PSYA1:
Cognitive
Psychology
Memory

“What is
Memory?”

Miss Russell
You wake up one morning and you’ve lost your
memory. Try to answer the following questions:
1.

What do you normally do in...
Thinking Ladder…
How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
E

Will be able to define Sensory Memory, STM
and LTM.

C

Wil...
“The amazing brain”
Our memories are astounding in their
capacity -- for example, a young child
learns about 10 new words ...
“keep hold of
- Store”

Human memory can most broadly
be defined as the process by
which we retain information about
event...
Case studies of brain damaged patients have
shown that memory is vital for learning. Without
memory, no learning would tak...
Watch the clip carefully. You will be tested later!

Reindeer Clip
Recall all of Santa’s Reindeers!
Write them down!
Discuss:
1)How did you recall the
reindeer?
2)Did you use any strategies?
3)How easy were they to recall?
Why?
Information that we process and recall straight away is usually
stored in our short term memory.
When we take in new infor...
 Sensory


Initial contact for stimuli. SM is only capable of
retaining information for a very short time. Visual
images...
1) What is your earliest memory? How
old were you? How does it make
you feel?
2) How vividly can you remember it? It
is a ...
 Long

term memory (LTM)



Continual storage of information which is largely
outside of our awareness, but can be recal...
Answer the questions on the first
Memory page of your workbook.
Try to summarise everything we
have learned so far in your...
 What

is the capital of France?
 Who won the UEFA Champions League?
 What is the chemical symbol for Oxygen?
 When wa...
 How

many people can you name from
your class at Primary School?
 What did it feel like on your first day at this
schoo...
 Can

you ride a bike?
 Can you play an instrument?
 If so what grade are you, if any?
 Do you take part in any sport?...
A Quick Test
Types of Memory: Semantic

The Hippocampus
The hippocampus is a seahorseshaped brain structure involved in
memory, learnin...
Types of Memory: Episodic

Prefrontal Cortex

The Temporal Lobe

The prefrontal cortex in the
forward part of the frontal ...
Types of Memory: Procedural
Basal Ganglia
The basal ganglia (or basal
nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the
brain interconn...
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  1. 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory “What is Memory?” Miss Russell
  2. 2. You wake up one morning and you’ve lost your memory. Try to answer the following questions: 1. What do you normally do in a day that you would no longer be able to do? 2. What if you did not recognise your friends or family? 3. What experiences would you miss if you couldn’t remember TV programmes or news articles? 4. How could you plan your day if you forgot what you were thinking about a few minutes earlier?
  3. 3. Thinking Ladder…
  4. 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define Sensory Memory, STM and LTM. C Will be able to explain what memory is. A Will be able to explain how memory processes work and how we process information.
  5. 5. “The amazing brain” Our memories are astounding in their capacity -- for example, a young child learns about 10 new words each day, and the average adult can easily develop a vocabulary including over 100,000 words. It is the evolution of our memories that has, in large part, preserved our species. The key to our survival has been the ability of one generation to pass along its insights, innovations, and experiences to the next, so that they can improve upon them and progress more quickly forward.
  6. 6. “keep hold of - Store” Human memory can most broadly be defined as the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past. This does not just mean things that happened years ago, but also in our immediate past. If you remember the last slide, you have used your memory.
  7. 7. Case studies of brain damaged patients have shown that memory is vital for learning. Without memory, no learning would take place. Memory is used for remembering how to do things such as catch a bus or ride a bike. It is also important for talking to friends and remembering places. Without memory….we wouldn’t be human!
  8. 8. Watch the clip carefully. You will be tested later! Reindeer Clip
  9. 9. Recall all of Santa’s Reindeers! Write them down!
  10. 10. Discuss: 1)How did you recall the reindeer? 2)Did you use any strategies? 3)How easy were they to recall? Why?
  11. 11. Information that we process and recall straight away is usually stored in our short term memory. When we take in new information to store, we must process it from sensory input. Sensory Memory takes in information from the senses and transforms it into a memory trace (encoding). You may have learned the names of the reindeers by the sound/tune. This means you will have encoded them acoustically (for sound). When we experience sensory information, it stays there just long enough to decide if we should process it further. If we don’t attend to or rehearse it then we forget it. If we do ‘rehearse’ it, it will transfer to our short term memory! Attending to information so it stays in your memory. E.g. verbally repeating it over and over again!
  12. 12.  Sensory  Initial contact for stimuli. SM is only capable of retaining information for a very short time. Visual images last half a second, sound lasts for 2 seconds.  Short  memory (SM) term memory (STM) The information we are currently aware of or thinking about. The information found in short term memory comes from paying attention to sensory memories. It has been found that STM has a limited capacity of about 7 items. Information will only be maintained for 15-20 seconds without rehearsal.
  13. 13. 1) What is your earliest memory? How old were you? How does it make you feel? 2) How vividly can you remember it? It is a complete picture?
  14. 14.  Long term memory (LTM)  Continual storage of information which is largely outside of our awareness, but can be recalled when needed. If you attend long enough to information in your short term memory, it can be transferred to you long term memory.  Long term memory has a potentially unlimited capacity and can hold information for years until we want to retrieve it! Process of locating and extracting stored memories.
  15. 15. Answer the questions on the first Memory page of your workbook. Try to summarise everything we have learned so far in your own words!
  16. 16.  What is the capital of France?  Who won the UEFA Champions League?  What is the chemical symbol for Oxygen?  When was the battle of Hastings?  What is the Square root of 100?  What date is Halloween?  How many James Bond Films have there been?  Who wrote Harry Potter?  What is the French for Dog?
  17. 17.  How many people can you name from your class at Primary School?  What did it feel like on your first day at this school?  Who was your first crush?  What was your favourite book when you were 11?  What is your favourite song?  Who was your favourite teacher last year?
  18. 18.  Can you ride a bike?  Can you play an instrument?  If so what grade are you, if any?  Do you take part in any sport?  Are you better now than when you first started?  Can you touch your elbow with your tongue?
  19. 19. A Quick Test
  20. 20. Types of Memory: Semantic The Hippocampus The hippocampus is a seahorseshaped brain structure involved in memory, learning, and emotion. It forms new memories and organizes them with related memories and emotions. The Temporal Lobe The temporal lobes, above the ears, are involved in hearing, identifying objects, understanding language, and storing memories. They also play a role in emotions.
  21. 21. Types of Memory: Episodic Prefrontal Cortex The Temporal Lobe The prefrontal cortex in the forward part of the frontal lobe helps control the highest levels of thinking, and conscious functions such as empathy, self-perception, and interaction. The temporal lobes, above the ears, are involved in hearing, identifying objects, understanding language, and storing memories. They also play a role in emotions.
  22. 22. Types of Memory: Procedural Basal Ganglia The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Mammalian basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning. Cerebellum The cerebellum helps with timing and coordination of movements, making them smooth and precise. Recent research also suggests a role in higher cognitive processes.

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