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  • 1. Cue Dependent Forgetting Theory of Forgetting 1 Miss Russell
  • 2.  Have you ever experienced ‘tip of the tongue’ phenomenon?  Or come down the stairs to get something only to completely forget what it was once you get down...  Annoying isn’t it? 
  • 3. Thinking Ladder… To & Cue Dependent Theory of Forgetting. To evidence for and against Cue Dependent Forgetting. To Cue Dependent Forgetting as a theory of Forgetting.
  • 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to describe what is Cue Depending Forgetting. C Will be able to explain evidence for and against the Cue Dependent theory of Forgetting. A Will be able to evaluate Cue Dependent Forgetting.
  • 5. You will see a number of things on the screen. In each case, write down the first thing you think of/remember…
  • 6. The Smell of…
  • 7. The taste of…
  • 8. Why might these objects help us to recall our memories?
  • 9. This is when we cannot access the memory until the correct cue is used. When we encode a new memory we also store information that occurred around it, such as the way we felt or the place we were in. If we cannot remember or recall it, it could be because we are not in a similar situation to when the memory was originally stored. „Encoding Specificity Principle‟ (Tulving) = “the greater the similarity between the encoding event and the retrieval event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory.”
  • 10. Tulving defines FORGETTING as ‘the inability to recall something now that could be recalled on an earlier occasion.’ Cue dependent forgetting applies to long-term memory, not to the short-term store. The theory states that forgetting arises as the cues are not available for memory retrieval. The main ideas of Cue dependent theory (Tulving); 1) A memory trace – information is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event 2) A retrieval cue – information present in the individual’s COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENT at the time of retrieval that matches the time of recall
  • 11. Class Experiment 2  This is a mini experiment to look at the effects of cue-dependency in memory retrieval
  • 12. Instructions  You will see a number of Countries  Please write down the capital city for each country  Do NOT confer  You MUST conduct this experiment in silence  Ready? Then we’ll begin
  • 13. Germany
  • 14. Australia
  • 15. USA
  • 16. Spain
  • 17. Netherlands
  • 18. Greece
  • 19. China
  • 20. Japan
  • 21. Portugal
  • 22. Instructions  You will now see the same list of countries but the first letter of each capital city will be given to you as a prompt.  Have another look and see if you can get any more answers.  Make sure you note which ones you were able to get when you had the prompt
  • 23. Germany - B
  • 24. Australia - C
  • 25. USA - W
  • 26. Spain - M
  • 27. Netherlands - A
  • 28. Greece - A
  • 29. China - B
  • 30. Japan - T
  • 31. Portugal - L
  • 32. Now check your answers...  Germany – Berlin  Australia - Canberra  USA – Washington DC  Spain – Madrid  Netherlands – Amsterdam  Greece – Athens  China – Beijing  Japan – Tokyo  Portugal - Lisbon
  • 33. How did you answers compare first and second time around? Why was this?
  • 34. There are two types of cue dependent forgetting… What could each of these mean?
  • 35. Independent study task… Research the following using either your textbook or the internet: 1) What is mean by context dependent forgetting? 2) What is meant by state-dependent forgetting? 3) Describe any research evidence to support both context dependent forgetting and state dependent forgetting. Use this information to fill out your grid. For describing supporting studies… use the following format: „Godden & Baddeley (1975)… found that….. This supports the theory of Cue Dependent forgetting, because….‟
  • 36. Let‟s Evaluate the theory using SCOUT… S Supporting Evidence Studies/evidence to support the theory. C Conflicting Evidence Studies/evidence to challenge the theory. O Other explanations How else could we explain it? Alternative theories. U Does it have any useful practical applications? T Usefulness Testability Can the theory be tested? How?
  • 37. Further things to think about for A02 1)Can we relate to it in real life? 2)What are the downsides of relying on experimental evidence? 3)Are there any circumstances where state and context cues might be the same? 4)How is this theory useful to students like you?
  • 38. But the disadvantages of experimental methods are addressed in this study… Abernethy (1940)         A set of Psychology students were given a set of tests before their 4-week course began. All students had the same lecturer and were taught in the same room. At the end of each week, they were tested. They were split for testing:a) same room, different lecturer; Why is b) different room, different lecturer; this c) different room, same lecturer; d) same room, same lecturer; better? Those in the d) condition did best
  • 39. Practical Applications  How could you use this theory to help patients with dementia? – how would this support the Cue Dependent Theory?  How could you use this theory to help eyewitnesses recall events? – how would this support the Cue Dependent Theory?
  • 40. Practical Applications  Helping Patients with Dementia??  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7870 132.stm
  • 41. 1. Explain one theory of forgetting (4 marks) 2.Evaluate one theory of forgetting (4 marks)
  • 42.  Plan a small-scale experiment on context or state dependent forgetting.  Conduct  Record it on three people. your results and bring it to first lesson back!
  • 43. 1) Heading: Today’s Date, Unit & Topic 2) Write a summary of your learning today in less than 100 words. What have you learned ? 3) Considering what you have written in stage 2, which of the success criteria have you met? Write down them down along with the grade! Describe CDF theory, Analyse evidence, Evaluate CDF