PSYA1:
Cognitive
Psychology
Memory

“Levels of
Processing”

Miss Russell
Why do we remember some
things and not others?
How do we decide which
information to rehearse and
therefore transfer to lo...
Thinking Ladder…
How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
E

Will be able to define different levels of
processing infor...
Levels of Processing
 The

problems with the evidence for
the STM/LTM distinction led two
researchers to suggest that a
d...
They argue there are two
different types of rehearsal
depending on how we
process the information!
Maintenance Rehearsal
T...
Class
Experiment
Instructions.
You

will be shown a series of
slides. On each there will
be a target word
Following the word there
will b...
CUP
Does this word fit into the
sentence.
“The child held the ______ so that
the juice would not spill”
Yes or No?
Boat
Does this word
rhyme with float?
Yes or No?
Door
Does this word fit in the
following sentence?
“I wanted a ___________ to
eat for a snack.”
Yes or no?
Large
Does this word
rhyme with green?
Yes or No?
PIG
Is this in upper
case letters?
Yes or No?
Cold
Does this word go in this
sentence?
“It was very ____ outside
and I needed a coat to
keep me warm.”
Yes or No?
HAPPY
Is this word in
lower case?
Yes or No?
hair
Does this rhyme
with brown?
Yes or No?
DIRTY
Does this word fit in this
sentence?
“My hands are ______ and
need washing.”
Yes or No?
cook
Is this word in
lower case?
Yes or No?
bad
Does this word
rhyme with red?
Yes or No?
MAN
Does this word fit in the
sentence?
“The _____ walked across the
street.”
Yes or No?
Recall
Now write down as many
of the target words as
you can remember.
The words were…
 Cup

 happy

 Boat

 Hair

 Door

 Dirty

 Large

 Cook

 Pig

 Bad

 Cold

 Man
How did you find
that?
Which words did you
remember?
Why do you think this
is?
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
 They

suggested that it is the way you think
about information (or process it) that is
the imp...
Levels of Processing Model of
Memory
Unlike the Multistore
Model, this is more to do
with the process of how
the memory wo...
Structural (shallow)
Phonetic (middle)
Semantic (deep)
i.e. the deeper the processing, the stronger the memory
trace

But ...
Structural Processing: a shallow
level – we look at visual features of words,
such as whether they are written in upperca...
Phonetic Processing: At a
middle level – we think
about the sound of words.

Semantic Processing:

At the deepest level – ...
Levels of Processing Model of
Memory
The theory is that anything coming into the
memory goes through all the stages – but ...
Using pages 46 and 56,
summarise the Aim, Method,
Results and Conclusion of Craik
& Tulving’s (1975) Study.
How does it pr...
Levels of Processing Model: Craik
& Tulving (1975)
 Results:

More remembered
Most remembered

Structural (shallow)

Phon...
Surprise recognition memory test
Proportion correctly recognised.
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

Yes
No

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Case

Rh...
Levels of Processing: Craik
& Tulving’s Conclusion…
 The

more deeply an item is processed, the
more long-lasting the mem...
Craik & Tulving’s
Replication
In pairs you are going to re-create the experiment and
compare your results to Craik & Tulvi...
Craik & Tulving’s
Replication: RESULTS
1) When you have got your results create a bar
chart/ graph to show what happened a...
Let’s apply our knowledge
to a Question…








Psychologists were investigating the levels of
processing model of ...
Let’s apply our knowledge
to a Question…








The levels of processing approach provides a model that
can be appli...
AO2  Real Life Applications
How can we apply LOP to
learning at school?
This explanation of memory is useful in everyday ...
5:00

1) Heading: Today’s Date, Unit
& Topic
2) Write a summary of your
learning today in less than 100
words. What have y...
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  1. 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory “Levels of Processing” Miss Russell
  2. 2. Why do we remember some things and not others? How do we decide which information to rehearse and therefore transfer to long term memory?
  3. 3. Thinking Ladder…
  4. 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define different levels of processing information. C Will be able to describe Craik and Tulving’s research into memory. A Will be able to explain how Craik and Lockhart’s LOP theory explains memory.
  5. 5. Levels of Processing  The problems with the evidence for the STM/LTM distinction led two researchers to suggest that a different way to study memory was from the point of view of processing rather than structure.  Craik & Lockhart (1972)
  6. 6. They argue there are two different types of rehearsal depending on how we process the information! Maintenance Rehearsal Type 1: Rehearsing or repeating information to preserve it and transfer it to our long term memory. Elaborative Rehearsal Type 2: When we consider the information at a deeper level. By giving information meaning we are more likely to produce more durable memories.
  7. 7. Class Experiment
  8. 8. Instructions. You will be shown a series of slides. On each there will be a target word Following the word there will be an question – do not answer out loud, write the answer down on your own.
  9. 9. CUP
  10. 10. Does this word fit into the sentence. “The child held the ______ so that the juice would not spill” Yes or No?
  11. 11. Boat
  12. 12. Does this word rhyme with float? Yes or No?
  13. 13. Door
  14. 14. Does this word fit in the following sentence? “I wanted a ___________ to eat for a snack.” Yes or no?
  15. 15. Large
  16. 16. Does this word rhyme with green? Yes or No?
  17. 17. PIG
  18. 18. Is this in upper case letters? Yes or No?
  19. 19. Cold
  20. 20. Does this word go in this sentence? “It was very ____ outside and I needed a coat to keep me warm.” Yes or No?
  21. 21. HAPPY
  22. 22. Is this word in lower case? Yes or No?
  23. 23. hair
  24. 24. Does this rhyme with brown? Yes or No?
  25. 25. DIRTY
  26. 26. Does this word fit in this sentence? “My hands are ______ and need washing.” Yes or No?
  27. 27. cook
  28. 28. Is this word in lower case? Yes or No?
  29. 29. bad
  30. 30. Does this word rhyme with red? Yes or No?
  31. 31. MAN
  32. 32. Does this word fit in the sentence? “The _____ walked across the street.” Yes or No?
  33. 33. Recall Now write down as many of the target words as you can remember.
  34. 34. The words were…  Cup  happy  Boat  Hair  Door  Dirty  Large  Cook  Pig  Bad  Cold  Man
  35. 35. How did you find that? Which words did you remember? Why do you think this is?
  36. 36. Craik and Lockhart (1972)  They suggested that it is the way you think about information (or process it) that is the important if you want to recall it later.  We can think about information, such as words, at different levels.
  37. 37. Levels of Processing Model of Memory Unlike the Multistore Model, this is more to do with the process of how the memory works than the parts involved.  We say it is a “functional model” rather than a “structural model”.  It says that the strength of the memory trace is determined by how we put it into our memory (how we “process it”) Structural (shallow) Phonetic (middle) Semantic (deep) Depth of processing 
  38. 38. Structural (shallow) Phonetic (middle) Semantic (deep) i.e. the deeper the processing, the stronger the memory trace But how do we “process” memories more deeply? What did we do in our experiment to process words at different levels? Depth of processing Levels of Processing Model of Memory
  39. 39. Structural Processing: a shallow level – we look at visual features of words, such as whether they are written in uppercase or lower-case letters.
  40. 40. Phonetic Processing: At a middle level – we think about the sound of words. Semantic Processing: At the deepest level – we think about the meaning of words
  41. 41. Levels of Processing Model of Memory The theory is that anything coming into the memory goes through all the stages – but where it stops depends on how much effort we give it …  … we notice the word … we take note of what it sounds like … we understand it   Structural (shallow) Phonetic (middle) Semantic (deep) Depth of processing 
  42. 42. Using pages 46 and 56, summarise the Aim, Method, Results and Conclusion of Craik & Tulving’s (1975) Study. How does it provide support for LOP model?
  43. 43. Levels of Processing Model: Craik & Tulving (1975)  Results: More remembered Most remembered Structural (shallow) Phonetic (middle) Semantic (deep) Depth of processing Few remembered
  44. 44. Surprise recognition memory test Proportion correctly recognised. 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 Yes No 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Case Rhyme Sentence
  45. 45. Levels of Processing: Craik & Tulving’s Conclusion…  The more deeply an item is processed, the more long-lasting the memory trace will be.  Information processed in superficial sensory terms – rapid decay  Information processed phonologically – intermediate decay  Information processed semantically (‘deeply’) – long-lasting.
  46. 46. Craik & Tulving’s Replication In pairs you are going to re-create the experiment and compare your results to Craik & Tulving’s study and the LOP approach. Create a list of 9 words and 9 questions. The questions should relate to each of the three levels of processing. (3 questions per level!) Ask 3 other people in the 6th form (not in this class!) to look at the words and answer the questions. Then give them a surprise recall test.
  47. 47. Craik & Tulving’s Replication: RESULTS 1) When you have got your results create a bar chart/ graph to show what happened across the three levels of processing. 2) Reflect on what you have learned through conducting the experiment by answering the questions.
  48. 48. Let’s apply our knowledge to a Question…       Psychologists were investigating the levels of processing model of memory. They presented participants with a list of words. After each word, there was a question the participants had to answer. There were three types of questions: A questions about the meaning of the words B questions about the sound of the words C questions about the appearance of the words For each type of question, A, B and C above, identify the level of processing that is involved in answering the questions. (3 marks)
  49. 49. Let’s apply our knowledge to a Question…      The levels of processing approach provides a model that can be applied to improving memory. Imagine you are giving advice to a friend on the best way to revise for their exams. Using this model of memory give four ideas they can use to improve their revision. N.B. the first one is done for you as an example. 1. Don’t worry if a topic seems difficult because the more you have to think about it to work it out, the more likely you will be to remember it 2 3 4
  50. 50. AO2  Real Life Applications How can we apply LOP to learning at school? This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory. Three examples of this are. • Reworking – putting information in your own words or talking about it with someone else. • Method of loci – when trying to remember a list of items, linking each with a familiar place or route. • Imagery – by creating an image of something you want to remember, you elaborate on it and encode it visually (i.e. a mind map).
  51. 51. 5:00 1) Heading: Today’s Date, Unit & Topic 2) Write a summary of your learning today in less than 100 words. What have you learned ? 3) Considering what you have written in stage 2, which of the success criteria have you met? Write down them down along with the grade!

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