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  • 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory Anxiety & Eye Witness Testmony Miss Russell
  • 2. How good an eye witness are you?
  • 3. Thinking Ladder… To & what anxiety and weapon focus are. To how anxiety can affect EWT. To , & research into the effects of anxiety on EWT.
  • 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define weapon focus. C Will be able to explain how anxiety can affect EWT. A Will be able to fully describe and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on EWT.
  • 5. What were your eyes most drawn to? How might this make you feel? How might this affect your performance as an eye witness?
  • 6. What does being Anxious feel What were your like….? eyes most drawn “Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state to? where we fear that something bad is about to happen. People often become anxious when they are in stressful situations. This anxiety tends to this How might be accompanied with physiological arousal (increased heart rate, affect your shallow breathing). Due to this, much of the research in eye witness testimony is now performance as an focused on the eye witness?effects of arousal.”
  • 7. What in front of you…. Using the cardswere your 1) eyes most drawn Rankto? from most stressful to least stressful. them Give each of them a score from 1-10 (1 being least stressful, 10 being the one that would cause the most anxiety!) 2) How might this Rankaffect your of how much you might them in terms remember after witnessing an event. Give each performance as each of them a score from 1-10 (1 being the one you’d eye least about, rememberwitness? 10 being the one that you’d remember most about.)
  • 8. Accuracy of Recall Plot your values on a graph with stress/anxiety on the X axis, and amount you’d correctly remember on the Y axis. Once you’ve plotted all your values, join them up. x x What pattern do you get? What does this suggest about the effect of stress on recall? Stress/Anxiety
  • 9. What were your Deffenbacher et al 2004 eyes most drawn that high levels of -meta-analysis which found to? stress impacted on the accuracy of EWT. Christianson & Hubinette 1993 - Questioned real victims of a bank robbery. How might this They found that those who had actually been threatened were more accurate in their affect your recall, compared to those who were performance as to be true 15 months an onlookers. This continued eye witness? later.
  • 10. What were your Task: eyes most drawn to? 1) Summarise Christianson & Hubinette’s (1993) study in your workbook. How might this 2) Read Loftus et al’s study on page 34 affect your and complete the diagram in your performance as an workbook. (Annotate with details if eye witness? you wish!)
  • 11. What were your According to most drawn would this witness be eyes Loftus et al… Where looking during the scene of a crime involving a weapon? to? What effect did Loftus find this had on EWT? How might this affect your performance as an eye witness?
  • 12. The weapon-focus effect “This is where in violent crimes, arousal may focus the witness on more central details of the attack (eg: weapon) than the more peripheral details (eg: what else was going on and what the perpetrator looked like).”
  • 13. The weapon-focus effect Weapon Focus Incident What do they Remember?
  • 14. How can we explain these contrasting findings…? Task: How would this explain the conflicting research and draw the graph in your workbook. How does this compare to your earlier graph?
  • 15. How can you evaluate the research from today’s lesson…? Complete the table in your workbook using your ideas.
  • 16. 2010 An American space shuttle exploded soon after it was launched. All of the astronauts on board were killed. Crowds of people were watching, including friends and relatives of the astronauts. Six months after the explosion, a student decided to investigate the accuracy of some of the eyewitnesses’ memory of this event. Explain how anxiety might have affected eyewitness testimony of this event. Refer to psychological research in your answer. (6 marks)
  • 17. Candidates must refer to research where the anxiety component is clear.Candidates might refer to the Yerkes-Dodson law which suggests moderate anxiety is associated with better recall than very high or very low anxiety. In this case friends and relatives might show worse recall than other people in the crowd. Laboratory based research has generally shown impaired recall in high anxiety conditions. Loftus’ (1979) weapon focuss, Loftus and Burns (1982). However, in a real life study Yuille and Cutshill (1986) found witnesses who had been most distressed at the time of a shooting gave the most accurate account five months later. Also Christianson and Hubinette (1993) found victims of genuine bank robberies were more accurate in their recall than bystanders. There is a range of acceptable answers to this question and marks should be given for effective use of the material. Answers which do not make explicit reference to this event should be awarded a maximum of 4 marks.
  • 18.  In your teams your aim is to get a complete set of correct notes without looking at your textbook or workbook and without consulting each other.  Decide on an order in which each team member will have a turn.  The first team member starts with the paper and writes down the first required note. They fold over their answer and pass the note to the next nominated team mate. They write down the next note and fold theirs over and pass it on…. Etc.
  • 19.    In your teams your aim is to get a complete set of correct notes without looking at your textbook or workbook and without consulting each other. Decide on an order in which each team member will have a turn. The first team member starts with the paper and writes down the first required note. They fold over their answer and pass the note to the next nominated team mate. They write down the next note and fold theirs over and pass it on…. Etc.
  • 20. Player 1: Write down the name(s) of psychologist(s) who found that anxiety had a positive effect on EWT. Player 2 : Write down the name(s) of psychologist(s) who found that anxiety had a negative effect on EWT. Player 3: Describe the Weapon Focus Effect Player 4: Write down the name of the law which explains differences in the effect of anxiety on EWT. Player 5: Explain the Yerkes Dodson Law. Player 6: Draw a sketch of the Yerkes Dodson Graph. Player 7: Write down one evaluation of research into anxiety and EWT.