cue dependent theory (Tulving);
1) A memory trace – information is laid down and retained
in a store as a result of the original perception of an event
2) A retrieval cue – information present in the individual’s
COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENT at the time of retrieval that
matches the time of recall
Class Experiment 2
is a mini experiment to look at the
effects of cue-dependency in memory
will see a number of Countries
Please write down the capital city for
Do NOT confer
You MUST conduct this experiment in
Ready? Then we’ll begin
will now see the same list of countries
but the first letter of each capital city will
be given to you as a prompt.
Have another look and see if you can get
any more answers.
Make sure you note which ones you were
able to get when you had the prompt
Now check your answers...
Australia - Canberra
USA – Washington DC
Spain – Madrid
Netherlands – Amsterdam
Greece – Athens
China – Beijing
Japan – Tokyo
Portugal - Lisbon
How did you answers
compare first and
second time around?
Why was this?
There are two types of cue
Independent study task…
Research the following using either your textbook or the
1) What is mean by context dependent forgetting?
2) What is meant by state-dependent forgetting?
3) Describe any research evidence to support both context
dependent forgetting and state dependent forgetting.
Use this information to fill out your grid.
For describing supporting studies… use the following format:
„Godden & Baddeley (1975)… found that….. This supports
the theory of Cue Dependent forgetting, because….‟
Let‟s Evaluate the theory using
support the theory.
C Conflicting Evidence
challenge the theory.
O Other explanations
How else could we
explain it? Alternative
Does it have any
Can the theory be
Further things to think about for
1)Can we relate to it in real life?
2)What are the downsides of relying
on experimental evidence?
3)Are there any circumstances where
state and context cues might be the
4)How is this theory useful to students
But the disadvantages of
experimental methods are addressed
in this study… Abernethy (1940)
A set of Psychology students were given a set of
tests before their 4-week course began.
All students had the same lecturer and were
taught in the same room. At the end of each
week, they were tested.
They were split for testing:a) same room, different lecturer;
b) different room, different lecturer;
c) different room, same lecturer;
d) same room, same lecturer;
Those in the d) condition did best
could you use this theory to help
patients with dementia? – how would this
support the Cue Dependent Theory?
How could you use this theory to help
eyewitnesses recall events? – how would
this support the Cue Dependent Theory?
Explain one theory
of forgetting (4 marks)
2.Evaluate one theory
of forgetting (4 marks)
a small-scale experiment on
context or state dependent
it on three people.
your results and bring it to
first lesson back!
1) Heading: Today’s Date, Unit
2) Write a summary of your
learning today in less than 100
words. What have you learned ?
3) Considering what you have
written in stage 2, which of the
success criteria have you met?
Write down them down along
with the grade!
Describe CDF theory,