PSYA1:
Cognitive
Psychology
Memory
The Cognitive
Interview

Miss Russell
Spot the Difference

Try and spot 10 differences between the
two pictures of interviews.
Answers

Can you guess what today’s lesson is
about? Write a learning objective you
think might apply to today…
Thinking Ladder…
How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
E

Will be able to define the cognitive interview
(CI).

C

Wi...
Read the interview script and consider
the following questions.
1)What is good about the interview?
2)What is bad about th...
This is a police technique for
interviewing witnesses to a crime,
which encourages them to recreate
the original context i...
Why is it important?
 Improving

effectiveness of questioning
witnesses in police interviews
 Apply findings of psycholo...
Use page 36 to create a storyboard of the
different stages of a cognitive interview.
Leave space as we will be adding to i...
Murder in a Pub
1) Get into pairs, nominate one of you to be the interviewer, and
one to be the eye witness.
2) The interviewer must use t...
Now revisit your storyboard and add in at least 1
example question for each of the stages in the
interview.

Tell me
every...
Wright and Holliday (2007)
 Wright

and Holliday investigated how age
affects recall – the older the participant
(75-95 y...
Kohnken et al (1999)
- meta-analysis of 53 studies
- Found on average a 34%
increase in amount of
correct information
gene...
Individual Differences
Mello and Fisher (1996)
When CI and normal interview techniques
were tested on both older adults’ (...
Evaluation







Different police forces use different aspects of
the CI technique so it is difficult to evaluate it...
Evaluation
 Although

cognitive interviewing produces
an increase in ‘false positives’ (recall of
additional items), ther...
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  1. 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory The Cognitive Interview Miss Russell
  2. 2. Spot the Difference Try and spot 10 differences between the two pictures of interviews.
  3. 3. Answers Can you guess what today’s lesson is about? Write a learning objective you think might apply to today…
  4. 4. Thinking Ladder…
  5. 5. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define the cognitive interview (CI). C Will be able to explain how the cognitive interview (CI) works. A Will be able to use research to evaluate the cognitive interview (CI).
  6. 6. Read the interview script and consider the following questions. 1)What is good about the interview? 2)What is bad about the interview? 3)Do you think this is a cognitive interview and why?
  7. 7. This is a police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context in order to increase the accessibility of stored information.
  8. 8. Why is it important?  Improving effectiveness of questioning witnesses in police interviews  Apply findings of psychological findings to this area Fisher and Geiselman (1992) Reviewed memory literature – people remember things better if they are provided with retrieval cues. The technique they devised had 4 components.
  9. 9. Use page 36 to create a storyboard of the different stages of a cognitive interview. Leave space as we will be adding to it later! Be creative as you like – use pictures as a revision aid if you wish! 1) REPORT EVERYTHING 2) REINSTATEMENT OF CONTEXT 3) CHANGE ORDER 4) CHANGE PERSPECTIVE
  10. 10. Murder in a Pub
  11. 11. 1) Get into pairs, nominate one of you to be the interviewer, and one to be the eye witness. 2) The interviewer must use the sheet to conduct two interviews based on the murder in the pub. 3) Ask each question as it says on the sheet. 4) You may use the voice recorder function on your mobiles to record the interview. Which interview elicited more (accurate) recall? How did the witness feel when they were being interviewed? Was there a difference? Why?
  12. 12. Now revisit your storyboard and add in at least 1 example question for each of the stages in the interview. Tell me everything you can remember from start to finish in your own words….
  13. 13. Wright and Holliday (2007)  Wright and Holliday investigated how age affects recall – the older the participant (75-95 years old), the less complete and less accurate the recall.  However, when they used the cognitive interview technique, the older participants recalled significantly greater detail without giving any false information. How can we use this as an evaluation point? Write a conclusion and an PEEL paragraph underneath the study in your booklets.
  14. 14. Kohnken et al (1999) - meta-analysis of 53 studies - Found on average a 34% increase in amount of correct information generated in CI Milne and Bull (2002) Found that when they used a combination of “report everything” and “mental reinstatement”, participants’ recall was significantly higher. BUT Most of the sample were university students BUT Still in a laboratory - artificial
  15. 15. Individual Differences Mello and Fisher (1996) When CI and normal interview techniques were tested on both older adults’ (72 years) and younger adults’ (22 years) memory, CI was better for both. But was more significantly an advantage for the elderly.
  16. 16. Evaluation      Different police forces use different aspects of the CI technique so it is difficult to evaluate its effectiveness fully The technique takes more time than is often available Techniques that limit the eyewitnesses account to the minimum are often preferred Demands are placed on the interviewer to ‘probe’ effectively The quantity and quality of CI training is an issue
  17. 17. Evaluation  Although cognitive interviewing produces an increase in ‘false positives’ (recall of additional items), there is a bigger increase in the amount of correct information recalled compared to a standard interview  The CI is valuable in reducing miscarriages of justice in countries where these are likely to occur (e.g. Brazil)

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