You will see a picture associated
with last lesson and this lesson.
When it appears you must buzz in.
The first person that buzzes in must
1) What the item is.
2) One thing about it.
Everyone in your team must have a
go at buzzing in and answering a
question so when you have had
your go you must pass the buzzer to
the next person.
Points and prizes available!
evidence for the
different parts of the
evidence supports the
WMM using research
How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
Will be able to identify evidence for the different
components of the WMM.
C Will be able to explain how evidence supports
Will be able to fully evaluate the WMM using
test the idea of more than
one component, Baddeley and
Hitch devised the dual task
see what happened…..
will now complete a dual task technique
(one that was used by Baddeley and Hitch).
the numbers below whilst completing the
true/false exercise. You need to say whether the
statement on the left matches the letters on the
do the same again complete
the true/false exercise while
repeating the word „the‟ over and
participants two tasks to perform
Task 1: True or False task occupied the
Central Executive as it tested verbal
to say ‘the the the’ – a task
involving the Articulatory Loop.
to say random digits – a task
involving both the Central Executive and
true or false task was slower when
given the 2nd task involving both the
Central Executive and Articulatory Loop.
What does this result show?
Does it support or challenge the Working Memory Model?
What did they conclude?
They concluded that completing two tasks that involve the
same component causes difficulty. This supports the
Central Executive and the Working Memory Model.
1) What did they do in the
experiment (HINT: it’s what you
2) How does this support evidence for
the working memory model?
Read the evidence below, summarise it in your
workbook and decide why it supports the Central Executive.
Individuals had to perform two tasks simultaneously
(dual task) rather than one after the other (single task).
Bunge et al (2000) used fMRI to see which parts of the
brain were most active when participants were doing
two tasks (reading a sentence and recalling the final
word in each sentence).
The same brain areas (pre-frontal cortex) were active
in either dual or single task conditions but there was
significantly more activation in dual task condition.
How many did you
Association you do compare to
Why might the results be many
different for the 1st set of words
did you get
compared to the 2nd set?
What does this say about
phonological loop explains
why the word-length effect
The fact that people cope
better with short words than
long words in working memory
seems that the phonological loop holds the
amount of information that you can say in 1.5
- 2 seconds (Baddeley et al, 1975).
makes it hard to remember a list of long
words such as ‘association’ and
‘representative’ compared to shorter words
like ‘harm’ and ‘twice’ and therefore inhibits
rehearsal of longer words!
Word length effect disappears if a person is
given an articulatory suppression task (‘the,
the, the’ while reading the words).
The repetitive task ties up the articulatory
process and means you can’t rehearse the
shorter words more quickly than the longer
ones, so the word length effect disappears.
This provided evidence for……
Using the textbook summarise ONE piece of
evidence to support the Visual Spatial
Sketchpad and ONE piece of evidence for
the Episodic Buffer. Do this to complete
Try to summarise the Aim, Method, Result
Be prepared to feed back!
et al (1975)
Participants were given a visual tracing task
(they had to track a moving light with a pointer).
At the same time they were given one of two
other tasks; task 1 was to describe all the angles
on the letter F, task 2 was to perform a verbal
task. Task 1 was very difficult, but not task 2,
presumably because the second task involved
two different components (or slave systems).
This is also evidence related to the effects of
doing two tasks using the same or different
Logie (1995) Visual cache stores information about visual form
and colour and the inner scribe processes spatial and
Klauer and Zhao (2004) supported this idea by asking
participants to carry out one of two primary tasks, either a
visual task or a spatial task. At the same time as doing this task
they were asked to do either a spatial interference task, a
visual interference task or no secondary task (control
condition). They found that performance of the spatial task
was much poorer for people who were simultaneously
carrying out the spatial distracter task than for people who
were doing the visual distracter task and vice versa.
Studies using positron emission tomography (PET) scans have
also provided evidence for separate spatial and visual
systems. There appears to be more activity in the left half of
the brain of people carrying out visual working memory tasks
but more in the right half of the brain during spatial task.
et al (1987)
were shown words and then
Recall was much better for sentences (related
words) than unrelated
idea of ‘general’ memory store that
draws on LTM (semantics), for items that are
neither visual or phonological.
Using only your textbook, work out who this is… The first person
to write who it is on a post it note and stick it on the board
wins a prize! Clues will appear one at a time.
“I can remember a telephone ringing, but not telephone
“I can remember things better when I see them as opposed
to hearing them.”
“I can remember things from a long time ago easily!”
“I support the existence of a phonological loop.”
Case of KF – Suffered brain damage after a motorbike
Shallice and Warrington (1970) showed that STM works
independently of LTM
STM forgetting of auditory information was much greater
than that of visual stimuli. Thus his brain damage seemed to
be restricted to the phonological loop.
Interestingly his auditory memory was worse for letters and
digits rather than meaningful sounds… ring ring…